The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.
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"But many of these sensors have complicated organic-synthesis process for a long time and are restricted from their solvents. Therefore , a number of nanoparticle (NP)-based optical sensors have been studied actively as an alternative method for the detection of cyanide      . Among them, gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based colorimetric    and fluorometric    cyanide sensors are especially attractive mainly due to their rapidity, simplicity, high selectivity, and easy measurement in aqueous medium . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, a simple analytical system is presented for the detection of cyanide with a wide concentration range, which is respectively based on the fluorescent and colorimetric properties of gold nanoparticles. This dual-functional system can work directly for aqueous medium and expand efficiently a wide detection range over three orders of magnitudes for cyanide determination. By using the fluorescence method, the lowest concentration for quantification of cyanide ions is 1.0 × 10-7 M, and the sensitivity is good enough for the determination of cyanide in drinking water. To recognize higher concentration of cyanide for industrial sewage monitoring, the colorimetric behavior can be used as an alternating tool for field tests from naked eye. The system also provides an excellent selectivity toward cyanide over other common interfering anions and metal ions, thus enabling the ability to monitor cyanide contamination in environmental samples. Furthermore, several real water samples spiked with cyanide, including local tap water, drinking water, lake water, and sea water, were analyzed, and the experimental results demonstrated that this sensing system exhibited excellent recoveries for these practical water samples. Our attempt may provide a cost-effective, rapid and simple solution for the recognition and determination of different levels of cyanide contamination in aqueous samples.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Sensors and Actuators B Chemical
"Therefore, CN e detection is very important in protecting both human health and the environment [11e13]. Some traditional methods, such as mass spectrometry  , quartz crystal mass monitor , titrimetric methods , gas chromatography , electrochemical methods , atomic absorption spectrometry , and flow injection analysis technique  , have been developed for quantitative analysis of CN "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development of a colorimetric and fluorescent cyanide probe based on crosslinked polymer microspheres functionalized with a protonated merocyanine. The functionalised microspheres were prepared by free radical polymerization using 4-((E)-2-[(4-hydroxylphenyl) ethenyl-1-allyl pyridinium bromide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker, and azobisisobutylnitrile as the radical initiator. Upon introducing CN– to a suspension of the functionalised microspheres in ethanol/H2O (9:1, v/v), a change from yellow to red and a decrease in fluorescence intensity at 497 nm were immediately observed. This CN– probe can be reversed many times, which is cost efficient and beneficial to the environment. Analytical application of the functionlised microspheres to measure CN– concentration in spiked water samples was explored with good recoveries. Thus, the colorimetric and fluorescent CN− probe has high potential for the ultrasensitive detection of CN− in real samples.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Dyes and Pigments
"It remained stable in the freezer for months. Ma and Dasgupta (2010) did not mention NMR in their paper in which they described the methods for HCN detection. The secretion of H. gabrielis is unusual in that it contains himantarine (7), which is a novel natural product (the name is proposed by the authors). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The Science of Nature