Article

Quality of antenatal care in rural Tanzania: Counselling on pregnancy danger signs

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (Impact Factor: 2.19). 07/2010; 10(1):35. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-10-35
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The high rate of antenatal care attendance in sub-Saharan Africa, should facilitate provision of information on signs of potential pregnancy complications. The aim of this study was to assess quality of antenatal care with respect to providers' counselling of pregnancy danger signs in Rufiji district, Tanzania.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 primary health facilities. Thirty two providers were observed providing antenatal care to 438 pregnant women. Information on counselling on pregnancy danger signs was collected by an observer. Exit interviews were conducted to 435 women.
One hundred and eighty five (42%) clients were not informed of any pregnancy danger signs. The most common pregnancy danger sign informed on was vaginal bleeding 50% followed by severe headache/blurred vision 45%. Nurse auxiliaries were three times more likely to inform a client of a danger sign than registered/enrolled nurses (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.1-6.5) and Maternal Child Health Aides (OR = 2.3: 95% CI: 1.3-4.3) and public health nurses (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.4-4.2) were two times more likely to provide information on danger signs than registered/enrolled nurses. The clients recalled less than half of the pregnancy danger signs they had been informed during the interaction.
Two out of five clients were not counselled on pregnancy danger signs. The higher trained cadre, registered/enrolled nurses were not informing majority of clients pregnancy danger signs compared to the lower cadres. Supportive supervision should be made to enhance counselling of pregnancy danger signs. Nurse auxiliaries should be encouraged and given chance for further training and upgrading to improve their performance and increase human resource for health.

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    • "That is why it is important for the national malaria control program (NMCP) and officers to note that achieving higher ANC (including IPTp-SP) coverage rates is already constrained. They should recognize that high service coverage would depend on conditions related to the availability of essential medicines and other supplies, HWs’ and users’ compliance with guidelines as well as affordability of the services, and real or perceived quality of the services at the existing HFs [17,19]. The available evidence indicates that so far generally the proportion of pregnant women completing four ANC visits in Tanzania is low. "
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    ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) using sulphurdoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is one of key malaria control strategies in Africa. Yet, IPTp coverage rates across Africa are still low due to several demand and supply constraints. Many countries implement the IPTp-SP strategy at antenatal care (ANC) clinics. This paper reports from a study on the knowledge and experience of health workers (HWs) at ANC clinics regarding psychosocial, behavioural and health system barriers to IPTp-SP delivery and uptake in Tanzania. Data were collected through questionnaire-based interviews with 78 HWs at 28 ANC clinics supplemented with informal discussions with current and recent ANC users in Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Qualitative data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Quantitative data derived from interviews with HWs were analysed using non-parametric statistical analysis. The majority of interviewed HWs were aware of the IPTp-SP strategy's existence and of the recommended one month spacing of administration of SP doses. Some HWs did not know that it is not recommended to administer IPTp-SP and ferrous/folic acid concurrently. Others were administering three doses of SP per client following instruction from a non-governmental agency while believing that this was in conflict with national guidelines. About half of HWs did not find it appropriate for the government to recommend private ANC providers to provide IPTp-SP free of charge since doing so forces private providers to recover the costs elsewhere. HWs noted that pregnant women often register at clinics late and some do not comply with the regularity of appointments for revisits, hence miss IPTp and other ANC services. HWs also noted some amplified rumours among clients regarding health risks and treatment failures of SP used during pregnancy, and together with clients' disappointment with waiting times and the sharing of cups at ANC clinics for SP, limit the uptake of IPTp-doses. HWs still question SP's treatment advantages and are confused about policy ambiguity on the recommended number of IPTp-SP doses and other IPTp-SP related guidelines. IPTp-SP uptake is further constrained by pregnant women's perceived health risks of taking SP and of poor service quality.
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    • "e b 1þe b avec b ¼ ˆ g 00 AE 1:96 ffiffiffiffiffiffi t 00 p . D. Soubeiga, D. Sia / Revue d'E ´ pidémiologie et de Santé Publique 61 (2013) 299–310 306 Author's personal copy en Afrique subsaharienne, notamment en Tanzanie [17] "
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    ABSTRACT: Counseling relating to birth preparedness is an essential component of the WHO Focused Antenatal Care model. During the antenatal visits, women should receive the information and education they need to make choices to reduce maternal and neonatal risks. The objective of this study conducted among women attending antenatal visits in rural Burkina Faso was to search for a link between the characteristics of the center delivering the health care and the probability of being exposed to information and advice relating to birth preparedness.
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    • "In the Tanzanian demographic and health survey 2004–05, only 47% of the women who attended antenatal clinics recalled having been informed about any danger sign during pregnancy [18]. In a recent study in Rufiji district in Tanzania, 42% of the women who attended antenatal clinics were not informed of any danger signs, whereas only 8.7% were informed of all seven danger signs (vaginal bleeding, severe headache/blurred vision, severe abdominal pain, swollen hands and face, fever, baby stopped or reduced movement, and excessive tiredness or breathlessness) [24]. The risk of perinatal death due to maternal disease was in particular high in the referred group (21.8/1000 vs. 5.5/1000, RR=4.0). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Perinatal mortality reflects maternal health as well as antenatal, intrapartum and newborn care, and is an important health indicator. This study aimed at classifying causes of perinatal death in order to identify categories of potentially preventable deaths. Methods We studied a total of 1958 stillbirths and early neonatal deaths above 500 g between July 2000 and October 2010 registered in the Medical Birth Registry and neonatal registry at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Northern Tanzania. The deaths were classified according to the Neonatal and Intrauterine deaths Classification according to Etiology (NICE). Results Overall perinatal mortality was 57.7/1000 (1958 out of 33 929), of which 1219 (35.9/1000) were stillbirths and 739 (21.8/1000) were early neonatal deaths. Major causes of perinatal mortality were unexplained asphyxia (n=425, 12.5/1000), obstetric complications (n=303, 8.9/1000), maternal disease (n=287, 8.5/1000), unexplained antepartum stillbirths after 37 weeks of gestation (n= 219, 6.5/1000), and unexplained antepartum stillbirths before 37 weeks of gestation (n=184, 5.4/1000). Obstructed/prolonged labour was the leading condition (251/303, 82.8%) among the obstetric complications. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the leading cause (253/287, 88.2%) among the maternal conditions. When we excluded women who were referred for delivery at KCMC due to medical reasons (19.1% of all births and 36.0% of all deaths), perinatal mortality was reduced to 45.6/1000. This reduction was mainly due to fewer deaths from obstetric complications (from 8.9 to 2.1/1000) and maternal conditions (from 8.5 to 5.5/1000). Conclusion The distribution of causes of death in this population suggests a great potential for prevention. Early identification of mothers at risk of pregnancy complications through antenatal care screening, teaching pregnant women to recognize signs of pregnancy complications, timely access to obstetric care, monitoring of labour for fetal distress, and proper newborn resuscitation may reduce some of the categories of deaths.
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