Non-formal education, out-of-school learning needs and employment opportunities: evidence from Mali
03/2009; 39(2). DOI: 10.1080/03057920902750509
Incl. bibl., abstract Non-formal education (NFE) is now considered as playing a critical role in the achievement of the objective of Education for All, by reaching the learning needs of youth and adults who do not have access to formal education, increasing their employment opportunities and therefore contributing to poverty alleviation. Yet there is still insufficient knowledge available on the relationships between NFE, learning needs of out-of-school youth and adults, and employment. This paper intends to contribute to the debate by discussing both the data collected in rural Mali and the evidence drawn from a household survey on the outcomes of the Educational Centres for Development (Centres d'ducation pour le dveloppement - CEDs), which address out-of-school youth in rural areas. This paper argues that the effective approach of the CED programme is similar to formal schooling, with some adjustments in order to meet what is considered as the specific learning needs of out-of-school youth. However, CEDs are more adapted to boys' learning needs than they are to girls'. This paper also demonstrates that the CED programme has no effect on the scope of activities of young people as they stay in their village but do improve the way these activities are carried out and widens their employment opportunities as they migrate.
Available from: Alexander Minnaert
- "The Job Corps programme in the USA was found to have improved the outcomes for disadvantaged youth, partly because it had a component 'providing placement services to help participants find a job or pursue additional training' and also because, in this programme, 'the vocational curricular were developed with input from business and labour organisations, and emphasise the achievement of specific competences necessary to work in a trade' (Schochet et al., 2008, p. 1866). Additionally, according to Weyer (2009), there is a need to combine basic education and professional training so that learners are later able to enter the labour market. "
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ABSTRACT: One of the major problems facing education systems in Sub-Saharan Africa is the phenomenon of young people who leave school before completion. Research has shown that this phenomenon disadvantages young people and exposes them to various forms of social exclusion. Accordingly, there have been increasing calls for the scaling up of support intervention programmes for young people who leave school early. This paper analyses literature on support intervention programmes for early school leavers (ESLs) to identify enabling factors that can be promoted in future or in current less effective interventions. The review revealed that programmes that address the multiple disadvantages and needs of young people through flexible, holistic and intensive support approaches tend to be more attractive and beneficial to the participants. The findings from this review are crucial to policy makers and teachers working in support intervention programmes for ESLs.
Available from: Rosalind Latiner Raby
Available from: drum.lib.umd.edu
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