Heteroaryl-linked 5-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)-2-thiophenecarboxamides: Potent inhibitors of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) with improved drug-like properties
Potent inhibitors of PLK1 with acceptable solubility, mouse iv clearance, and reduced CYP450 inhibition were identified. Drug-like properties were improved using a heteroaryl ring as a functional handle for manipulation of inhibitors' physiochemical and DMPK properties.
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- "The corresponding products, xylitol and (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol, are used in food-processing and pharmaceutical industry. The alternative food sweetener xylitol is produced in ton scale and chiral 1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanols are key intermediates in the synthesis of a novel class of chemotherapeutic substances (PLK1 kinase inhibitors; [18-20]). "
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ABSTRACT: Enzymatic NADH or NADPH-dependent reduction is a widely applied approach for the synthesis of optically active organic compounds. The overall biocatalytic conversion usually involves in situ regeneration of the expensive NAD(P)H. Oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52; FDH), presents an almost ideal process solution for coenzyme regeneration that has been well established for NADH. Because isolated FDH is relatively unstable under a range of process conditions, whole cells often constitute the preferred form of the biocatalyst, combining the advantage of enzyme protection in the cellular environment with ease of enzyme production. However, the most prominent FDH used in biotransformations, the enzyme from the yeast Candida boidinii, is usually expressed in limiting amounts of activity in the prime host for whole cell biocatalysis, Escherichia coli. We therefore performed expression engineering with the aim of enhancing FDH activity in an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst. The benefit resulting from improved NADH regeneration capacity is demonstrated in two transformations of technological relevance: xylose conversion into xylitol, and synthesis of (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol from o-chloroacetophenone.
As compared to individual expression of C. boidinii FDH in E. coli BL21 (DE3) that gave an intracellular enzyme activity of 400 units/g(CDW), co-expression of the FDH with the ketoreductase (Candida tenuis xylose reductase; XR) resulted in a substantial decline in FDH activity. The remaining FDH activity of only 85 U/g(CDW) was strongly limiting the overall catalytic activity of the whole cell system. Combined effects from increase in FDH gene copy number, supply of rare tRNAs in a Rosetta strain of E. coli, dampened expression of the ketoreductase, and induction at low temperature (18°C) brought up the FDH activity threefold to a level of 250 U/g(CDW) while reducing the XR activity by just 19% (1140 U/g(CDW)). The E. coli whole-cell catalyst optimized for intracellular FDH activity showed improved performance in the synthesis of (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol, reflected in a substantial, up to 5-fold enhancement of productivity (0.37 g/g(CDW)) and yield (95% based on 100 mM ketone used) as compared to the reference catalyst. For xylitol production, the benefit of enhanced FDH expression was observed on productivity only after elimination of the mass transfer resistance caused by the cell membrane.
Expression engineering of C. boidinii FDH is an important strategy to optimize E. coli whole-cell reductase catalysts that employ intracellular formate oxidation for regeneration of NADH. Increased FDH-activity was reflected by higher reduction yields of D-xylose and o-chloroacetophenone conversions provided that mass transfer limitations were overcome.
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ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinases (PLKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that play crucial roles in multiple stages of mitosis. PLK1 is the most studied member of the family. It is overexpressed in a wide spectrum of cancer types and is a promising target in oncology. Most of PLK1 inhibitors are ATP-competitive. Despite the structural similarities among various kinases, several inhibitors are selective. Some areas of the PLK1 active site are important for selectivity against other kinases. These include a small pocket formed by Leu 132 in the hinge region, a bulky phenylalanine and a small cysteine at the bottom and in the roof of the ATP pocket, respectively, and an unusual concentration of positively charged residues in the solvent-exposed region. Many ATP-competitive inhibitors are heterocyclic systems able to interact with the unique features of the PLK1 binding site. Other inhibitors target regions outside the ATP pocket, such as the substrate binding domain or a hydrophobic pocket, formed when the kinase is in the inactive conformation. An alternative approach to obtain specificity and to overcome drug resistance often associated with kinase inhibitors is the inhibition of the polo-box domain (PBD) of PLK1. The PBD is unique for the family of PLKs and is essential for PLK functions; so it is a useful target for the development of selective and potent inhibitors for clinical uses. In this review some PLK inhibitors are reported, focusing on chemical structures, structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and biological activities. The great potential of these compounds could open promising perspectives. Moreover, a combination of polo-like kinases inhibitors with other anticancer drugs might offer new opportunities for cancer therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Aromatic ketones were reduced using suspension culture of Chlorella sp. MK201 under fluorescent light illumination producing the corresponding chiral alcohols in high yields with excellent enantiomeric excess (ee). For example, 2',3',4',5',6'-pentafluoroacetophenone at 0.25 mg/ml was converted to the corresponding (S)-alcohol in 80 % yield with >99 % ee by 1 mg dry wt of Chlorella/ml in 12 h illumination (2,000 lux).
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