ArticleLiterature Review

Statistical power ANALYSIS for the Behavioral sciences

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Incluye bibliografía e índice

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... p < 0.05) were observed between the two traits-listening comprehension and reading comprehension-for three out of the four measurement methods (i.e., non-verbal response, cloze procedure, and passage-level with open-ended questions). This pattern of strong correlations (Cohen, 1998) demonstrates shared method variance, that measuring different constructs with the same methods results in correlated measures. The values in monotrait-heteromethod (yellow) cells were not significantly stronger than the values in the heterotraitmonomethod (purple) cells, as evidenced by the overlapping confidence intervals. ...
... The monotrait-heteromethod cells marked in yellow reflect the correlation between measures of the same trait using different measurement methods. Statistically significant and strong (r = 0.5; Cohen, 1998) correlations (rs = 0.62-0.88, p < 0.05) were observed in 75% of the monotraitheteromethod yellow cells, thus reflecting good convergent validity across all measures. ...
... However, the two traits of interest were not significantly correlated (r = 0.41, p > 0.05) for the non-verbal response (KABC Reading/Understanding and WJ IV TOL Oral Comprehension) measurement method. This pattern of strong correlations (Cohen, 1998) demonstrates shared method variance, that measuring different constructs with the same methods results in correlated measures. It is also important to note that the values in monotrait-heteromethod (yellow) cells were not significantly stronger than the values in the heterotraitmonomethod (purple) cells, as evidenced by the overlapping confidence intervals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Obtaining valid assessments of language and literacy skills in children with Down syndrome (DS) presents a challenge as there is a paucity of information about the psychometrics of measures that are commonly used to measure listening and reading comprehension in this population. Evaluating the construct validity of measures that employ different methods is essential to ascertain the optimal method of assessment in individuals with DS and with typical developmental histories (TD). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the construct validity of four parallel measures of listening and reading comprehension. Participants included 19 individuals with DS ( M = 17 years, 3 months; SD = 3 years, 6 months) and 19 word-level reading-matched children with TD ( M = 7 years, 2 months; SD = 7 months). Participants completed norm-referenced assessments for four parallel measures of listening and reading comprehension. The four measurement methods were: (1) non-verbal response, (2) cloze procedure, (3) passage-level with close-ended questions, and (4) passage-level with open-ended questions. Participants completed additional assessments (e.g., cognition, language, and speech) for descriptive purposes. Construct validity was assessed using the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix, a correlation matrix arranged to facilitate the assessment and interpretation of construct validity of measures across various formats. For both study groups, we observed strong evidence of construct validity for three out of four measurement methods. Results using the multimethod perspective also indicated that the listening and reading comprehension constructs were not separable. The findings from this pilot study represent a first step toward determining optimal methods of listening and reading comprehension assessment for individuals with DS. Additionally, these results can inform outcome measure selection in future language and literacy research with children with DS.
... Subsequently, the frequency of perpetuation and victimization of each of these types of violence was compared by sex and at a general level, as well as the number of types of violence inflicted and received (measured with the cadri, Fernández-Fuertes et al., 2006), by means of the Student's t-test and the Cohen's d test. The effect sizes located between 0.2 and 0.3 were estimated as small, those located around 0.5 as medium, and the ones equal to or greater than 0.8 as large (Cohen, 1988). ...
... These differences were confirmed through the multivariate analysis of the unidirectional variance (unidirectional manova), taking the different types of violence perpetrated and received as dependent variables, calculating the size of the effect with the eta partial squared (partial η2), estimating it as small if it was around 0.01, medium if it was around 0.06, and great if it was greater than 0.14 (Cohen, 1988). ...
... Then, we examined the correlations between all the types of violence analyzed and the total number of types of violence perpetrated and received using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The correlations between -0.3 and -0.1 and between 0.1 and 0.3 were considered weak; the correlations between -0.5 and -0.3 and between 0.3 and 0.5 were considered moderate; and those between -1.0 and -0.5 and between 1.0 and 0.5 were considered strong (Cohen, 1988). Table 2, the majority of the participants reported having perpetrated, but also suffered, at least "rarely", some of the behaviors that appear in the cadri (Fernández-Fuertes et al., 2006), being low the percentage that only perpetrated or only suffered this type of conduct. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and frequency of perpetration and victimization of different types of dating violence (DV), among adolescents from 13 to 19 years old in five capital cities of Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Ibagué, Tunja, and Yopal), making comparisons by sex. The Spanish version of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory was used and various statistical analyses, including the one-way MANOVA, were performed. The results show a high prevalence of DV, particularly verbal/emotional and bi-directional (almost 90 % of the participants), pointing out that sex could have a statistically significant effect on the prevalence of the different types of DV, being higher the proportion of men who perpetrated sexual violence and higher the proportion of women who perpetrated verbal/emotional and physical violence. These results indicate the need to continue investigating the phenomenon in Colombia, to carry out different prevention campaigns that are sensitive to differences by sex in prevalence.
... The LuMOS score was validated in three analyses of either BLISS-76 (13) or BLISS-52 (14) data, which compared patients randomized to active Bel treatment versus a placebo. In all three validation analyses, mean LuMOS scores for patients treated with Bel were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than those for the placebo group, and LuMOS yielded much higher values of Cohen's d effect size (ES) (15) than the corresponding ES obtained with SLE Responder Index-4 (SRI-4) (12). ...
... Then, to assess the ability of the new LuMOS 1.2 and LuMOS 2.0 models to discriminate between the outcomes for actively treated subjects and the outcomes for those randomized to the placebo, for each treatment group, we estimated the ES (15), relative to the placebo group. The ES was calculated as the ratio of the difference of the mean LuMOS score in the active treatment group minus the mean LuMOS score in the placebo group (numerator) divided by the pooled within-group standard deviation of the scores (denominator) (15), and was reported together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (18,19). Finally, we compared the resulting ES values with the corresponding ES for the original unstandardized LuMOS model (12) applied to the same BLISS-52 data. ...
... If the 95% CI for the ES for a given TB group excluded 0, this indicated that LuMOS 2.0 detected a statistically significant (at twotailed α = 0.05) treatment effect (12). ES values of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 are typically interpreted as a small, moderate, and large effect, respectively (15). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Development of new systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatments requires an effective responder index. Toward this end, we have recently developed a new Lupus Multivariable Outcome Score (LuMOS) to optimize discrimination between actively treated patients and those on placebo. We now report on external validation of LuMOS in two independent clinical trials. Methods: Validation was performed with the Illuminate data sets that evaluated tabalumab (TB) in SLE. To accommodate laboratory results assessed on different platforms, we developed a standardized LuMOS 2.0 model that uses z score transformations of biomarker values. For validation, we calculated LuMOS 2.0 scores at week 52 for all participants. Effect size (ES), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), compared the ability of LuMOS and the SLE Responder Index-5 (SRI-5) to discriminate between outcomes in patients randomized to TB dosage and outcomes in those randomized to a placebo. Results: Mean LuMOS 2.0 scores were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the TB groups than the placebo group, including the Illuminate-1 trial, in which the SRI-5 did not identify significant treatment effects. For both TB groups in both trials, LuMOS 2.0-based ES indicated moderately strong treatment effects (>0.4) in contrast to weak SRI-5 effects (<0.25). For monthly TB, LuMOS 2.0-based ES were 0.44 (95% CI: 0.30-0.59) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.39-0.68) for the Illuminate-1 and Illuminate-2 trials versus corresponding SRI-5-based ES of 0.13 (95% CI: -0.02 to +0.27) and 0.15 (95% CI: 0.01-0.30). Conclusion: LuMOS 2.0 detected significantly greater treatment effects compared with the SRI-5 in the Illuminate trials. Additional validation of LuMOS 2.0 in trials of non-B cell-directed therapies will be necessary to document its universality as an outcome measure.
... Pearson's correlation coefficients or ANOVA were undertaken according to predefined hypotheses of convergent/ discriminant validity. We define the strength of the correlation as strong (0.7-1.0), moderate (0.4-0.7), weak (0.2-0.4) and absent (0.0-0.2) [38]. We define the strength of the ANOVA as small (Eta sq = 0.01), medium (0.06) or large (0.14) [38]. ...
... We define the strength of the correlation as strong (0.7-1.0), moderate (0.4-0.7), weak (0.2-0.4) and absent (0.0-0.2) [38]. We define the strength of the ANOVA as small (Eta sq = 0.01), medium (0.06) or large (0.14) [38]. ...
... "medium"; .14 "large" (Cohen, 1988) Subscales However, for the subgroup identifying as a 'carer/family member/partner/spouse/friend of someone who is thought to be in the last few years of their life' scores were not higher on all of the DLI subscales. This may be due to how this group were defined, introducing significant heterogeneity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Death literacy includes the knowledge and skills that people need to gain access to, understand, and make informed choices about end of life and death care options. The Death Literacy Index (DLI) can be used to determine levels of death literacy across multiple contexts, including at a community/national level, and to evaluate the outcome of public health interventions. As the first measure of death literacy, the DLI has potential to significantly advance public health approaches to palliative care. The current study aimed to provide the first assessment of the psychometric properties of the DLI in the UK, alongside population-level benchmarks. Methods A large nationally representative sample of 399 participants, stratified by age, gender and ethnicity, were prospectively recruited via an online panel. The factor structure of the 29-item DLI was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of subscales was assessed alongside interpretability. Hypothesised associations with theoretically related/unrelated constructs were examined to assess convergent and discriminant validity. Descriptive statistics were used to provide scaled mean scores on the DLI. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original higher-order 8 factor structure, with the best fitting model including one substituted item developed specifically for UK respondents. The subscales reported high internal consistency. Good convergent and discriminant validity was evidenced in relation to objective knowledge of the death system, death competency, actions relating to death and dying in the community and loneliness. Good known-groups validity was achieved with respondents with professional/lived experience of end-of-life care reporting higher levels of death literacy. There was little socio-demographic variability in DLI scores. Scaled population-level mean scores were near the mid-point of DLI subscale/total, with comparatively high levels of experiential knowledge and the ability to talk about death and dying. Conclusions Psychometric evaluations suggest the DLI is a reliable and valid measure of death literacy for use in the UK, with population level benchmarks suggesting the UK population could strengthen capacity in factual knowledge and accessing help. International validation of the DLI represents a significant advancement in outcome measurement for public health approaches to palliative care. Pre-registration https://osf.io/fwxkh/
... Third, we calculated the proportion of positive log ratios across the distribution of searchlight-wise log ratios. Lastly, we calculated a robust equivalent of Cohen's d (Cohen, 1988). To this end, we first subtracted the searchlight-wise shift magnitudes for the null contrast from the searchlight-wise shift magnitudes for a given contrast of interest and determined the median over the searchlight-wise differences scores. ...
... As suggested by Cohen (1988) for Cohen's d, we regard a standardized log ratio or robust equivalent of Cohen's d amounting to around |0.2|, |0.5|, and |0.8| as small, medium, and large effects, respectively. Moreover, we regard a proportion of positive log ratios approaching 75% or above as a global effect of attention. ...
... The way we interpreted effect size measures for shift magnitude was based on pragmatic criteria suggested by Cohen (1988) or a percentage cut-off. ...
Thesis
To organize and filter visual information across visual space, the visual system draws upon receptive fields, spatial attention, and perceptual grouping. Receptive fields refer to the portion of visual space altering a neuron’s response when visually stimulated. They represent the building blocks of topographic maps in visual cortex, where receptive fields of neighboring neurons correspond to neighboring portions in the retina and visual space. This retinotopy preserves the spatial arrangement of a visual scene. However, receptive fields are not hard-wired spatial filters. Specifically, research on perceptual grouping and spatial attention showed that receptive field properties depend on the observer’s perceptual-cognitive state. Spatial attention allows us to prioritize information processing at particular locations in visual space, and evidence suggests receptive fields shift towards attended locations. Perceptual grouping allows us to bind together image elements into global objects and segregate them from the background, and evidence suggests neurons increase their response when their receptive fields contain elements perceived as a figure compared to a background. Across several projects, this thesis investigated this state-dependency at the level of topographic maps in human visual cortex. To this end, an approach to back-project brain measures into visual space was developed, allowing for fine-grained read-outs of topographic signatures. The first project focused on topographic signatures of global object perception and points to a non-generic involvement of higher object-sensitive cortex in perceptual grouping and a suppressionenhancement mechanism, possibly mediating figure-ground perception. The second project investigated topographic signatures of multifocal attention and shows that changes in topographic signatures under uni- or multifocal attention conditions cannot be distinguished from changes for test-retest data. The third project investigated flaws in quantifying topographic signatures and highlights that prior summaries of topographic signatures might be contaminated by regression artifacts. Collectively, these results underscore the potentials and challenges of investigating state-dependent topographic signatures.
... The Moderating Effect 2 (interaction term) showing the moderating effect of perceived peer support is insignificant. (Cohen, 1988). As can be seen in the Table 4.11, the R 2 value related to significant relationship of sexual harassment with psychological well-being is 0.154 which shows that it has moderate predictive accuracy. ...
... As can be seen in the Table 4.11, the R 2 value related to significant relationship of sexual harassment with psychological well-being is 0.154 which shows that it has moderate predictive accuracy. The predictor's constructs effect size can be assessed in terms of Cohen's f 2 that evaluates relative effect of a predictor construct on an endogenous construct (Cohen, 1988). The f 2 shows how an exogenous construct contributes to explain an endogenous construct in terms of R 2 . ...
... Hence, R 2 values difference for model estimation with having and without predecessor construct is regarded as effect size. According to Cohen (1988), f 2 values of 0.35, 0.15 and 0.02 are considered as large, medium and small effect size respectively. Table 4.18 indicates that the value of f 2 is 0.020 suggesting small effect size. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Sexual harassment is a source of stress in the workplace that has a detrimental influence on productivity. Many studies have been conducted on this issue in recent years due to its adverse consequence. The purpose of this study is to investigate sexual harassment effects on the women psychological well-being with moderating role of perceived organizational support and perceived peer support on sexual harassment-psychological well-being relationship of nurses working in Government Medical Teaching Institutions (MTI) Hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Methodology Questionnaires were used to collect data from 357 nurses working in the target hospitals using the stratified sampling by considering each hospital as the separate stratum. Scales measuring the variables of the study were adopted from other studies. Main findings Results of the study indicated that sexual harassment has significant and negative relationship with the psychological well-being. The results also revealed that perceived organizational support negatively moderates the relationship between sexual harassment and psychological well-being while the moderating effect of perceived peer support was found insignificant Applications of the study The study has implications for the hospitals' management to tackle sexual harassment at workplace and to better formulate and apply policies to control sexual harassment to favorably affect the employee psychological well-being with due regard to the role of perceived organizational support as the mitigating mechanism between sexual harassment and psychological well-being.
... 34: hohe vs. tiefe pädagogische QualifikationBei der Untersuchung aller drei Argumentationslinien kann Varianzhomogenität festgestellt werden. Es zeigen sich bezüglich der Argumentationslinien signifikante Gruppenunterschiede mit jeweils kleinem Effekt nachCohen (1988): 'zweckfreie Begründung' F(2, 881)=11.462, p<.001, η 2 =.025; 'musikalisches Lernen' F(2, 881)=12.149, ...
... Bei der zweckfreien Argumentationslinie wird aufgrund der Verletzung der Voraussetzung der Varianzhomogenität auf den Brown-Forsythe Test zurückgegriffen. Bei der Untersuchung der Argumentationslinien werden signifikante Gruppenunterschiede mit jeweils kleinem Effekt nachCohen (1988) festgestellt: 'zweckfreie Begründung' F(2, 881)=23.934, p<.001, η 2 =.056; 'musikalisches Lernen' F(2, 881)=21.361, ...
... Bei allen drei Argumentationslinien wird aufgrund der Verletzung der Voraussetzung der Varianzhomogenität auf den Brown-Forsythe Test zurückgegriffen. Dabei sind signifikante Gruppenunterschiede mit jeweils kleinem Effekt nachCohen (1988) feststellbar: 'zweckfreie Begründung' F(2, 881)=22.046, p<.001, η 2 =.059; 'musikalisches Lernen' F(2, 881)=22.904, ...
... The sample size calculation of the 46 women, based upon the foot pain variable by the effect size (difference between 2 groups: mean of treatment group minus the mean of the control group and dividing it by the standard deviation of one of the groups), was carried out using G-Power 3.0 software, considering a moderate effect size (F = 0.30), a statistical power of 80%, and a significance level of 5% [48,49]. ...
... 0.40-0.79 and > 0.80 were considered to be small, medium, and large effect sizes, respectively [48,49]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Backround Calcaneal spurs are described as bony outgrowths arising on medial calcaneal, where inappropriate footwear can promote disease progression. Objective Investigate the effectiveness of mechanical treatment with customized insole and minimalist flexible footwear during gait training program in women with calcaneal spur. Methods Design: A single-blinded, randomized and controlled trial. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Forty-three women, 29 with calcaneal spur and 14 control. Intervention Gait training program with use of the minimalist flexible footwear (MFG n = 15, age: 48.9 ± 9.4, height: 1.61 ± 0.1, BMI: 32.1 ± 7.0) and customized insole on footwear (COIG n = 14, age: 50.3 ± 5.8, height: 1.62 ± 0.1, BMI: 32.2 ± 4.3) and control (CG n = 14, age: 47.8 ± 8.6, height: 1.63 ± 0.1, BMI: 27.5 ± 4.5), followed of the evaluations: baseline (T0) and after three (T3) and six (T6) months. Duration of the intervention was of the six months consecutive for at least 42 h per week (six hours a day, seven days a week). Outcome primary were calcaneus pain (visual analogue scale), Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ-Br) and 6-min walk test (6MWT). Secondary was plantar pressure distribution by a pressure platform system during gait and static index foot posture (FPI). Statistical analysis: analysis of variance for repeated measure and between groups were used to detect treatment-time interactions (α = 5%). Effect size with D Cohen’s also was used between T0 and after six (T6) months of intervention. Results The MFG and COIG were effective at reducing pain after six months (MFG: 2.5–4.5 CI, p = 0.001; COIG: 1.5–3.5 CI, p = 0.011). The FFI and FHSQ-Br showed improvements with MFG and COIG after T6 (MFG: 13.7–15.4 CI, p = 0.010; COIG: 11.3–15.0 CI, p = 0.001). The 6MWT increased with MFG (589.3–622.7 CI) and COIG (401.3–644.7 CI) and foot pronation was decreased after T3 and T6 MFG (FPI Right: 4.2–5.4 CI; Left: 3.6–5.4 CI) COIG (FPI Right: 3.4–6.8 CI; Left: 3.3–5.7 CI). The contact area reduced on forefoot and rearfoot with MFG and GOIG and midfoot and rearfoot with MFG. Maximum force was reduced on foot with MFG after T3 and T6. The peak pressure was reduced on the forefoot with MFG and COIG and on midfoot and rearfoot with MFG. Conclusions The mechanical treatment with customized insole and minimalist flexible footwear during gait training program during six months in women with calcaneal spur reduced the calcaneus pain, increased function and health feet and reduced plantar load on the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot. However, the footwear alone was more effective than when combined customized insole, given the greater efficacy on clinical and biomechanical aspects. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03040557 (date of first registration: 02/02/2017).
... Acceptance, reappraisal and problem solving were associated with reduced anxiety and depression, while rumination, avoidance and suppression were associated with increased anxiety and depression. Effect sizes (interpreted as large (> 0.40), medium (0.10-0.39), or small (< 0.10) [34]) emerged as large for rumination; medium to large for avoidance, problem solving, and suppression; and small to medium for reappraisal and acceptance. ...
... To determine whether the BARQC-V correlated with measures of related constructs, its concurrent validity was examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients between the scores of the three sub-scales of the CSES-V, the CESDR-V, the MHCSF-V, and the three sub-scales of the DASS21-V. Correlations were interpreted as strong (≥ 0.5), moderate (0.3-0.49), weak (0.1-0.29), or negligible/no correlation (< 0.1) [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Depression and other forms of psychological distress are common among Vietnamese adolescents and increase the risk of mental health problems in adulthood. As anger coping is a robust predictor of adolescent mental health difficulties, and there appear to be cultural variations in anger coping, a measure of adolescent anger coping styles that has been validated using a non-Western adolescent sample is required to inform and support early intervention to prevent or treat mental health difficulties in Vietnamese adolescents. This study examined the construct validity (structural and external) of the Behavioral Anger Response Questionnaire for Children in Vietnam (BARQC-V). Methods Baseline data sourced from a recent randomised control trial conducted with Grade 10 Vietnamese adolescents aged 14 to 16 (N = 1084) were used to examine multiple aspects of construct validity: factorial structure (evaluated using factor analysis); internal consistency (tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient); and external aspect (assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients between the BARQC-V and Vietnamese translations of the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised, Mental Health Continuum Short Form, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale). Results Evaluating factorial structure using confirmatory factor analysis failed to converge on a solution. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 5-factor structure model that explained 49.32% of the BARQC-V’s total variance and was deemed to be a good fit by the final confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the 5 factors demonstrated acceptable internal reliability for the BARQC-V’s sub-scales. Concerning concurrent validity, three sub-scales predicted well-being and mental health difficulties: the maladaptive anger coping styles Rumination and Direct Anger-out were positively associated with depression and distress, and negatively associated with coping self-efficacy and mental well-being; and the adaptive anger coping style Assertion was positively associated with coping self-efficacy and mental well-being, and negatively associated with depression. Conclusions The BARQC-V provides a validated measure of three anger coping strategies used by adolescents in Vietnam (Rumination, Direct Anger-out, and Assertion) that can be used to improve detection and treatment of mental health difficulties in this population, and as a starting point by future research to develop a much-needed gold standard measure of anger coping for adults, adolescents and children world-wide.
... The sample size was estimated as 320 on the basis of the allocation of 40 samples for 10 cells; two groups of biological sex (male and female) × four age groups (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50-65 years old [26]. In addition, the sample size required to determine whether a correlation coefficient differs from zero was 347 (type I error (α) = 0.05, type II error (β) = 0.20, and expected correlation coefficient = 0.15). ...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to explore the reliability and validity of viral anxiety rating scales (developed for the general population) among healthcare workers. In addition, we compared the psychometric properties of rating scales in accordance with the Generalized Anxiety Scale-7 items (GAD-7) during this COVID-19 pandemic. The viral anxiety of 330 healthcare workers was measured with Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics—9 items (SAVE-9), SAVE-6, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), and COVID-19 Anxiety Scale (CAS-7). Factor analyses, item response theory, and Rasch model analyses were conducted to confirm the construct validities of the scales and compare the psychometric properties of rating scales. The receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis examined the cutoff scores of rating scales in accordance with a mild degree of generalized anxiety. The SAVE-9, SAVE-6, CAS, FCV-19S, and CAS-7 scales showed good reliability of internal consistency among healthcare workers. Their construct validity and convergent validity of each scale were similarly good. Furthermore, in comparing the psychometric properties of rating scales, we observed that the CAS scale was the most discriminating and difficult among the scales. The CAS and FCV-19S provided more information and were more efficient than the SAVE-9, SAVE-6, and CAS-7 scales when they were used to measure healthcare workers’ viral anxiety. Viral anxiety rating scales can be applied to healthcare workers with good reliability and validity.
... The effect size will be calculated to quantify the magnitude of the difference between two means in the post-intervention data and for each group separately between the pretest and the posttest. According to Cohen [90], values of d = 0.02 represent a "small" effect size, 0.05 a "medium" effect size, and 0.08 a "large" effect size. Finally, the statistical power will be obtained through a post hoc analysis, considering 0.80 as an adequate power level [91]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous investigations show the need to intervene with school children and young students in order to mitigate socio-educational difficulties such as social conflict, and public health problems such as sedentary lifestyles and childhood obesity. This study seeks to explain the rationale and protocol of an educational programme called “ACTIVE VALUES” as an intervention strategy for the reduction of sedentary lifestyles and the promotion of education in values in schools. The present research used a mixed methods approach with a quasi-experimental design of repeated measures (pre-test and post-test), with a non-randomised control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG). The sample was composed of approximately 250 students and 30 teachers from different autonomous communities in Spain, divided into EG and CG. The EG implemented a teaching methodology based on the incorporation of Active Breaks (AB) into the structure of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, during one academic year, while the CG used conventional teaching based on the direct instruction teaching technique. A specific two-stage professional development procedure was followed: (1) initial training and (2) continuing professional development (CPD). The fidelity of the programme was checked by observational analysis of the sessions which were analysed by two observers with expertise in educational research and active methodologies. Currently, “ACTIVE VALUES” is the first study that examines the effectiveness of an educational programme that integrates into the teaching methodology, elements that foster education in values and promote healthy lifestyle habits through physical-sports activity within the classroom
... As shown in Table 3 [29], which is appropriate for a wait-list control design since we expect large-sized effects based on outcomes of other RCTs of brief parenting programs [9]. Analyses were conducted using the sample of participants with pre-and post-intervention data for each measure, and again using an intent-to-treat design. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parent-Child Care (PC-CARE) is a brief intervention for children with externalizing behaviors designed to address issues with their access to and retention in treatment. A growing evidence base of open trials and comparison studies support PC-CARE’s benefits, but no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of its effectiveness exist. The current study presents the first RCT of PC-CARE, a 7-session dyadic parenting intervention (trial number removed for blind review). Participants included a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 49 children (29% female) aged 2–10 years and their caregivers. Participants were randomly assigned to PC-CARE or waitlist control. Families participating in PC-CARE showed greater reductions in children’s externalizing behaviors, improvements in children’s adaptive skills, declines in parental stress, and increases in parents’ positive communication skills, compared to families on the waitlist. The results of this first RCT of PC-CARE support the effectiveness of this brief intervention in improving children’s behaviors.
... The completely standardized effect is the effect in terms of the difference in standard deviations in psychological distress between two cases that differ by one standard deviation in minority stress. When using the completely standardized effect, conventional interpretations of effect sizes are appliable Cohen (1988). In Model 1, the completely standardized effects include the direct effect of discrimination from society on psychological distress (c' cs = 0.17), the indirect effect through experiential avoidance (ab cs = 0.11) and the indirect effect through emotion dysregulation (ab cs = 0.11). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender and sexual minorities are at increased risk for psychological disorders compared to the general population. The minority stress model has been proposed to explain these elevated rates of psychological distress. Per this model, minority stress factors (e.g., prejudice, discrimination, rejection, internalized homophobia/ transphobia) combine to create a unique stress which negatively impacts the mental health of gender and sexual minority individuals. With support for the general minority stress model established, attention has turned to investigating possible mediators in this model. In other words, how does minority stress cause psychological distress and negative mental health outcomes? The aim of the present study was to investigate experiential avoidance and emotion dysregulation as potential mediators in the relationship between minority stress factors and psychological distress. Final parallel mediation models supported that experiential avoidance and emotion dysregulation were significant mediators in the relationship between minority stress variables and psychological distress. These final models support that minority stress experiences, experiential avoidance, and emotion dysregulation are all factors that contribute to psychological distress in gender and sexual minority individuals. The implications of these findings are discussed.
... For the comparisons that showed significant differences, the confidence interval (95% CI) of the differences was reported. The effect size was estimated with eta squared (η p 2 ), using the following values: < 0.01 small, 0.06 moderate, and > 0.14 strong (Cohen, 1988). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with significant difficulties in daily functioning, and these difficulties have been associated with impaired executive functions (EEFF). However, specific cognitive and socio-emotional executive deficits have not been fully established. Objective The present study has several objectives. First, we aimed to examine the specific deficits in cognitive and socio-emotional EEFF in a group of patients with schizophrenia with a predominance of positive symptoms, as well as to determine if these patients present clinically significant scores in any of the three fronto-subcortical behavioral syndromes: Dorsolateral, Orbitofrontal, or Anterior Cingulate. Method The sample consisted of 54 patients, 27 with a predominance of positive symptoms, and 27 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and education. The two groups completed four cognitive and three socio-emotional EEFF tasks. In the group of patients, positive symptoms were evaluated using the scale for the Evaluation of Positive Symptoms (SANS), while the behavioral alterations associated with the three fronto-subcortical syndromes were evaluated using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Results The patients, in comparison with a control group, presented specific deficits in cognitive and socio-emotional EEFF. In addition, a high percentage of patients presented clinically significant scores on the three fronto-subcortical syndromes. Conclusion The affectation that these patients present, in terms of both cognitive and emotional components, highlights the importance of developing a neuropsychological EEFF intervention that promotes the recovery of the affected cognitive capacities and improves the social and emotional functioning of the affected patients.
... In addition to the statistical significance of the path coefficients, the strength of the relationship plays a role in determining whether the relationships are weak (<0.2), moderate (0.2-0.5) or strong (>0.5) (Cohen, 1988). This analysis was performed with R software, using Lavaan package (Rosseel, 2012). ...
Article
Background: There is now a wealth of evidence showing that work is a major determinant of physical and mental health. Recent studies have suggested increased rates of depression in healthcare workers (HCWs) in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, with direct impact on care quality and productivity. Aim: To determine the rate of clinical depression in a national sample of HCWs in France during the post-Covid-19 area and to identify related factors (professional, individual and health-related risk behaviors) using a structural equation modeling analysis. Method: A survey comprising a number of standardized scales was sent to public and private national healthcare facilities through the mail or disseminated through emails from professional associations and social networks. Results: 10,325 participants were recruited; 3122 (30.2%, 95% confidence interval [29.4-31.1]) met likely diagnostic criteria for clinical depression. Professional factors had the largest total effect (β = 0.57) (burn-out: β = 0.74, sustained bullying at the workplace β = 0.48 and decision-making latitude β = -0.47), followed by individual factors (β = 0.30) (the main individual factor was recurrent major depression, path coefficient = 0.67). Professional factors had both a direct (path coefficient = 0.38) and indirect (through health risk behaviors, path coefficient = 0.19) effect on depression. Individual factors had a direct (path coefficient 0.21) and indirect (through health risk behaviors (path coefficient = 0.09) effect on depression. Health risk behaviors had a direct effect on depression (path coefficient = 0.31). Interpretation: These results provide potential explanations for the likely causes of poor psychological health among HCWs. We propose several potential interventions related to professional factors and health risk behaviors. Our results suggest that improving organizational issues, reducing exposure to potentially morally injurious events, promoting brief naps at work and provision of evidence-based prevention approaches have been reported to be helpful in supporting the mental health of hospital staff (not only relaxation or stress management but training in leadership aspects, increasing the knowledge and practice of giving efficient performance feedback, reducing conflicting demands and peer support programs such as Trauma Risk Management. Our data suggest that developing caregivers reported experience and outcome measures (CREMs/CROMs) would be helpful to monitor work environment and its effect on depression in healthcare workers.
... for all analyses. For all correlation coefficients, effect sizes were interpreted per Cohen [5], with r = 0.1 to 0.29 considered a small effect size, r = 0.3 to 0.49 considered a medium effect size, and r = 0.5 or above considered a large effect size. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders, but there is no metric that predicts disease severity over time. We hypothesized that by developing a new metric, the Severity Factor (S-Factor) using immutable disease parameters, it would be possible to capture disease severity independent of clinical rating scales. Extracting data from the CRC-SCA and READISCA natural history studies, we calculated the S-Factor for 438 participants with symptomatic SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6, as follows: ((length of CAG repeat expansion – maximum normal repeat length) /maximum normal repeat length) × (current age – age at disease onset) × 10). Within each SCA type, the S-Factor at the first Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) visit (baseline) was correlated against scores on SARA and other motor and cognitive assessments. In 281 participants with longitudinal data, the slope of the S-Factor over time was correlated against slopes of scores on SARA and other motor rating scales. At baseline, the S-Factor showed moderate-to-strong correlations with SARA and other motor rating scales at the group level, but not with cognitive performance. Longitudinally the S-Factor slope showed no consistent association with the slope of performance on motor scales. Approximately 30% of SARA slopes reflected a trend of non-progression in motor symptoms. The S-Factor is an observer-independent metric of disease burden in SCAs. It may be useful at the group level to compare cohorts at baseline in clinical studies. Derivation and examination of the S-factor highlighted challenges in the use of clinical rating scales in this population.
... Statistical analyses were conducted by software ProMeta 3.0 (Intenovi 2015, Cesena, Italy). To pursue the main aims of the meta-analysis, we separately computed the effect sizes (ES) from data reported in the primary studies by Hedges'g unbiased approach (Cohen, 1988) considering the following comparisons of interest: i. patients with AP vs HC, and patients with a specific type of AP vs HC (e.g., MSA vs HC); ii. patients with AP vs patients with PD, and patients with a specific type of AP vs patients with PD (e.g., MSA vs PD); iii. ...
Article
Full-text available
Atypical Parkinsonism (AP) syndromes are characterized by a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms including prominent attentional and executive deficits. However, the cognitive profile of AP and its differences and similarities with that of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) are still a matter of debate. The present meta-analysis aimed at identifying patterns of cognitive impairment in AP by comparing global cognitive functioning, memory, executive functions, visuospatial abilities, language, non-verbal reasoning, and processing speed test performances of patients with AP relative to healthy controls and patients with PD. All investigated cognitive domains showed a substantial impairment in patients with AP compared to healthy controls. When AP syndromes were considered separately, their cognitive functioning was distributed along a continuum from Multiple Systemic Atrophy at one extreme, with the least impaired cognitive profile (similar to that observed in PD) to Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, with the greatest decline in global cognitive and executive functioning (similar to Corticobasal Syndrome). These findings indicate that widespread cognitive impairment could represent an important clinical indicator to distinguish AP from other movement disorders.
... Because bootstrap analysis does not rely on assumptions of normality or homoscedasticity, they provide us with an accurate estimate of the unstandardized regression coefficient B for group as a predictor variable. Cohens f 2 , the standard effect size measure for linear regression, was calculated by the following equation: f 2 = R 2 1−R 2 , in which f 2 ≥ 0.02, f 2 ≥ 0.15 and f 2 ≥ 0.35 represent small, medium, and large effect sizes (Cohen 1977). The bootstrapped linear regression models were run 5 times to confirm robustness of the output. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Preliminary evidence suggests that Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a promising treatment for bipolar disorder (BD). A proposed working mechanism of MBCT in attenuating depressive symptoms is reducing depressive rumination. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MBCT on self-reported trait depressive rumination and an experimental state measure of negative intrusive thoughts in BD patients. Exploratively, we investigated the effect of MBCT on positive rumination and positive intrusive thoughts. Methods The study population consisted of a subsample of bipolar type I or II patients participating in a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing MBCT + treatment as usual (TAU) (N = 25) to TAU alone (N = 24). Trait depressive rumination (RRS brooding subscale) and intrusive thoughts (breathing focus task (BFT)) were assessed at baseline (full subsample) and post-treatment (MBCT + TAU; n = 15, TAU; n = 15). During the BFT, participants were asked to report negative, positive and neutral intrusive thoughts while focusing on their breathing. Results Compared to TAU alone, MBCT + TAU resulted in a significant pre- to post-treatment reduction of trait depressive rumination (R² = .16, F(1, 27) = 5.15, p = 0.031; medium effect size (f² = 0.19)) and negative intrusive thoughts on the BFT (R² = .15, F(1, 28) = 4.88, p = 0.036; medium effect size (f² = 0.17)). MBCT did not significantly change positive rumination or positive intrusive thoughts. Conclusions MBCT might be a helpful additional intervention to reduce depressive rumination in BD which might reduce risk of depressive relapse or recurrence. Considering the preliminary nature of our findings, future research should replicate our findings and explore whether this reduction in rumination following MBCT indeed mediates a reduction in depressive symptoms and relapse or recurrence in BD.
... The results of simple slope tests showed that for individuals with shorter job tenure, the positive direct effect of perceived school culture on work engagement was 0.650 (β simple = 0.650, t = 6.225, p < 0.001); for those with longer job tenure, the positive direct effect of perceived school culture on work engagement was 0.512 (β simple = 0.512, t = 11.190, p < 0.001) (Cohen, 1988). The association between perceived school culture and work engagement was stronger for teachers with shorter job tenure than those with longer job tenure (Z = 2.02, p < 0.05). ...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that perceived school culture is the most powerful predictor of teachers’ work performance. However, studies to date have paid little attention to the potential mechanisms behind this association. On the basis of the job demands–resources (JD–R) model, the present study explored the mediating role of affective empathy and the moderating role of job tenure in the association between perceived school culture and teachers’ work engagement. 647 primary and secondary school teachers completed questionnaires measuring perceived school culture, affective empathy, and work engagement. After gender and educational level were included as covariates, the results showed that perceived school culture positively correlated with teachers’ work engagement, and more importantly, this association was partially mediated by affective empathy. In addition, job tenure significantly moderated the direct association between perceived school culture and work engagement. Specifically, there was a stronger association between perceived school culture and work engagement for teachers with shorter job tenure than those with longer job tenure. The findings suggested the direct effect of perceived school culture on work engagement, and the indirect effect of perceived school culture on work engagement through the mediating role of affective empathy. These findings enrich our understanding of how perceived school culture associates with work engagement, and highlight the moderating role of job tenure in the direct association between perceived school culture and work engagement.
... No entanto, espera-se que a correlação entre as estimativas seja sempre positiva; ou seja, 0≤r≤1. O coeficiente de correlação (r) pode ser classificado como: "muito baixo" (|r| < 0,1); "baixo" (0,1 < |r| < 0,3); "moderado" (0,3 < |r| < 0,5); "alto" (0,5 < |r| < 0,7); "muito alto" (0,7 <|r| < 0,9); e "quase perfeito" (|r| > 0,9) (COHEN, 1988). O coeficiente de concordância (c) ou de ajuste de Willmott (17) é dado por: ...
... Data were analyzed by computing the mean growth from pre-to posttest scores for the video and control conditions and comparing them. In addition, effect sizes were computed using Cohen's d (Cohen, 1988) which represents the difference between the pretest and posttest scores, divided by the pooled standard deviations. The following scale is generally used to interpret the magnitude of an effect based on d: Small effect-0<d<.2; ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A sample of 42 transition-age, young adults with Level 1 ASD completed a scenario-based instrument designed to measure Social Evaluative Reasoning Ability (SER) in the workplace. For the purposes of this analysis, SER was modeled as a unidimensional construct. A Rasch, Partial Credit Model was utilized to examine the psychometric properties of the instrument. The mathematics underpinning the Rasch model are discussed and visual and statistical indicators of fit at the instrument and item levels are presented and considered. Next, an argument for the validity of the instrument is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations and potential educational implications of the SER instrument.
... To help us, we used two statistical tests: The Friedman/Nemenyi (F/N) test (Demšar, 2006). This test is not very powerful (Cohen, 2013) but allows to compare all pairs of models directly and has an easy-to-interpret visualization. The test first computes the rank of each considered approach for all datasets. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pre-trained Language Models such as BERT have become ubiquitous in NLP where they have achieved state-of-the-art performance in most NLP tasks. While these models are readily available for English and other widely spoken languages, they remain scarce for low-resource languages such as Luxembourgish. In this paper, we present LuxemBERT, a BERT model for the Luxembourgish language that we create using the following approach: we augment the pre-training dataset by considering text data from a closely related language that we partially translate using a simple and straightforward method. We are then able to produce the LuxemBERT model, which we show to be effective for various NLP tasks: it outperforms a simple baseline built with the available Luxembourgish text data as well the multilingual mBERT model, which is currently the only option for transformer-based language models in Luxembourgish. Furthermore, we present datasets for various downstream NLP tasks that we created for this study and will make available to researchers on request.
... e Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS; IBM Software, version 23, Armonk, NY, USA) was used to analyze the data. A correlation coefficient was used to test the association between different parameters [26]. e data collected from 54 normal eye subjects (23.8 ± 4.4 years) were not normally distributed (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p < 0.05). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. To assess the effect of face-mask-wearing for a short time on the tear film parameters in normal eye subjects. Methods. Fifty-four normal eye subjects (14 female and 40 male) aged 18–40 years (23.8 ± 4.4 years) were recruited. A standardized patient evaluation of eye dryness was completed first, followed by non-invasive tear break-up time, phenol red thread, and tear ferning tests. A 5-minute gap was allowed between the tests. The subjects were asked to wear a surgical mask for one hour. The measurements were taken both before wearing a face mask and immediately after its removal. Results. Significant (Wilcoxon test) differences were found between the standardized patient evaluation of eye dryness (p = 0.002) and the non-invasive tear break-up time scores (p < 0.001) pre- and post-wearing face masks. No significant differences (Wilcoxon test, p > 0.05) were found between the phenol red thread scores and tear ferning grades pre- and post-wearing face masks. Strong correlations (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r) were found between the standardized patient evaluation of eye dryness score (r = 0.590; p  0.001), non-invasive tear break-up time measurements (r = 0.631; p < 0.001), and the tear ferning grades (r = 0.517; p < 0.001) pre- and post-wearing the mask. A medium correlation (r = 0.377; p = 0.005) was found between the non-invasive tear break-up time scores and tear ferning grades pre-wearing the mask. Conclusions. Wearing a surgical face mask for a short duration of one hour has an effect on ocular tear film in normal eye subjects. Dry eye symptoms and tear break-up increased post-wearing a face mask compared with those experienced before wearing one.
... The strength of correlations was considered weak for coefficients ±0.1-0.3, moderate for coefficients ±0.3-0.5, and strong for coefficients ±0.5-1.0 (45). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested whether repeated traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) alter the objective structure or the objective function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in human subjects recruited from an optometry clinic. Case subjects ( n = 25) with a history of repeated TBIs (4.12 ± 2.76 TBIs over 0–41 years) and healthy pair-matched control subjects ( n = 30) were prospectively recruited. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was quantified with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser polarimetry measured RNFL phase retardation. Measurements of the photopic negative response were made using full-field flash electroretinography. There was no statistically significant difference ( p = 0.42) in global RNFL thickness between the case cohort (96.6 ± 9.4 microns) and the control cohort (94.9 ± 7.0 microns). There was no statistically significant difference ( p = 0.80) in global RNFL phase retardation between the case cohort (57.9 ± 5.7 nm) and the control cohort (58.2 ± 4.6 nm). There were no statistically significant differences in the peak time ( p = 0.95) of the PhNR or in the amplitude ( p = 0.11) of the PhNR between the case cohort (69.9 ± 6.9 ms and 24.1 ± 5.1 μV, respectively) and the control cohort (70.1 ± 8.9 ms and 27.8 ± 9.1 μV, respectively). However, PhNR amplitude was more variable ( p < 0.025) in the control cohort than in the case cohort. Within the case cohort, there was a strong positive ( r = 0.53), but not statistically significant ( p = 0.02), association between time since last TBI and PhNR amplitude. There was also a modest positive ( r = 0.45), but not statistically significant ( p = 0.04), association between time since first TBI and PhNR amplitude. Our results suggest that there were no statistically significant differences in the objective structure or in the objective function of RGCs between the case cohort and the control cohort. Future large, longitudinal studies will be necessary to confirm our negative results and to more fully investigate the potential interaction between PhNR amplitude and time since first or last TBI.
... First, the relatively small sample size (N = 20) may limit the generalizability of our findings. Even though the effect sizes (power in Table 2) for the analyses were close to or more than the criteria (i.e., 0.8) suggested by Cohen [39], this small sample definitely alters the robustness of the results. Second, although various CS sizes were available for the participants to choose from, not all participants found CSs that fit their leg shapes, and this may have reduced the product efficacy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Compression stockings (CSs) are a relatively simple and effective tool for alleviating varicose veins and are often used as a preventive measure among workers whose jobs require prolonged standing. Nevertheless, the efficacy of CSs that are advertised as sleepwear remains unveri-fied. This study recruited 10 female university students and 10 cashiers as participants to test the effects of sleep CSs. During the experiment, the changes in shank circumference (SC) and the subjective discomfort rating upon getting up and going to bed were collected. Data were recorded immediately after getting up and SC measurement was repeated 10 min later. The results demonstrated that both CS condition and measurement time significantly affected SC reduction, whereas cashier or student status did not. The reported discomfort and tightness of the legs attributed to CSs were relatively high, and the benefit toward SC reduction was minimal. Cashiers exhibited slightly larger SC values and higher perceived discomfort levels, which may be attributed to their occupational characteristic of prolonged standing, and the cumulative effect of prolonged standing on muscle properties warrants further study. The study findings suggest that wearing CSs for sleep may not be effective for reducing OE.
... Since we are comparing two independent arms (intervention and control patients) on a numerical primary outcome (OPTION score), the main interest is in the power of a two-tailed t-test comparing means for two independent groups. We aim for power between 80% and 95% (β = 0.05 to β = 0.2), and an effect size of d = 0.5, able to detect differences of half a standard deviation between the means, which is considered a moderate effect size, or "one large enough to be visible to the naked eye" [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prostate cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the American population. Furthermore, the prognosis is worse in African American as there is increased morbidity and mortality associated with it. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new online method to educate the patient population regarding prostate cancer risk, diagnosis, treatments, and their decisions about whether to be screened for the early detection of prostate cancer. Methods Two hundred Black male patients are recruited from different clinical sites and randomized to either the control arm (usual care) or the intervention arm (educational program). We will compare the effectiveness of the intervention to see if patients are discussing the need of getting a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and the possible benefits and harms that may result of having or not having the test, with their primary care providers. Discussion Shared decision-making (SDM) is the current standard in most cancer-screening guidelines and also a standard of person-centered care. However, there is a lack of evidence-based approaches to improve decision quality in clinical settings and an increased ambiguity of applying SDM for PSA-based screening among Black men in primary care. Our proposal to evaluate a decisional-aid intervention and measure the actual application of SDM during clinical encounters has a high potential to advance the translation path of implementing shared decision-making in clinical settings and provide evidence of the applicability of the guideline in general. Innovation and overall impact Given the 2018 USPSTF updated guidelines recommending shared decision-making about PSA-based screening, the increased risk of prostate cancer mortality in Black men, the challenges of evidence-based decision-making due to the underrepresentation of Blacks in major randomized clinical trials, and implicit racial bias among primary care providers, the time is ripe for interventions to improve shared decision-making about prostate cancer screening in Black men. In this study, we address communication and knowledge gaps between Black men and their primary care providers. The intervention, if proven effective, can be readily scaled across primary care practices across the U.S. and may be adapted to other types of cancer where guidelines have included shared decision-making as well. Early detection of prostate cancer may decrease mortality and morbidity in the long term.
... The suitable sample size was estimated from fish initial weights using R Program 3.6.0, requiring the desired power of test at 0.8 (Cohen 1988). The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD), comprising fifteen experimental units from five alternative treatments and triplicate observations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food waste (FW) is a source of inexpensive and readily available nutrients that can be used as animal feed. However, the use of FW in fish feed is limited. In this study of juvenile striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), commercial feed (CD, 34.1% protein and 4.69% lipid based on dry weight) was replaced with graded levels (25, 50, 75, and 100%) of FW (20.3% protein and 14.9% lipid based on dry weight). The dry weight dietary contents of crude protein (32.8 to 19.9%), crude fiber (4.62 to 1.06%), and ash (9.00 to 3.32%) decreased with FW replacement levels, whereas contents of crude lipid (4.69 to 14.5%) and nitrogen-free extract (48.9 to 61.2%) increased. Fish (3.40 ± 0.01 g body weight) were assigned to five treatments, each comprising three tanks (60 cm width × 80 cm length × 45 cm height, 100 L water) containing 15 fish each. They received the experimental diets twice daily (09.00 and 16.00 h) at 3% of body weight over an 8-week feeding trial. At the end of the feeding trial, growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities, fillet qualities, carcass composition, and hematological parameters, along with an economic analysis, were used as assessment criteria for a suitable diet. The gradual reduction in growth performance was observed as the proportion of FW increased (P < 0.05), and only the fish that received a diet containing 25% FW showed similar specific growth rates (1.60% body weight day⁻¹) and feed conversion ratios (1.37 g feed g gain⁻¹) to fish that received a diet without FW (P > 0.05). Higher replacement levels had negative effects on these parameters and increased dry matter apparent digestibility coefficients (from 74.0 to 82.2%), while reducing the protein digestibility coefficients (from 85.8 to 67.9%, P < 0.05). Activities of amylase, cellulase, pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, and the amylase to trypsin ratio were modulated differently across the dietary treatments. The diet containing 25% FW showed no adverse effects on fillet qualities, carcass composition, and hematological parameters. The cost of a diet containing 25% FW (0.71 USD kg⁻¹) was lower than the cost of the commercial feed (0.94 USD kg⁻¹), albeit not statistically significant (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that replacing 25% of commercial feed with FW could reduce feed costs and mitigate the environmental difficulties of FW disposal.
... Consistent with this approach, we have found that a low-intensity, transdiagnostic CBT protocol targeting one COPC (IBS) had a particularly strong impact on the severity of multiple co-occurring COPCs, including UCPPS even though they were not explicitly targeted [62]. Among non-targeted COPCs, effect sizes (ES, Cohen's d) [63] for an average reduction in pain severity from pre to post treatment ranged from a small effect for fibromyalgia (d = .24), to moderate effects for idiopathic low back pain (d = .45) ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) encompasses several common, costly, diagnoses including interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome that are poorly understood and inadequately treated with conventional medical therapies. Behavioral strategies, recommended as a first-line treatment for managing symptoms, are largely inaccessible, time and labor intensive, and technically complex. The Easing Pelvic Pain Interventions Clinical Research Program (EPPIC) is a clinical trial examining the efficacy of low-intensity cognitive behavioral therapy (Minimal Contact CBT or MC-CBT) for UCPPS and its durability 3 and 6 months post treatment. Additional aims include characterizing the operative processes (e.g., cognitive distancing, context sensitivity, coping flexibility, repetitive negative thought) that drive MC-CBT-induced symptom relief and pre-treatment patient variables that moderate differential response. Methods UCPPS patients (240) ages 18–70 years, any gender, ethnicity, and race, will be randomized to 4-session MC-CBT or a credible, non-specific education comparator (EDU) that controls for the generic effects from simply going to treatment. Efficacy assessments will be administered at pre-treatment, 2 weeks, and 3 and 6 months post treatment-week acute phase. A novel statistical approach applied to micro-analytic mediator assessment schedule will permit the specification of the most effective CBT component(s) that drive symptom relief. Discussion Empirical validation of a low-intensity self-management therapy transdiagnostic in scope has the potential to improve the health of chronic pelvic pain patients refractory to medical therapies, reduce social and economic costs, conserve health care resources, as well as inform evidence-based practice guidelines. Identification of change mechanisms and moderators of treatment effects can provide proactive patient-treatment matching fundamental to goals of personalized medicine. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT05127616. Registered on 9/19/21.
... To verify if the exogenous constructs make effective contributions to the corresponding endogenous variables, effect size f 2 values of different linkages need to be evaluated. If the range of f 2 is 0.020 to 0.150, it is weak; if it is between 0.150 and 0.350, it is medium; and if it is greater than 0.350, it is large (Cohen, 1988). In the present study, the effect sizes ...
Article
Business firms are increasingly innovating their traditional business model to a technology-enabled digitalized model for their sustainability in the competitive market. Firms have already felt the necessity to embark on a digital transformation journey to sustain themselves. However, specific capabilities at the microfoundation level are needed for successfully exploiting this paradigm shift towards digital transformation. In the digital transformation journey, specific digital skills and capabilities at the microfoundational level are essential to achieve success. The psychological foundations of the employees should be aligned in favor of digitalization to successfully gain competitive advantage. Not many studies are available to understand individual capabilities and skills at the microfoundational level. In this background, the aim of this study is to investigate the role of individual capability at the microfoundational level, including the leadership role along with technology capability like an AI-enabled CRM system, towards digitalization. With the help of RBV theory and status quo bias theory, a theoretical model has been developed which was later validated using SEM technique with data of 341 respondents from different industries. The study finds that there is a significant influence of individuals’ skills and capabilities to embrace the digital transformation journey.
... No estudo quantitativo com os(as) mesmos(as) participantes, o teste de qui-quadrado de independência indicou uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre as variáveis 'tipo de separação' e o 'tipo de comunicação coparental' durante a pandemia, 2 (4, 119) = 36,00, p <0,001 . Essa associação foi considerada forte (V = 0,39) (Cohen, 1988): 72% dos(as) genitores(as) que perceberam a comunicação coparental como 'gravemente disfuncional' declararam ter tido uma separação conjugal do tipo 'problemática'. ...
Article
Full-text available
A pandemia de Covid-19 impactou as formas de interação em diversos contextos sociais. Qual terá sido o seu impacto sobre os regimes de guarda e convivência dos(as) filhos(as) de pais/mães separados(as)? Este estudo qualitativo-exploratório investigou, por meio de uma análise temática, como 119 pais e mães separados(as) perceberam esse impacto durante a primeira onda da pandemia em 2020. Observaram-se alterações nas dinâmicas de comunicação e inter-relação coparentais. Os resultados também indicam que a capacidade dos pais e mães separados(as) para se adaptarem às limitações da pandemia e suas consequências estiveram bastante ligadas às dinâmicas de funcionamento coparental preexistentes à pandemia. Além disso, observou-se também que os principais impactos (i.e., na convivência e cuidados com os(as) filhos(as) parecem ter afetado mais as mães do que os pais.
... skillnader som inte bara gäller det aktuella elevurvalet utan som med stor sannolikhet kan generaliseras till alla i populationen. För att undersöka storleken på skillnader mellan elevgrupperna beräknades effektstorleken (eta-kvadrat = η 2 ), som anger hur stor andel av variationen i stavningsmåtten som kunde förklaras av läsprofilstillhörigheten i det aktuella elevurvalet: svag effekt ≤ 0,05, måttlig effekt 0,06-0,13 och stor effekt ≥ 0,14 (Cohen, 1988). För att identifiera samband mellan elevernas avkodningsförmåga, läsförståelse och stavningsförmåga i årskurs 2 och deras stavningsförmåga i årskurs 3 genomfördes korrelationsanalyser (Pearsons produktmomentkorrelation) samt regressionsanalyser. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Denna artikel behandlar finskans och somaliskans roll i den göteborgska språk- hierarkin. Analysen bygger främst på intervjuer med talare av de två språken, kompletterat med statistik och en fotodokumentation av språkens synlighet i fyra Göteborgsområden. Finskan var länge det största minoritetsspråket i Göteborg, men det har liten synlighet och hade länge relativt låg status. Somaliskan som är ett nyare minoritetsspråk i Göteborg tillskrivs låg social status men präglas av en större medial och visuell synlighet. Idag har finskan högre mobilitet i Göteborg än för tjugo år sedan, medan somaliskan präglas av lägre lokal mobilitet, även om språket är betydligt mer spritt globalt. Vi menar att skillnaderna mellan de två språkens status och synlighet i Göteborg med fördel kan förklaras genom en intersektionell analys som tar hänsyn till platsens flerskiktade historia och de historiska och nutida talares kroppar som bebor denna plats.
... This is a non-parametric statistical test to use to find the change in proportion for paired data and to find the change in proportion for our paired data. We test the null hypothesis that 'the percentage of contributions classified is the same' We also measure the effect size using Cohen's d, a nonparametric effect size measure by Cohen [15]. Effect size is analyzed as follows: ...
Preprint
Full-text available
An increase in diverse technology stacks and third-party library usage has led developers to inevitably switch technologies. To assist these developers, maintainers have started to release their libraries to multiple technologies, i.e., a cross-ecosystem library. Our goal is to explore the extent to which these cross-ecosystem libraries are intertwined between ecosystems. We perform a large-scale empirical study of 1.1 million libraries from five different software ecosystems, i.e., PyPI for Python, CRAN for R, Maven for Java, RubyGems for Ruby, and NPM for JavaScript to identify 4,146 GitHub projects that release libraries to these five ecosystems. Analyzing their contributions, we first find that a significant majority (median of 37.5%) of contributors of these cross-ecosystem libraries come from a single ecosystem, while also receiving a significant portion of contributions (median of 24.06%) from outside their target ecosystems. We also find that a cross-ecosystem library is written using multiple programming languages. Specifically, three (i.e., PyPI, CRAN, RubyGems) out of the five ecosystems has the majority of source code is written using languages not specific to that ecosystem. As ecosystems become intertwined, this opens up new avenues for research, such as whether or not cross-ecosystem libraries will solve the search for replacement libraries, or how these libraries fit within each ecosystem just to name a few.
... Power is a function of sample size, statistical significance and more importantly, effect size. It is most commonly used to test the power a statistical test had on a completed study, and to calculate necessary sample sizes given anticipated effect sizes and power (9). In other words, it is used to answer two questions: (a) assuming that the effect we are looking for actually exists and has magnitude m, for sample size n, what is the probability we will detect such effect (i.e., correctly reject the null) at significance level α? ...
Preprint
In this paper we review the academic transportation literature published between 2014 and 2018 to evaluate where the field stands regarding the use and misuse of statistical significance in empirical analysis, with a focus on discrete choice models. Our results show that 39% of studies explained model results exclusively based on the sign of the coefficient, 67% of studies did not distinguish statistical significance from economic, policy or scientific significance in their conclusions, and none of the reviewed studies considered the statistical power of the tests. Based on these results we put forth a set of recommendations aimed at shifting the focus away from statistical significance towards proper and comprehensive assessment of effect magnitudes and other policy relevant quantities.
... For every subgroup, the respective EF was calculated. Hedge's g was interpreted based on Cohen's guideline [35], which suggests that 0.2 be considered a small effect, 0.5 be considered as a moderate effect, and 0.8 be considered a large effect. Thus, an I 2 of 25% was characterized as low, 50% as moderate, and values greater than 75% as highly heterogeneous [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise modes can be categorized based on the skills required (open vs. closed skills), which implicates various demands on cognitive skills, especially executive functions (EFs). Thus, their practice may have varying effects on EFs. There is a lack of detailed analysis of cognitive requirements and suitable classification of sports. It is hypothesized that the amount and type of cognitive requirements of sports lead to small effect sizes when comparing open-skill exercising (OSE) and closed-skill exercising (CSE) athletes. The current meta-analysis evaluates the variances in EFs skills caused by particular sport modes. Four research databases (Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsychINFO) were searched for cross-sectional studies in which the authors compare the performance in EF tasks of OSE and CSE athletes. Risk of bias assessment was conducted using funnel plots and two reviewer selection process (overall and subgroup analysis; low risk of publication and selection bias). A total of 19 studies were included, revealing an overall effect size of Hedge’s g = 0.174 (p = 0.157), favoring OSE for the development of EFs. The subgroup analysis revealed the effects for the subdomains of EFs (cognitive flexibility: Hedge’s g = 0.210 > inhibitory control: Hedge’s g = 0.191 > working memory: Hedge’s g = 0.138; p > 0.05), which could be characterized as low to moderate. The hypothesis that studies with the smallest effect sizes compare sport modes with similar cognitive demands was rejected. The paper discusses the differentiation of sports into OSE and CSE and presents new approaches for their categorization.
... The significance level was set to α = 0.05 Table 1 shows the means ± standard deviations; in addition, effect sizes (Cohen's d, calculated as: d = 2 × t/√ ) and 95% confidence intervals of the estimated difference are reported. Effect size magnitude was assessed as follows: ≥0.2 indicated small, ≥0.5 medium and ≥0.8 large effects [35]. All datasets were checked for and met the assumptions of normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. ...
Article
Full-text available
As we move through an environment, we update positions of our body relative to other objects, even when some objects temporarily or permanently leave our field of view-this ability is termed egocentric spatial updating and plays an important role in everyday life. Still, our knowledge about its representation in the brain is still scarce, with previous studies using virtual movements in virtual environments or patients with brain lesions suggesting that the precuneus might play an important role. However, whether this assumption is also true when healthy humans move in real environments where full body-based cues are available in addition to the visual cues typically used in many VR studies is unclear. Therefore, in this study we investigated the role of the precuneus in egocentric spatial updating in a real environment setting in 20 healthy young participants who underwent two conditions in a cross-over design: (a) stimulation, achieved through applying continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to inhibit the precuneus and (b) sham condition (activated coil turned upside down). In both conditions, participants had to walk back with blindfolded eyes to objects they had previously memorized while walking with open eyes. Simplified trials (without spatial updating) were used as control condition, to make sure the participants were not affected by factors such as walking blindfolded, vestibular or working memory deficits. A significant interaction was found, with participants performing better in the sham condition compared to real stimulation, showing smaller errors both in distance and angle. The results of our study reveal evidence of an important role of the precuneus in a real-environment egocentric spatial updating; studies on larger samples are necessary to confirm and further investigate this finding.
Book
Full-text available
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
Article
The present longitudinal study investigated children's shared meanings strategies used to initiate, sustain, and end connectedness during play with siblings and friends from early to middle childhood. Participants included 65 4‐year‐old focal children at time 1 (T1) and 46 7‐year‐old focal children at time 2 (T2) videotaped at home in separate semi‐structured free play sessions with an older or younger sibling and a same‐aged friend at both time points. Data were coded for (a) shared meanings strategies (e.g., introductions to play, description of actions) and (b) connectedness in communication (i.e., initiating, sustaining, and ending conversation). The two sets of codes were combined to create a new blended code (e.g., introduction‐initiate). Children used several strategies consistently to initiate, sustain, and end connectedness across play sessions, but in other cases employed strategies differentially. There were a few notable relationship differences; children engaged in more prosocial behavior and employed a play voice when initiating connectedness with their friend than sibling and more clarifications when sustaining connectedness with their sibling. The findings provide nuanced and novel insights into children's shared meanings strategies during play and connectedness in child‐child relationships across time.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of load on time-series data has yet to be investigated during weightlifting derivatives. This study compared the effect of load on the force-time and velocity-time curves during the countermovement shrug (CMS). Twenty-nine males performed the CMS at relative loads of 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, 120%, and 140% one repetition maximum (1RM) power clean (PC). A force plate measured the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), which was used to calculate the barbell-lifter system velocity. Time-series data were normalized to 100% of the movement duration and assessed via statistical parametric mapping (SPM). SPM analysis showed greater negative velocity at heavier loads early in the unweighting phase (12-38% of the movement), and greater positive velocity at lower loads during the last 16% of the movement. Relative loads of 40% 1RM PC maximised propulsion velocity, whilst 140% 1RM maximized force. At higher loads, the braking and propulsive phases commence at an earlier percentage of the time-normalized movement, and the total absolute durations increase with load. It may be more appropriate to prescribe the CMS during a maximal strength mesocycle given the ability to use supramaximal loads. Future research should assess training at different loads on the effects of performance.
Article
Radio art is understood as radio made by artists. The term is typically applied to sound-based artifacts produced and broadcast by means of the creative use of radio media affordances, infrastructure, and technologies. Radio art is known as any sound work conceived to expand the creative and aesthetic possibilities of the medium through the use of the elements of radiophonic language (voice, words, music, sound effects, and silence) with the intention to produce aesthetic messages and to move radio listeners. This study introduces radio art reception as a subject of scientific scrutiny. It proposes a model of radio art processing that includes involvement, art reception, and positive emotions as predictors of the willingness to listen to such works. After listening to each of two pieces of radio art, 126 Singaporean undergraduate communication students (M Age = 22.7, SD = 1.7) completed a questionnaire measuring involvement, art reception, perceived emotions, and willingness to listen to another radio art feature. The main results confirm our model of radio art reception: involvement predicts the audience's cognitive stimulation generated by radio art, their artistic evaluation, and the positive attraction experienced by audiences towards them. The positive emotions experienced during consumption have a direct effect on the attraction towards radio art. Moreover, the specific radio art content affects the audiences' responses. These results allow us to understand psychological responses to sound art. The hope is to attract the attention of communication and art researchers and invite them to deepen the existing knowledge about artistic sound through empirical studies, since debates about radio art and sound works are almost lacking from scientific literature.
Article
Under EU law, consumers have a mandatory “right of withdrawal” in certain situations. Economic and legal literature raises severe doubts as to its effectiveness and fairness. In this article, an alternative design is discussed and examined within the framework of an experimental study: the “consumer option model,” in which every online consumer can choose between a purchase with and a pur­chase without a withdrawal right for a slightly lower price. Three study participants pur­chased two different products in a simulated online shop where the right of withdrawal was presented in three different frames (opt-out, opt-in, no default). The results revealed that a consi­derable number of participants were ready to shop without a right of withdrawal; in their choices framing and product value was of the essence, but not income, and a considerable number of participants reported an under-use of the right of withdrawal in every-day life.
This paper analyses the influence of organisational learning capability (OLC) on the innovation and firm performance of 318 organisations - exporters and non-exporters -belonging to four industrial sectors: furniture & wood, chemicals & plastics, textile & clothing and metal-mechanical & metallurgy. For data analysis, partial least squares (PLS) path modelling was used, in addition to compositional invariance analysis. Results show that OLC influences innovation performance, which in turn impacts firm performance. The heterogeneities analysis found significant differences based on the industry type. However, the results remained unaltered for exporters and non-exporters. The study contributes to the literature when testing the mentioned relationships focusing on the differences across industries, a subject understudied in the innovation literature. Through compositional invariance analysis, results reveal that the studied industries perceive some learning dimensions - participative decision and dialogue – in a different way.
Article
Previous literature suggests that threat disrupts cognitive control, especially for those prone to engaging in dysregulated behaviors (i.e., maladaptive attempts at regulating stress). However, this relationship is not well understood and has yet to be directly examined. The current study extends previous literature by examining the link between individual differences in dysregulation and threat‐related alterations in neurocognitive and behavioral indicators of cognitive control. Using a diverse community sample (N = 143), we recorded participants' brain activity during a flanker task under conditions of predictable, unpredictable, and no threat‐of‐shock. Findings revealed a nuanced relationship, whereby predictable threat, relative to unpredictable threat, was associated with larger N2 to flankers, perhaps at the expense of a reduced later P3. We also found a relationship between proneness toward dysregulated behaviors and threat‐induced alterations of cognitive control, with those higher in dysregulation showing reduced conflict P3 differentiation and accuracy interference during threat vs. no threat conditions. This research expands what is known about how threat can modulate cognition in everyday life and linked it to dysregulated behaviors with high societal burden. Previous literature suggests that stress increases proneness toward rash decision‐making—especially when the stressor (“threat”) is unpredictable and among those prone to dysregulated behaviors (e.g., aggression, self‐harm). There is a need to specify the cognitive mechanisms that promote threat‐related dysregulation. Our study directly examines this in a laboratory study using event‐related potential measures of cognitive control. Results offer insights on how stress impacts behavior among persons with problems of regulation, which could inform treatment.
Article
Background: Estimates of treatment effect size from single case experimental design (SCED) data may be impacted by the direction for treatment effects (i.e. ascending or descending slope for the dependent variable). Estimating effect sizes for treatments designed to decrease behaviour are potentially more restricted because the intended direction for treatment is zero (i.e. an absolute basal). Conversely, effect sizes for interventions that increase behaviour are less restricted due to a relatively unconstrained ceiling from a pure measurement standpoint (i.e. no absolute ceiling). That is, treatments that increase behaviour have a broader range of possible effect size values as the ceiling is only limited by demand characteristics and the learners' skills and motivation to exhibit the behaviour. Method: The current study represents a preliminary analysis of the mean and range of SCED effect sizes for treatments designed to either increase or decrease target behaviour. A within-case Cohen's d measure that was developed for SCED data was used to estimate treatment effect sizes. Results: Results indicated that the mean and range of effect size values for treatments that increased behaviour were significantly greater compared with treatments that decreased behaviour. Conclusions: Results are discussed in terms of developing standards, or best practices, specific to interpreting effect size values and meeting quality control requirements for inclusion of the data set in future SCED meta-analytic studies estimating treatment effect size. Specifically, preliminary results suggest that benchmarks for low, medium and high SCED effect size values need to be developed separately for treatments that increase or decrease levels of the dependent variable.
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Se analizó la asociación del control psicológico parental y la percepción de autoeficacia en situaciones académicas con el rendimiento académico en una muestra de 197 adolescentes con una edad media de 13.2 años (D.T.=.75), de una secundaria en el estado de Colima, México. Se aplicaron dos cuestionarios, uno para identificar la percepción de autoeficacia en situaciones académicas y otro para evaluar la percepción del control psicológico parental. Los resultados muestran que el rendimiento académico mantiene una correlación negativa con el control psicológico materno y una correlación positiva con la percepción de autoeficacia académica. El control psicológico parental correlacionó con el rendimiento académico de las mujeres pero no con el de los hombres. Se demuestra que una educación punitiva puede generar fracaso escolar en los estudiantes. Asimismo, un alto sentido de autoeficacia académica puede generar mayor disposición académica, lo que se refleja en las calificaciones obtenidas.
Article
Purpose This study compared medial elbow torque in youth baseball pitchers with and without a history of medial elbow injuries to determine the relationship between medial elbow torque during pitching and having a history of medial elbow injuries. Methods We recruited 171 youth baseball pitchers aged 9–12 years old. The exclusion criteria included current pain with pitching, history of surgery on the tested extremity, or osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum. The participants were grouped into three groups: injury <1Y, injury >1Y, and control, based on ultrasonographic abnormalities of the elbow and the presence of elbow pain. Pitchers pitched three fastballs while wearing a sensor sleeve that recorded the medial elbow torque, arm speed, and shoulder rotation. Ball velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results The final analysis included 164 pitchers. Thirty were assigned to the injury <1Y group, 34 to the injury >1Y group, and 100 to the control group. The medial elbow torque was significantly greater in the injury <1Y group compared to the control group (18.6 ± 3.6 Nm vs. 16.2 ± 4.8 Nm, P = .023). A multiple regression analysis revealed that ball velocity (B = 0.282, P < .001) and body weight (B = -0.224, P < .001) were significantly associated with medial elbow torque, but not with the history of medial elbow injuries. Conclusions Increased medial elbow torque was associated with greater ball velocity regardless of the history of medial elbow injuries. Youth baseball pitchers with a history of medial elbow injuries within one year had greater medial elbow torque during pitching; however, having a history of medial elbow injuries was not an independent factor in increasing medial elbow torque. Limiting the ball velocity can reduce medial elbow torque and may prevent elbow injuries in youth baseball pitchers.
Poster
Full-text available
Ziel: leisten eines fachdidaktischen Beitrags, die Konstruktionen von Privatsphäre und schützenswerten Daten, Bedrohungen, Coping- sowie Datenschutzstrategien in typischen vier Anwendungsszenarien der Internetnutzung bei Jugendlichen besser zu verstehen. Theoretischer Rahmen: im Rahmen einer erweiterten Protection-Motivation-Theory (Adhikari & Panda, 2018; Maddux & Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1975; Salleh et al., 2013; Tsai et al., 2016) und des Contextual Integrity Frameworks (Nissenbaum, 2010) wird erklärt, welche Faktoren (Threats vs. Coping) hauptsächlich dazu beitragen, dass Jugendliche Schutzstrategien anwenden. Entsprechend können für den praktischen Schulunterricht thematische Schwerpunkte gesetzt, auf Basis der Conceptual Change Theorie (Jonen et al., 2003; Posner et al., 1982; Strike & Posner, 1992) sowie Shulman (1986, 2004) die Lebenswelt der Jugendlichen aufgegriffen und mittels didaktischer Rekonstruktion (Duit et al., 2012; Kattmann et al., 1997; Reinfried et al., 2009) darauf aufgebaut werden. Design: Mit einem explorativ-sequentielles Mixed-Method-Design konnten mittels qualita- tiver Experten-Interviews vier typische Internetnutzungssituationen, zahlreiche Threats, Coping- und sechs Typen von Schutzstrategien exploriert und mittels Onlinebefragung quantisiert werden (Skalen Threats, Rewards, Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, Data Protection Behavior, eigene Skalen aus den qualitativen Findings). Ergebnis: Die klassische PMT bestätigt sich bei Jugendlichen. Wir differenzieren diese über die vier Nutzungsszenarien aus. Wir zeigen eine Vielfalt an Datenschutzverhalten, Bedrohungskonzepten und weiteren subjektiven Sichtweisen zum Thema Privatsphäre und Datenschutz, die die bestehende Literatur bestätigen und teilweise erweitern. Wir präsentieren konkrete Prädiktoren für Datenschutzverhalten aus der Lebenswelt von Jugendlichen.
Chapter
Errors offer learning opportunities in company-based apprenticeships.Technical learning systems incorporating augmented reality are able to simulate and visualize harmful error consequences for learning purposes. In order to design effective learning situations with such a learning system, it is necessary to investigate current behaviour towards errors in company-based apprenticeship practice. An online survey with 118 apprentices and apprenticeship trainers surveys the “Error Orientation Questionnaire“ (Rybowiak et al. 1999), the “Error Management Culture“ (van Dyck et al. 2005) and the “Feedback Environment Scale“ (Steelman et al. 2004). Results indicate a good error management culture, which allows confronting apprentices actively with consequences of their errors. There should exist acceptance of the technical learning system.The study found differences in feedback behaviour of apprentices and apprenticeship trainers that the development process of the technical learning system needs to recognize. In der betrieblichen Ausbildung können Fehler gute Lerngelegenheiten darstellen. Mit Technologien wie Augmented Reality (AR) kann ein technisches Lernsystem folgenschwere Fehlerkonsequenzen zu Lernzwecken in einer simulierten augmentierten Realität visualisieren. Für die lernförderliche Gestaltung eines solchen technischen Lernsystems ist es notwendig, zuvor die gegenwärtige Handhabung von Fehlern in der Ausbildungspraxis zu untersuchen. Dies wird mit einer Onlinebefra- gung von 118 Auszubildenden und Ausbildungspersonal getan, in welcher der „Error Orientation Questionnaire“ (Rybowiak et al. 1999), die „Error Management Culture“-Skala (van Dyck et al. 2005) und die „Feedback Environment Scale“ (Steelman et al. 2004) verwendet werden. Die Ergebnisse deuten auf eine gute Fehlermanagementkul- tur hin, sodass Auszubildende aktiv mit ihren Fehlern und Konsequenzen konfrontiert werden können und das Lernsystem diesbezüglich auf Akzeptanz treffen sollte. Unterschiede zwischen den Auszubildenden und dem Ausbildungspersonal liegen im Feedbackverhalten vor, was bei der Gestaltung eines Lernsystems berücksichtigt werden sollte.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate altitude (2800 m) on neuromuscular performance, body-mass, rating of perceived exertion, total quality recovery, and global positioning system–motion variables (distance covered, sprint distance, number of accelerations, and top-speed) during soccer training and official matches. Seventeen professional female soccer players performed vertical jump tests and were weighed over seven days during the altitude acclimatization. Global positioning system–motion variables, rating of perceived exertion, and total quality recovery were assessed over two training sessions at 2800 m and compared to the metrics collected during two sessions at sea level. Global positioning system–motion variables were measured during six official matches played at 2800 m and compared to six matches at sea level. Vertical jump height and body-mass did not change during acclimatization ( p > 0.05). Rating of perceived exertion was higher and total quality recovery was lower after training sessions at altitude ( p < 0.05). Total distance covered ( p = 0.002), total sprint distance ( p = 0.016), and total distance covered per minute ( p = 0.02) decreased and rating of perceived exertion increased ( p = 0.012) in the matches at moderate altitude compared to sea level. No differences were observed for top-speed and acceleration ( p > 0.05). These findings suggest that moderate altitude can lead to substantial decreases in the physical performance (especially in total sprint distance), increased rating of perceived exertion, decreased total quality recovery in female players. These occurrences are critical to soccer performance.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.