Article

Towards a European Academic Labour Market? Some Lessons Drawn from Empirical Studies on Academic Mobility

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Abstract

Incl. abstract, graph., bibl. In Europe, academic mobility has a long tradition which began with the birth of the European universities in the middle ages. Recently, European policies were strongly oriented towards the promotion of student and academic mobility and the creation of research networks and projects within Europe. Nevertheless, academic labour markets in Europe remain highly national and many obstacles hinder the development of European careers and the europeanisation/internationalisation of academic recruitments. Two different perspectives will be developed in this paper. First we will document the strong divergences among the national recruitment and careers processes within Europe and the problems raised by this situation. Second, we will draw on two empirical studies we conducted on academic mobility, the first one, led in 1995 in France, Germany and the UK and the second this year in France. Both studies show that most post-docs conceived their foreign experience as a personal strategy and aimed at improving their chances for recruitment in their own country. Within Europe, foreign country careers still are an exception due to "accidental" opportunities.

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... It demarcates the (typical) pattern of an academic career in that country and poses unique challenges for MAs. Musselin's (2004) study, for example, found that national academic systems in Europe contain implicit recruitment and performance expectations which inhibit the international mobility of European academics. The literature, however, often sees immobility as an individual failure that constrains one's opportunities to be exposed to new contexts, produce one's most creative work and not get stuck in one place as a researcher (Bauder 2015). ...
... Echoing existing literature (Mahroum 2000;Sabharwal and Varma 2016), the narrative of serendipitously following good career opportunities across borders strongly featured in the (im)mobility decisions of academics interviewed in this study. Academics' decisions were influenced by cross-country differences in academic salary levels, division of labour, or access to permanent employment and work resources (Musselin 2004;Bauder 2015). However, MAs' focus on their career is to be treated with caution. ...
... A different story of 'getting locked out' emerged from the accounts of academics from Continental Europe countries such as Germany, Italy, France and Spain. Academia in these countries is characterised by insularity, lack of career flexibility, and strong hierarchies (Musselin 2004(Musselin , 2009). Consequently, academics whose careers did not fit the standard path of that country, for instance because they had moved into industry or because there were no jobs available in the university where they completed their doctoral degree, found themselves unable to access an academic career there. ...
Article
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Current understanding of international academic mobility tends to view migrant academics as career-oriented actors who can follow opportunities across borders with relative ease. This paper offers a more nuanced reading of international mobility in academia by analysing how the professional context influences migrant academics’ decisions to come to and remain in the United Kingdom (UK). Drawing on data from 62 semi-structured interviews with foreign-born academics employed in the UK, the paper argues that the availability of (relatively) good-quality employment shapes international academic mobility more than country preferences. However, academics may become ‘stuck’ in the country of residence even when employment conditions deteriorate, not only because they are gradually tracked into country’s higher education system and culture but also because they lose the credentials, work experience and networks that may be needed to make another international move. This paper therefore shows that ‘stickiness’ in international mobility involves not only being ‘locked into’ a country but also being ‘locked out’ of another, and in so doing contributes to knowledge about the ways in which migrant academics become stuck whilst working abroad.
... As a matter of fact, the criteria defining what is a contribution to knowledge and the quality of research are affected both by national and organizational evaluation practices and traditions (Musselin, 2004). For example, Lutter and Schroeder (2016) found that to become a professor in Sociology in Germany, only certain kinds of publications are considered, namely, refereed journal article and monographs, while other kinds of publications have a marginal or even negative effect. ...
... For example, Lutter and Schroeder (2016) found that to become a professor in Sociology in Germany, only certain kinds of publications are considered, namely, refereed journal article and monographs, while other kinds of publications have a marginal or even negative effect. Several European countries require a national habilitation or accreditation to access professorial positions, which specifies the type of productivity measures that matter (Musselin, 2004;Afonso, 2016;Donina et al., 2017;Seeber and Mampeay 2021). ...
... Attractiveness to foreign researchers Junior researchers are attracted by highly reputed places able to provide good financial support (Musselin, 2004;Stephan et al., 2015), for higher remunerations and opportunities (Ackers, 2008). Flemish universities have a very good reputation; according to various rankings, the universities of Ghent and Leuven are among the top 100 in the world, and all five display a similar performance when considering indicators of productivity normalized by size (source: ARWU and Leiden Ranking). ...
Article
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This article explores how organizational mobility and foreign nationality affect a researcher’s chances of an internal career promotion in university systems that do not have rules preventing inbreeding and where teaching occurs mostly not in English but a local language. As a case study, we have examined the Flemish university system, the Dutch speaking part of Belgium, and developed expectations on the chances of promotion for mobile and foreign researchers compared to non-mobile and nationals. We use data for all postdoctoral and professorial staff between 1991 and 2017, for a total of 14,135 scientists. We calculated the chances of promotion with a competing risk model to take time into account and to disentangle the probability of two mutually exclusive risk events: promotion and leaving the university. The results show that international mobility and foreign nationality reduced the chances of promotion in the same university, and that mobile and foreign scientists were also more likely to leave any given university. These effects were particularly strong at an early stage: in the study period, 21.9% of non-mobile national postdocs became professor compared to just 1.2% of internationally mobile foreigners. These results would suggest that internationally mobile and foreign scientists struggle to advance in universities that lack rules preventing inbreeding and with little opportunity to teach in English.
... In the study of the motivations and incentives for scientific mobility, special attention should be paid to the constraints, while they can prevent both the initial movement of scientists, contributing to the inbreeding development, and the return of scientists to their home country (Bauder 2015;Musselin 2004). ...
... To some extent, the presence of a co-author from the organization to which the mobile scientist is sent to work smooths out the noted obstacle, which reduces the risks of incompatibility of scientific experience (Bäker 2015). A lower risk of incompatibility is also inherent in scientists in disciplines with a high degree of standardization of research methods, in particular in the natural sciences (Jöns 2007;Morano-Foadi 2005;Musselin 2004). That is why, there is less mobility in the social sciences and humanities, as for research in these disciplines requires knowledge of local realities, history of the country, language proficiency, etc. ...
... We should also mention the red tape conservative systems of science management in some countries. For example, in France, Germany, and the Netherlands, scientists are reluctant to leave their countries, and if they do, they return very quickly, because otherwise, they risk not to integrate into their native systems and not to build a career (Van Noorden 2012;Musselin 2004). ...
Article
The phenomenon of scientific mobility, actively developing in recent decades, attracts increasing attention of researchers in view of its importance for the development of science, dissemination of scientific knowledge, making informed decisions in the management of science and training of qualified personnel. Based on an extensive analysis of the literature on the topic in the last 30 years with the use of bibliometric approaches, this paper outlines the main evolutionary stages of scientific mobility in the context of brain drain and circulation concepts; considers relations, advantages and disadvantages of scientific mobility in relation to scientific inbreeding; describes the main approaches and methodological aspects formed today in the study of the scientists mobility; discusses its positive and negative consequences for researchers, organizations, countries, and individual disciplines, and summarizes the motivations and driving forces of scientists when leaving the country and when returning.
... As a result, it may bring risks such as potential violations and restrictions, and leave faculty members vulnerable to restrictions. Moreover, academic inbreeding is closely related to the rigid working conditions resulting from the absence of a real academic labor market, and can be used as a tool by universities to direct and supervise academic labor markets (Eels & Cleveland, 1935a, 1935bMusselin, 2004). ...
... This result is also supported by other studies. In this context, Harto, and Veloso (2010), Horta, Sato and Yonozewa (2011), Musselin (2004) and Pan (1993) indicate that insider faculty members become better teachers comparing to those coming from other universities. Another reason of benefit of academic inbreeding found in this study is time, energy, and finance. ...
... Moreover, academic inbreeding is closely related to the rigid working conditions resulting from the absence of a real academic labor market and it can be used as a tool by universities to direct and supervise academic labor markets especially in developing countries. For this reason, academic inbreeding is one of the main problems of higher education all over the world (Eels & Cleveland, 1935a, 1935bMusselin, 2004). What is more, academic inbreeding practices limit social capital that faculty members can create by causing them to stay in a certain environment for a long time. ...
Article
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Academic inbreeding is a recruitment practice for universities of hiring their own graduates as future academicians. Despite its benefits, it may have damaging effects on the academy. From this point of view, this qualitative research investigated whether academic inbreeding brings benefits to universities or poses risks. It was also purposed to determine how academicians define academic inbreeding and experience it in their daily practices. To this end, twenty academicians were interviewed, and the data were analyzed with content analysis technique. Results revealed that while few academicians underlined its benefits, most academicians manifested its risks and negative experiences. Thus, it is recommended that mobility among academic staff should be encouraged.
... Akademisyenlerin de doğal olarak herhangi bir "devamlı kadrosu" bulunmamaktadır. Üniversite yönetimleri akademisyenleri işe alma ve işten uzaklaştırma konusunda olduğu gibi, akademisyenlerin maaşları hususunda da belirli dereceye kadar otonomiye sahiptir (Musselin, 2004). Ayrıca, İngiltere'de yükseköğretim kurumları akademik personelin sayısına karar verme hakkına sahiptirler ve her durumdaki nitelikleri ve ölçütleri belirlemekten de sorumludurlar (Eurydice, 2008). ...
... Akademik personel her ne kadar sürekli bir pozisyona sahip olsa da üniversiteler tarafından tüm seviyelerdeki akademik personelin işine son verilebilmektedir. Hatta bir bölümdeki profesör de dahil olmak üzere tüm akademik kadronun işine üniversite yönetimince son verilebilmektedir (Musselin, 2004). ...
... İngiltere'de kariyerlerinin başındaki akademisyenler lecturer olarak isimlendirilmektedir. Lecturer'lar bir taraftan üniversitede ders verip diğer taraftan da araştırma yapmakta ve lisansüstü öğrencilerine danışmanlık hizmeti vermektedirler. Öğretim ve araştırma görevlerinin başarılı bir şekilde yürütülmesi halinde Lecturer'lık pozisyonundan Senior Lecturer'lık pozisyonuna terfi ettirilmektedir (Barton, 2008;Musselin, 2004). ...
... Les études pionnières sur les universités comme organisations, conduites aux États-Unis dans les années 1960, ont fait de la «décision» leur principal objet d'investigation (Musselin, 2001(Musselin, et 2004. ...
... Au fil de l'histoire de la théorie des organisations, la prise de décision au sein des universités a donc fait l'objet d'affrontements successifs entre quatre principaux modèles: collégial, bureaucratique, politique, et Garbage Can. Au-delà de leurs divergences, ces modèles ont en commun de remettre en question le modèle de la rationalité substantive et de mettre en évidence les particularités des processus de décision au sein des universités (Musselin, 2004). Ces spécificités seront ultérieurement relayées par des métaphores organisationnelles, qui, à l'instar de l'anarchie organisée, pointeront la complexité singulière des organisations universitaires ou éducatives: on peut notamment citer les Loosely Coupled Systems de Weick (1976) ou les systèmes cybernétiques de Birnbaum (1989). ...
Book
Les universités sont en général considérées comme des organisations publiques collégiales. Elles se caractérisent par une action collective entre pairs et par des processus de décision ne pouvant se résumer à un processus hiérarchique. Le présent chapitre examine les différents modèles théoriques de prise de décisions dans les organisations collégiales (modèle collégial, modèle bureaucratique, modèle politique et modèle de la poubelle). Les modalités de cette prise décision sont illustrées par l’étude des répercussions des réformes récentes de la gouvernance des universités françaises sur leur processus de décision.
... The phenomenon of academic mobility and cross-border communication and collaboration is far from new, nor is it exclusive to Europe, as Robertson (2010) points out in her paper on internationalisation and regionalism in higher education. What is new is a replacement of inherent 'internationalism' in academia (Teichler, 2009), or the 19th-century-style scholarly exchange for the purposes of comparison and national improvement (Musselin, 2004), with the current inter-and trans-national mode of governing of academic work, for the explicit purpose of increasing the research capacity of the EU, and fostering the growth of a 'Europe of knowledge' (Keeling, 2006). EHEA has been in the making since the 1999 signing of the Bologna Declaration, an intergovernmental agreement, presently among 48 nation states (far beyond the European Union) with the purpose of facilitating mobility and standardising quality of Europe's future workforce through quality assurance and recognition of degrees, whilst fostering the intercultural learning and experience through programmes that enable the movement and exchange of students and staff. ...
... fixed-term and part-time positions) and increased grant-dependency of academic research (Bozzon et al., 2018;Huisman et al., 2002), European ECRs are faced with the projectification of employment (Müller, 2014), whereby massification of doctorate completion is not accompanied by growth in permanent faculty positions (Aarnikoivu et al., 2019), and work is gained in temporary research posts, whether through an individual fellowship or attachment to a larger project. Meanwhile, the relatively closed nature of academic systems and recruitment is found to favour less mobile candidates, precluding long-term mobility (Lola, 2004;Musselin, 2004), which still holds true for much of ERA, demonstrated by high national market segmentation and patterns of circulation and return to the original country (Jöns and Deakin, 2015). ...
Article
This exploratory paper presents insights from a qualitative interview-based study of the academic identity-building among a group of early career researchers working in the field of education across the European higher education space. Set against a policy background framed by the initiatives in European higher education and research policy, geared towards a production of a mobile, entrepreneurial researcher in pursuit of ‘valuable’ knowledge, the respondents’ narratives reveal individual complexity, but also emerging patterns of professional identification. We identify the traditional academic values of creating and sharing knowledge validated by an epistemic community, and pursuing autonomy and collegiality in research, as still dominant, however, find these interacting with the demonstration of a strong proactive, entrepreneurial spirit, and a lack of institutional attachment. The narratives indicate the availability of supportive, encouraging communities as being of high significance, and contest the notions of Europeanisation and the utility of geographic mobility in researchers’ identities. The paper discusses different types of academic identification driven by value orientation and social attachment that emerged from the early career researchers’ interviews, alongside pervasive issues around mobility raised in most narratives, and concludes with suggestions for further study.
... August 8, 2019 1 / 20 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 within 10 years of completing their PhD-has been meager. Save a few notable and primarily policy-driven exceptions about postdocs [6] and other academics who are in the beginning of their research-oriented career [7,8], determinants, decision-making and trajectories of crossborder mobility among this community of scholars remains largely understudied. Few attempts have been made to examine determinants of return migration among ECRs who have completed their training. ...
... While this is congruent with broader tendencies 'to deal separately, theoretically and empirically, with the issues of migration. . .and return' ( [2], p. 115) as well as a more specific oversight of academic repatriation (see [9], p. 772), given that the majority of early career scholars, notably international post-docs conceive of their time abroad as 'risky but unavoidable phase to improve their situation in their home country' ( [6], p. 69), studying their return is long overdue. As Balaž & Williams ( [10], p. 218) concluded over a decade ago, 'the most important significant gap in our knowledge of ISM (international skilled migration) is probably in respect of the process of return'. ...
Article
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Migration studies emphasize the role of economic, social and cultural capital in shaping out-migration decisions. Yet, little attention is paid to the effect of capital endowment on return migration, particularly among the highly educated. This article examines the extent to which different forms of capital determine return decisions of early-career researchers (ECRs). We hypothesized that individuals from more privileged backgrounds would repatriate at higher rates, due to the benefits that their capital stock might offer them upon homeland re-integration at home. Drawing on a sample of 223 early career Israeli scholars in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines, we used logistic regressions to analyze the effects of material wealth, social ties, and family-oriented cultural capital on their return propensities. No significant differences were found between repatriating and non-repatriating scholars with respect to cultural capital. However, accumulating social and economic capital was positively correlated with the decision to repatriate as was marrying into academic families.
... In addition, the national framework influences on the career structures of universities in each country. When we examine academic careers, this complex context and different interests of various actors and groups have to be taken into ac-count while not forgetting the analysis of the academic labour markets, which have been in transition (see more : Musselin 2004;. ...
... The second system is the promotion system which has been common in universities in the U.S. In this system, the performance of academic is evaluated, commonly based on a certain set of criteria and if they are fulfilled, the academic can be promoted to the next stage of a career. (Frølich et al. 2018;Musselin 2004;.) The competition system is less coherent, and it is currently being standardised and restructured in many countries. ...
Thesis
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This doctoral dissertation describes how the relationship between the academic profession and universities has changed, and how the global trends, particularly New Public Management (NPM), managerialism and academic capitalism, as well as other societal expectations have influenced it in Finnish higher education. Prior studies show that these global trends have had various effects on academic profession. Additionally, they have driven universities to develop as an organisation. NPM and managerialism emphasise hierarchical management structures, control, performance evaluations, and efficiency, which are commonly incompatible with professional values and practices; collegial decision-making, autonomy and trust. Higher education institutions are also expected to have more relevance in their activities. In addition, academics have started to apply entrepreneurial and commercial ways of acting in their work. The data of this study were collected in Finnish universities, and in two projects that include two sets of survey data (from fixed-term academics and middle managers) and one set of interview data (from top and middle managers). Three empirical sub-studies incorporated in this research include perspectives from reciprocal commitment in academic careers, recruitments in universities, and change and continuity in the academic profession. The results suggest that the relationship between the academic profession and universities is often tense. The academic profession is a powerful professional group that protects its traditional practices, values and autonomy. Universities have faced external pressure to develop as an organisation, and started to control their staff and monitor their performance more strictly. This has questioned the reciprocity between academics and universities by academics, standardised the university structures and processes, and emphasised the power of middle-managers in universities. The short project-based funding has also made academic careers more insecure. This study also suggests that in the new institutional frameworks, academics have adapted new roles and identities, as they have been affected by new organisational and societal expectations. New type of connected academic professionalism is emerging as professional, organisational, and societal/entrepreneurial roles, and identities are being blended in academic work
... Conversely, though there is evidence of convergence and stratification, pattern variation continues. Marginson (2016) Hence, despite international convergence pressures, universities display notable local variations, which may restrict international mobility for academic career formation Cavalli & Moscati, 2010;Musselin, 2004;Paasi, 2005). Many of these are customary, cultural, or tacit, and hard for international participants to discern and perform for career advancement. ...
... Among potential perspectives we found an emphasis in the scholarly literature on technocratic aspects of mobility in STEM disciplines, particularly within Europe (See: Ackers, 2001;. For example, Musselin (2004) found some European science postdocs understood international mobility as a personal strategy for career advancement in their own country but noted the persistence of divergences between national systems of academic recruitment and career progression within Europe. Later, Delicado (2011) found that Portuguese scientists who pursued a PhD overseas benefitted on return, particularly if they maintained ties with a home institution. ...
Article
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Career formation in professional occupations is heavily influenced by national institutional contexts. In common with many professions, however, in academia international exposure is attractive to employers and valued by employees. This national-international dualism presents early career academics (ECAs) with potentially contradictory challenges in navigating their career development. Drawing on multidisciplinary approaches we researched international mobility in academic career formation. We designed a rigorous five-stage mixed methods quantitative and qualitative methodology to question whether a lengthy early career sojourn in Japan assists British-trained scholars in pursuing an academic career in Japanese studies in the UK. Further, we ask whether and why a lengthy sojourn might hinder academic career formation. Although we researched experiences in Japanese studies, our research is relevant to any discipline where significant periods are spent overseas. We found that early career international mobility caused scholars to experience significant challenges of distanciation and socialisation in navigating their imagined career paths, including the potential to become marooned in Japan. Fortunately, our informants are adaptive in the best use of their circumstances and decisions. We conclude with a brief discussion of theoretical implications and provide advice for ECAs in managing international career transitions.
... Geographic mobility is shaped not only by professional and personal factors (see, for example, [1] and by the characteristics of the scientific field and the nature of research [2][3][4], but also by the institutional structure that oversees the research practice [5,6]. International mobility fluxes develop along predictable patterns and are driven by differences in national science and technology systems alongside other countryspecific factors. ...
... For example, extended periods abroad might not always be positive for those who would like to return [6]. In fact, for the mobile researcher returning to the home research system, it can be just as difficult to find a receptive environment where the newly acquired knowledge may be applied and developed [25], as it is to be reintegrated back into the home scientific labour market [5]. On the other hand, short stays abroad allow continued engagement with the home scientific community, while at the same time enhancing scientific capital and personal prestige [4]. ...
Article
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There are several references in the literature highlighting the importance of the international scientific mobility studies and several examples of how this academic population has been characterized. Typically, the analysis of academic mobility has been conducted by applying extensive surveys to a “representative” sample, in a specific moment in time, in which the profile of the researchers, that are working or studying in a foreign country, is then inferred. These analyses may suffer of structural lack of representativeness since the target population is unknown. As a structural and inherent issue in this research field, this article presents the results provided by the Portuguese academic social network GPS (Global Portuguese Scientists). It uses a valuable and exclusive data set of the research experiences, provided by Portuguese researchers, to describe and understand the academic dynamic of these researchers over the last years. The analysis considers different socio-demographic characteristics and the type of research (position, scientific research area, duration of the experience) they have been doing. The analysis shows that GPS users are pulled to the core countries of the science world system and points out that each destination of the Portuguese diaspora is associated with specific features of the mobile researchers and their research activity.
... As such, it is also possible to see the internationalization of European university education as a form of indirect discrimination (Ackers, 2008). But sometimes, working in a foreign European country is not based on an organized conceptual approach, but is usually based on a random impulse (Musselin, 2004). ...
... They go to work abroad to enhance their curricula, while still hoping to find a high-quality permanent job in their home country. Therefore, as part of networking within established academic traditions, their migration is determined by circumstances and preconditions for a career in their own country (Musselin, 2004). ...
Article
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The higher education system needs personalities who guarantee high quality of academic and scientific performance. This paper deals with the motives of their migration to/from HEIs, knowledge of which is important for their HR management and increasing global competitiveness. The theory is based on the idea of internationalization (Knight, 2012) and push-pull factors (Ravenstein, 1889), leading to the recruitment of highly qualified labor from abroad. The analysis focused on the “circulation of brains” in modern Europe. The final part contains a graph of the research methodology. Three main areas of the motivation process affecting migration have been identified. At the macro-level, this is political support, which enables the arrival of experts and creates conditions for own professionals to gain experience abroad, but return. This applies to working conditions, adaptation, and integration. Economic conditions at the mezzo-level are based on the motives of finding a better job opportunity and one’s living conditions. The transfer of knowledge increases the country’s economic potential. At the micro-level, there is an impact of an individual’s character traits and surrounding social networks. It depends on the influence of a family, school, friends, the desire to apply language and other skills, and experience abroad. The knowledge of the motives for migration should be a stimulus for taking appropriate measures at higher education institutions leading to the creation of a multicultural environment and the readiness of HEIs to use «brain circulation» to increase their excellence in academic and scientific performance.
... 1. from the Global South to the Global North (e.g., from Asia and Africa to Europe or the US) 2. within Europe (from less developed to developed states) (Musselin, 2004) 3. from the UK to the EU after Brexit (Helm, 2020) 4. from the 27 EU countries plus the UK to other states and continents Since the studies reviewed include a period when the UK was still part of the EU, the UK has been included as a location of brain drain. For this reason, the EU and Europe have been used interchangeably throughout the text. ...
... The recruitment procedures in Europe vary from country to country; in some countries, universities are in control completely, while in others, the government approves the decision. However, there is a lack of transparency in both cases and the principles used for selection are not always fair (Ackers, 2008;Musselin, 2004). A similar argument has been supported by Mendoza et al. (2020), when they examined the condition of southern European universities and research centres-they argue that there is lack of fair competition in the recruitment process. ...
Article
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In a globalising world, the international mobility of academics and researchers is important for their career. However, increasing migration of academics in the form of an academic brain drain is becoming a major challenge especially for Europe due to an ageing population. The issue of brain drain has been addressed usually through quantitative studies that fail to explore the in‐depth reasons behind it, and present standard outcomes. Through a synthesis of qualitative literature over two decades (2000–2020), this paper presents a new perspective of the root causes of academic brain drain in Europe. After careful examination of the qualitative literature, five factors have been found to be responsible for the outflow of human capital. These include: (1) attractive salaries outside Europe; (2) short‐term fixed contracts for early career researchers; (3) unfair recruitment procedures; (4) attractive migration policies and (5) the indirect role played by internationalisation policies to encourage permanent mobility.
... Pelo menos nos países mais desenvolvidos, a gestão das carreiras académicas encontra-se cada vez mais ligada à mobilidade internacional (Mangematin e Robin, 2003), que permite o contacto com conhecimento novo e com novas forma de 'fazer' e 'julgar' na atividade científica. As políticas europeias também enfatizam esta exigência de mobilidade encarada pelos investigadores como parte essencial do percurso profissional (Musselin, 2004;Morano-Foadi, 2005), e determinante para a construção do seu capital humano e social (Murray, 2004). ...
... No caso de cientistas e investigadores, a mobilidade permite o contacto com conhecimento novo e com novas forma de 'fazer' e 'julgar' na atividade científica (Allen, 2000) e é encarada pelos investigadores como parte essencial do percurso profissional (Musselin, 2004), e determinante para a construção do seu capital humano e social (Murray, 2004). As políticas europeias também enfatizam esta exigência de mobilidade, seguindo a convicção de que a mobilidade institucional e geográfica se encontram diretamente ligadas a melhorias no desempenho dos investigadores (OECD, 2001;Official Journal of the European Union, 2005). ...
... questions concerning access, equity, and excellence), involves multiple (governance) levels (household, departmental, university, state, regional, international), encompasses multiple actors (junior, mid-career, senior, and 'star' faculties, funders, research administrators, migration officials), and is multi-sited or multi-destination (north-south-eastwest, centre-periphery) (see Chou et al. 2017). Indeed, while we find a concentration of research interests on academic mobility among higher education scholars (Abramo et al. 2019;Kim 2009Kim , 2017Lee and Kuzhabekova 2018;Robertson 2010;Morley et al. 2018), migration scholars (Cerna and Chou 2014;Bauder 2015), historians (Pietsch 2010; Tournès and Scott-Smith 2018), sociologists (Musselin 2004;Saint-Blancat 2018;Zhan and Zhou 2019), geographers (Jöns 2009;Leung 2017), those interested in talent management (Wang et al. 2019;Tremblay 2005), and others also examine this phenomenon and engage with debates within their specific fields and disciplines. ...
Article
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This article seeks to contribute to the existing scholarship on academic mobility in two ways. First, it brings together insights on academic mobility (aspirations, desperations) and higher education internationalisation to show how we may analytically organise these insights to shed light on the shifting global higher education landscape from an experiential perspective. Second, it provides fresh data on the ‘lived experiences’ of mobile faculty members based in an attractive academic destination outside of the traditional knowledge cores—Singapore. As a city state without any natural resources, Singapore has successfully transformed its economy into one that is knowledge-intensive based on combined efforts from grooming locals to recruiting foreign talents to shore up skilled manpower needs. These efforts are reflected in the university sector where Singapore’s comprehensive universities have consistently ranked high across many global university rankings. Using survey and interview data, I show how the mobility and immobility experiences of faculty based in Singapore have contributed to its making as a ‘sticky’ and ‘slippery’ academic destination. My contributions point to the need to integrate individual-level factors underpinning academic mobility decisions with systemic developments to better understand the changing global higher education landscape today.
... The prevailing global competition for highly skilled and talented graduates is more evident than ever and is closely linked to international mobility in order to fill the gaps of knowledge economies' shortfalls (De Wit, 2011, p. 32). When "quality" is used as predictor for student mobility flows, variations in the qualities of the national and regional orientation of Europe's higher education market emerge (Musselin, 2004;Van Bouwel & Veugelers, 2013). There are several variations in mobility flows between European countries. ...
Article
This article identifies student mobility flows using Erasmus data from 2007–2008 to 2013–2014. We used the software programmes “R” for statistical analysis and “Pajek” for analysis of networks. Findings provide an overview of student mobility from three perspectives. We find the most balanced relative outbound and inbound mobility in Spain, Switzerland, Austria and Poland. Moreover, Spain and Italy exchange the most students between each other. Overall, the core centres for student mobility are Spain, France, Germany and Italy. Smaller countries, such as Luxemburg, Malta and Liechtenstein, have large numbers of mobile students considering the size of the country's student population. The network analysis revealed three groups of countries: (1) good receivers and senders (Spain, Italy, and Germany), (2) good receivers only (Finland, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Portugal) and (3) good senders only (Belgium and the Czech Republic).
... Getting new knowledge abroad gives an employee an additional competitive advantage in the home country, which is an important factor in the development of a scientific career. According to Musselin (2004), in the 90 s -early 2000s, most post-docs in France, Germany, and the UK perceived their foreign experience as a personal strategy and aimed at improving their chances for recruitment in their own country. In Portugal, managing mobility at doctoral level is considered as one of the science policy instruments promoting brain gain (Heitor et al., 2014). ...
Article
The paper considers career patterns of researchers and the ways to assess their career achievements on the academic and non-academic labor markets. Taking into account the approaches developed earlier in the framework of the sociology of science, as well as on the basis of recent empirical studies, the authors propose an original approach to the study of a research career, determine the integral indicator of career achievements and assess the research career rank by means of the transition probabilities. The study is based on the data obtained during a survey among Russian researchers involving 828 respondents employed by organizations in the main prospective science and technology areas (academic and non-academic sectors). We suggest the research career achievement (RCA) indicator as an analytical tool for managing highly qualified research personnel. The use of PageRank method enabled to discern an extremely uneven distribution of the research career achievement value in the surveyed sample of researchers. The analysis revealed the main factors determining academic and non-academic research career patterns. The findings attest that the factors affecting career patterns are closely linked with the recognition that the researcher obtains or expects at three levels: individual – professional community – society as a whole.
... International mobility can also provide access to promotions, income increases, and improved working conditions, and allow for gains in prestige (Stephan 2015). Such activities accumulate both scientific credibility and social capital networks, which is why early career researchers tend to consider international mobility to be a vital personal strategy for career advancement (Musselin 2004), a way to increase their market value (Bauder 2015), and as having a generally positive impact on their careers (Børing et al. 2015). ...
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International scientific mobility and research careers are two concepts that are intimately related. Yet, it has been very difficult for scholarship to pinpoint exactly how international mobility impacts on research careers. This paper contributes to this question by investigating links between international mobility, research career stage progression and job changes. It does so using a large-scale survey (MORE) which targets researchers based in European universities. The results establish that the profile of international mobility varies by academic research career stage. They also show that for researchers in the established mid-career phase who are working internationally, there are career advancement benefits associated with return mobility to their home country. However, these benefits may reduce if the timing of return is too delayed. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these results for researcher mobility policy in the context of the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area.
... International mobility can also provide access to promotions, income increases, improved working conditions, and allow for gains in prestige (Stephan 2015). Such activities accumulate both scientific credibility and social capital networks, which is why early career researchers tend to consider international mobility to be a vital personal strategy for career advancement (Musselin 2004), a way to increase their market value (Bauder 2015), and as having a generally positive impact on their careers (Børing et al. 2015). ...
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International scientific mobility and research careers are two concepts that are intimately related. Yet, it has been very difficult for scholarship to pinpoint exactly how international mobility impacts on research careers. This paper contributes to this question by investigating links between international mobility, research career stage progression and job changes. It does so using a large-scale survey (MORE) which targets researchers based in European universities. The results establish that the profile of international mobility varies by academic research career stage. They also show that for researchers in the established mid-career phase who are working internationally, there are career advancement benefits associated with return mobility to their home country. However, these benefits may reduce if the timing of return is too delayed. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these results for researcher mobility policy in the context of the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area.
... However, research on transnational academics mainly focusses on lack of cultural knowledge as a threat to academic status and identity, as well as a challenge in dealing with academic activities (Pherali 2012;Walker 2015). Studies have also been conducted on the career trajectories of academics within Europe (Ackers 2005;Ackers & Gill 2005;Morano-Foadi 2005;Musselin 2004), including long-term geohistorical perspectives (Taylor et al. 2008) and how factors such as gender and migrant background affect opportunities for successful careers (Behtoui & Leivestad 2019;Mählck 2016). In Scandinavia, little attention has been paid to the benefits or challenges of employing academics from abroad or to the impact on universities as an academic workplace. ...
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This article deals with internationalization in the field of higher education, focusing on the impact of transnational academic mobility on the university communities. Drawing on the results of a qualitative research study at different departments in a Norwegian university, this article explores the interaction between transnational academics and their Norwegian counterparts in an academic professional community. The key questions are the impact of internationalization on the working day at the departmental level, and how academics themselves experience working together with colleagues from all over the world. The topics are presented in the following four themes: informal interaction, cooperation, language practices, and internationalization. In the light of data gained through observation and informal dialogs in two departments that collectively consisted of 108 academic staff members, and formal interviews with 34 of them, both transnational and national, the paper concludes that the academics regard internationalization as a great source of professional knowledge. However, considerable institutional and personal adjustment is required to fully exploit the professional potential of diversity among the academic staff.
... Ceci est particulièrement vrai pour l'enseignement supérieur et la recherche. De nombreuses enquêtes empiriques révèlent les fortes variations entre les politiques publiques dans ce secteur, du fait de leur l'ancrage dans des pratiques nationales idiosyncrasiques (Enders, De Boer et Leisyte, 2008 ;Kogan et al., 2006 ;Musselin, 2004). Le même constat est dressé à l'échelle nationale en soulignant la variété des déclinaisons locales en matière de politiques menées dans ce domaine (Charles, 2006 ;Fuentes et Soler, 2018 ;Mignot-Gérard, 2011). ...
Thesis
Tandis que la reproduction et l’accroissement des inégalités sont souvent considérés comme des effets pervers des institutions publiques, de nombreuses réformes dites néomanagériales visent aujourd’hui à gouverner le secteur public en créant, creusant, ou prenant appui sur des inégalités parmi les professionnels, les organisations, ou les usagers. L’enseignement supérieur et la recherche figurent parmi les secteurs à l’avant-garde de ces recompositions de l’action publique. En France, le lancement de la politique des Initiatives d’excellence (Idex) en est une illustration emblématique : en recourant à des appels à projets mettant en compétition les universités pour faire émerger des établissements « de classe mondiale », ce programme concentre les ressources sur une dizaine d’établissements et accroit la mise en concurrence des chercheurs, des laboratoires et des établissements. En recourant à l’analyse longitudinale d’une Idex, cette thèse prend pour objet ces nouvelles politiques inégalitaires, interroge les conditions sociales et politiques de leur mise en œuvre et prend la mesure des inégalités créées à l’échelle d’un site universitaire. Nous démontrons ainsi qu’à travers les Idex, l’État gouverne par les inégalités. Cependant, ce gouvernement n’est possible qu’à certaines conditions mettant fortement à contribution les dynamiques et les acteurs locaux. Cette politique repose également sur une réforme organisationnelle, dans le sens où l’administration d’une Idex revient essentiellement à mettre en place des règles, des procédures, des structures afin de rendre les universités plus inégalitaires. Il s’avère que cette politique gouverne davantage les contours des projets d’excellence que les conduites des chercheurs à l’intérieur de ces derniers. En définitive, les Idex gouvernent des périmètres, et c’est à l’intérieur et entre ces derniers que les inégalités se jouent.
... Demographic change in universities, especially at the grade C level, can reflect a more international orientation in research, fierce competition for positions and a more egalitarian labor market (Khattab & Fenton, 2016). However, it can also reflect a dualization of labor (Bauder, 2015;Musselin, 2004). The restructuring of the academic labor market with more external research funding, lower job security and lower wages implies that universities depend more on global labor to fill fixedterm, research-only positions (Bauder, 2015;Khattab & Fenton, 2016;Smetherham et al., 2010). ...
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In this article, we investigate how the globalized academic labor market has changed the composition of teaching and research staff at Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish universities. We use national statistical data on the gender and country‐origin of universities’ teaching and research staff between 2012 and 2018 to study how the globalized academic labor market has influenced the proportion of women across career stages, with a special focus on STEM fields. We pay special attention to how gender and country‐origin are interrelated in universities’ academic career hierarchies. The findings show that the proportion of foreign‐born teaching and research staff rose substantially at the lower career level (grade C positions) in the 2010s. The increase was more modest among the most prestigious grade A positions, such as professorships. The findings show significant national differences in how gender and country‐origin of staff intersect in Nordic universities. The study contributes to research on the gendered patterns of global academic labor markets and social stratification in Nordic universities.
... For many American and European academics in Singapore, the task of evaluating potential students and postdocs from less prestigious institutions within the region was an arduous process, given their lack of knowledge of local higher education contexts. As noted by Musselin (2004), "Recruiting foreign candidates requires from recruiters knowledge about the foreign country's rules" (p.65). Academics seeking to hire postdocs and PhD students needed to be aware of norms and informal rules in source countries, as well as the language for work. ...
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Increasing competition among research universities has spurred a race to recruit academic labor to staff research teams, graduate programs, and laboratories. Yet, often ignored is how such efforts entail negotiating a pervasive hierarchy of universities, where elite institutions in the West continue to attract the best students and researchers across the world. Based on qualitative interviews with 59 Singapore-based faculty, this paper demonstrates how migrant academics in competitive universities outside the West take on the burden of seeking other ways of attracting academic labor into their institutions, often resorting to ethnic and transnational ties to circumvent limits imposed by a hierarchical higher education landscape. Those unable to utilize these transnational strategies are less likely to maintain the pace of productivity expected by their institutions, heightening anxieties regarding tenure and promotion. In examining the Singapore case, this paper reveals the disjunctures between the increasing pressures of growing universities eager to compete in a global higher education system, and the everyday realities of academic production within these institutions.
... As a result, academic mobility can be viewed not as a personal preference, but rather as a way to manage these structural shortfalls of the academic labor market. Shortage of permanent positions in the country of origin has been long identified as one of the facilitators of mobility (Musselin 2004;Ackers 2005Ackers , 2008. EU-level research shows that the number of post-docs that are employed in temporary contracts without prospects for permanent positions is only increasing (Åkerlind 2005;Cantwell 2009). ...
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The increasing mobility of academies gives rise to the question of how mobile academics navigate their migration, what are their motivations and their experiences. Using data from 35 interviews with German academics in the UK, this paper explores mobility along a complex spectrum between voluntary move and professional necessity. It then explores how the specific national context of being a German in the UK impacts migratory experiences. Finally, the paper discusses concerns and challenges of combining academic mobility with family life. The paper calls for a critical exploration of mobility of academics and highlights opportunities as well as the challenges that it presents.
... 2011: 37f.). Trotz dieser Parallelen und der Bemühungen um einen Europäischen Forschungsraum spielen nach bisherigen Kenntnissen auch nationale Besonderheiten von Standorten eine Rolle (Musselin 2004). Der potentielle Einfluss institutioneller und sozialer Bedingungen eines Länderkontextes lässt sich in der vorliegenden Untersuchung anhand einer Gegenüberstellung der im jeweiligen Land befragten internationalen Doktorand/-innen ermitteln. ...
... In contrast to the United States, Europe does not function as one single academic job market but is structured by national university systems that have become increasingly interconnected through research collaborations and scientific mobility (Cañibano, D'Este, Otamendi, & Woolley, 2020;Musselin, 2004). As a consequence, the methodical approach of faculty placement studies cannot be directly transferred to the European scale. ...
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This paper argues that stratified structures in university systems should be addressed more explicitly in debates on research funding. The paper connects findings from several streams of literature on US-American research universities: (a) the relationship of organizational status and scientific quality, (b) positional competitions among elite universities, (c) concentration of research funding, and (d) faculty exchange networks as measures of university prestige. Taken together, these literatures reveal a crystalline hierarchy with intense competition for scientific talent at the top but little opportunity for upward institutional and personal mobility. While elite universities provide advantages in terms of research output and prestige, the findings point to social closure as a potentially problematic outcome for a democratic knowledge society. Therefore, the comparison highlights two policy challenges by means of two scenarios: closing the gap in organizational resources, while at the same time ensuring continuing expansion of the research university system in Europe.
... Согласно результатам предыдущих исследований опыт обучения или работы за рубежом ученого способствует развитию исследовательских навыков и профессиональных связей, усиливает вовлеченность в процесс обмена знаниями и технологиями как с другими странами, так и внутри своей страны (De Filippo, Sanz Casado, Gomez, 2009;Edler, Fier, Grimpe, 2011;Scellato, Franzoni, Stephan, 2017). Также опыт международной мобильности может дать исследователям карьерные преимущества при возвращении в родную страну (Musselin, 2004;Markova, Shmatko, Katchanov, 2016;Шматко, Волкова, 2017). При сравнении результативности групп ученых с опытом международной мобильности и без него часто оказывалось, что в первой группе результативность выше (Gureyev et al., 2020;Netz, Hampel, Aman, 2020). ...
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ENG is below В статье представлены результаты исследовательского проекта, посвященного изучению международной мобильности молодых российских ученых и той роли, которую обучение или работа за рубежом играют в их дальнейшей научной карьере (на примере публикационной активности). В проекте предпринята попытка рассмотреть мобильность не с традиционной точки зрения «утечки кадров», а с позиции «циркуляции мозгов», в рамках которой опыт мобильности рассматривается как механизма трансфера знаний, ценный источник инноваций и необходимый элемент подготовки и развития кадрового потенциала в сфере науки. На данных репрезентативных социологических опросов показаны масштабы вовлеченности молодых исследователей в международную мобильность. Данные подтверждают наличие положительной взаимосвязи между мобильностью и научной продуктивностью российских ученых. Кроме того, мобильные сотрудники не только в среднем публикуют больше работ, но их публикации выходят в журналах более высокого уровня, и судя по цитированиям, в среднем более востребованы в научном сообществе. На материалах глубинных интервью мы выявили, какие именно механизмы способствует выходу молодого ученого на международный публикационный уровень после опыта академической мобильности. The article presents the results of a research project on the international mobility of young Russian scientists. This study is focused on the impact of education or work experience abroad on their future scientific careers, namely their publication activity. The project attempts to consider academic mobility not from the traditional point of view of “brain drain”, but from the perspective of “brain circulation” which sees mobility as a mechanism for the transfer of knowledge and a valuable source of innovation as well as a necessary element of training and development of human resources in science. The participation of the young Russian researchers in international mobility was shown with the help of data from several nationally representative sociological surveys. The original feature of this project consists is combining two different methodological approaches: both objective and subjective assessments were brought together in order to evaluate the impact of international mobility on the future publication activity of young researchers. The case study of one large Russian university was examined: a unique database combining both biographical data (open information from CV and publication activity indicators (data from Scopus)) of employees of this university was collected. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted to complement the analysis. According to the study, the involvement of young Russian scientists in international academic mobility over the past years has been low in comparison with other countries participating in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). A positive relationship between the international mobility and scientific productivity of Russian scientists was revealed. As was shown, young researchers involved in international mobility not only publish more scientific articles on average, but their papers are in fact published in higher ranking journals and are cited more often. Based on the materials of in-depth interviews, the specific mechanisms pushing young researchers to upgrade their publication activity after or during their academic mobility were identified.
... Habilitation is not a new mechanism in the panorama of European university recruitment processes. For a number of years, it has also been applied in other forms in Germany (Enders, 2001), in France (Musselin, 2004) and Spain (MEC, 2007;Sanz-Menéndez & Cruz-Castro, 2019). ...
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In this work, we assess whether and to what extent the latest Italian national policy initiatives intended, among others, to contrast favoritism and foster recruitment effectiveness have resulted in the desired effects. To answer the question, we propose two related analyses. One compares the research performance ratings of recruits in two subsequent five-year periods, before and after the introduction of the above policy measures. The second analysis compares the effectiveness of recruitment by all Italian universities, in the above two subsequent five-year periods. The results from the comparisons show a decline of both unproductive and high-performing recruits, and no overall improvement in the effectiveness of recruitment.
... Several studies revealed the positive effect of mobility and the detrimental effects of inbreeding on academic performance (Horta et al. 2010;Mamiseishvili and Rosser 2010;Inanc and Turcer 2011;Franzoni et al. 2014;Petersen 2018). The EU policy agenda promotes academic mobility and junior staff of European universities is increasingly internationalized (Musselin 2004;European Commission 2012;Council of Europe 2015), yet in most European public university 2 systems the senior staff is still predominantly hired among national and local candidates (Godechot and Louvet, 2008;Cruz, Menendez, 2010;Seeber et al. 2016;Lundgren et al. 2018). ...
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en Studies on academic inbreeding have mostly focused on institutional inbreeding and its negative effects, whereas little research has explored its causes. We identify current explanations of the macro‐, meso‐ and micro‐level factors that sustain academic inbreeding as well as research gaps. We address a main research gap regarding what macro‐level factors contribute to academic inbreeding, by analysing systems’ norms and rules regulating access to senior academic positions and teaching language requirements in France, Germany, Italy and Spain, the largest public university systems of the European Union. The analysis reveals that career rules designed to guarantee quality may have unintended effects in terms of academic inbreeding. Most importantly, the habilitation procedures pose greater challenges to international candidates and often increase barriers between disciplines as well. In some disciplines and regions, language requirements contribute substantially to academic inbreeding. Sammendrag de Studier av akademisk innavl har hovedsakelig fokusert på institusjonell innavl og dens negative effekter, mens lite forskning har utforsket årsakene. Vi identifiserer nåværende forklaringer på makro‐, meso‐ og mikronivåfaktorer som opprettholder akademisk innavl, så vel som forskningshull. Vi tar for oss et hovedforskningsgap med hensyn til hvilke makronivåfaktorer som bidrar til akademisk innavl, ved å analysere systemets normer og regler som regulerer tilgang til senior akademiske stillinger og undervisningsspråk i Frankrike, Tyskland, Italia og Spania, det største offentlige universitetssystemet i det europeiske Union. Analysen avslører at karriereregler designet for å garantere kvalitet kan ha utilsiktede effekter når det gjelder akademisk innavl. Viktigst, habiliteringsprosedyrene gir større utfordringer for internasjonale kandidater og øker ofte også barrierer mellom fagfelt. I noen disipliner og regioner bidrar språkkrav vesentlig til akademisk innavl.
... В отдельных областях науки на учёного налагаются некоторые «обязательства мобильности», когда важно присутствовать в конкретной организации для того, чтобы успешно сотрудничать с коллегами и находиться на переднем крае исследований в своей области [13][14][15]. Однако международная мобильность может являться не только обязанностью, но и способом получить карьерное преимущество по сравнению с соотечественниками [16][17][18][19]. Актуальные исследования пытаются оценить вес этого фактора в карьерных успехах учёного, измерить эффекты для принимающей и отправляющей организаций [20; 21]. ...
Article
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The current agenda of Russian scientific policy pays much attention to measures aimed at supporting the mobility of scientific personnel (including young ones). The purpose of this study is to analyze how the experience of international mobility affects the objective and subjective indicators of employment of Russian Doctorate Holders, and to find out whether the experience of working or studying abroad always gives advantages when returning to the home country. The empirical base of the study is the data of the project “Monitoring survey of Highly Qualified R&D Personnel” (N=1742 for the year 2019). The obtained results show that the impact of the international mobility on the careers of Russian researchers is a complex phenomenon that is not limited to positive effects. A number of advantages can be received for the “non-mobile career”, when loyalty to the current organization is rewarded. Along with the implementation of mobility support programs, it is necessary to create an institutional environment in which researchers with experience in international mobility can maximize their professional potential and have a favorable environment for building a scientific career.
... However, it began receiving attention only at the beginning of the 20th century. Since that time academic inbreeding has been regarded as an important problem and has been widely discussed both by academics themselves, policymakers, and university practitioners (Eells & Cleveland, 1935a, 1935bMcGee, 1960;Musselin, 2004;Soler, 2001;Yudkevich, Altbach, & Rumbley, 2015). The practice of inbreeding is quite extensive in Russian universities. ...
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This paper studies the publication productivity of inbreds and non-inbreds among Russian academics. Existing literature provides ambiguous results on the relationship between inbred status and productivity. This may be explained by the use of different indicators for measuring publication productivity. We use data, which include indicators of both current publication productivity (at a certain point of time) and cumulative productivity (throughout the career) to identify whether inbreds and non-inbreds differ in their productivity. We did not find any difference in current publication productivity of inbreds and non-inbreds. We found, however, a difference in their cumulative publication productivity: non-inbreds are being more productive on an individual level throughout their careers. Although the conclusions are based on the Russian data, the analysis provides an explanation for existing contradictory results on the relationship between academic inbreeding and productivity in general.
... However, research shows that the implementation of strategies and the general orientation towards internationalisation differs between European countries (Ackers et al. 2001). Consequently, a comparison of France and the Netherlands will be particularly interesting because France has maintained a very strong national tradition in the humanities and social sciences (Musselin 2004), while the Dutch system has had a long tradition of internationalisation (Huang 2006). This context is further complicated because the Bolognareform has affected the French system and political actions have been taken to increase the international visibility of French universities (Liebeskind 2011). ...
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The pathways and trajectories for foreign doctoral candidates to enter the host country can differ considerably. These trajectories are not completely embedded in the higher education systems, they also include factors outside of work and academia. Our comparative study reconstructs the perspective and trajectories of doctoral candidates from Germany who are doing their research in France and the Netherlands. This includes why and when they chose to pursue a PhD in France or the Netherlands. Our analysis shows that there are prominent differences between both of our case study groups, which can be explained by their varying attractions for foreigners and differing concepts of internationalisation and national research focus.
... Rifacendosi agli studi di altri autori, Cantwell (2011) invita a considerare più elementi e distingue tre tipologie di mobilità accademica: accidentale, negoziata e forzata. Per migrazione "accidentale", concetto estrapolato da un lavoro di Musselin (2004), intende una mobilità che risponde alle esigenze del mercato del lavoro ed è definita dalle circostanze nelle quali si inserisce lo spostamento internazionale. La mobilità è "negoziata" (Shachar, 2006), invece, quando lo scambio avviene all'interno di un contesto in cui le regole e le condizioni sono definite in base a criteri e accordi prestabiliti all'interno dei quali il lavoratore cognitivo liberamente decide di cedere le proprie capacità. ...
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The introduction of cognitive capitalism in the academic environment implemented a market-driven logic which transformed the processes behind knowledge production and mobility of scholars. Today, knowledge workers are forced to acquire many skills and experiences as a mandatory requisite to begin and build their careers. At the beginning of his or her path as researcher, the academic system induces the young researcher to embody individualized and competitive practices in a context of growing work and life precarity. We observed two – only apparently ‒ contradictory trends: on one side, the young researcher is demanded to stand out and distinguish himself by accumulating skills and experiences, whereas, on the other side, this process preordains a rigid conformity of his networks, mobility decisions and knowledge production. This inherent ambiguity of knowledge work falls upon both individuals and the way we understand knowledge. Eventually, the performance of “standing out in conformity” amplifies mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion which result in the production of new social and work inequalities.
... This is why "we know surprisingly little about what drives scientists to move in the first place" (Azoulay et al., 2017: 573). 1 One rather well-established cause is the strong expectation in many fields that ECRs must be mobile (for molecular biology see Fochler et al., 2016: 190, for other science fields see Cantwell, 2011). While this expectation can increasingly be found for the social sciences and humanities as well (Ackers, 2008), its strength still varies considerably between disciplines and national career systems (Gaughan and Robin, 2004;Musselin, 2004Musselin, , 2005Jöns, 2007). ...
Article
Although organisational mobility has become a crucial part of a researcher’s early career phase, its causes and functions in the early career are not yet sufficiently explained. In particular, the field-specific nature of patterns of national and international mobility has been noted but not systematically analysed. Based on case studies and CV data of German early career researchers in plant biology, experimental AMO physics and early modern history we explain differences in mobility patterns by the embeddedness of career decisions in field-specific research practices. In those fields, early career researchers have to develop their first individual research programmes, and enact scripts for their cognitive and organisational careers in order to arrive at such programmes. Enacting the scripts involves utilising organisational positions for specific purposes, which informs the selection of positions and thus shapes patterns of mobility.
... But is the competition induced by rankings market competition? Sociologist Christine Musselin, a leading specialist in the study of higher education in comparative perspective (Musselin 2004(Musselin , 2009, argues that although we can talk, for ex ample, about a professional labor market in the field of higher education, we should be cautious about the metaphor. "[I]t is only in some countries that we can speak of a market for professors or students" (Musselin 2010: 78). ...
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What’s valuable? Market competition provides one kind of answer. But competitions offer another. On one side, competition is an ongoing and seemingly endless process of pricings; on the other, competitions are discrete and bounded in time and location, with entry rules, judges, scores, and prizings. This book examines what happens when ever more activities in many domains of everyday life are evaluated and experienced in terms of performance metrics. The ratings and rankings of such systems do not have prices but are more like the prizes of competitions. Yet unlike organized competitions, they are ceaseless and without formal entry. Instead of producing resolutions, their scorings create addictions. In the performance society, networks of observation – in which all are performing and all keeping score – are entangled with a system of emotionally charged preoccupations with one’s positioning within the rankings. From the bedroom to the boardroom, pharmaceutical companies and management consultants promise enhanced performance. We refer to this assemblage of metrics, networks, and their attendant emotional pathologies as the performance complex.
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In this chapter, the author attempts to sketch the phenomenon of internationalization as manifested in the literature on academic mobility. Internationalization is commonly seen as a process contributing to the quality in higher education while academic mobility is often regarded as the most critical dimension of this process. By providing a review of the literature on internationalization and mobility, the chapter highlights rationales for inbound and outbound mobility for higher education systems and institutions in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). It further portrays how Georgia – a small country in the Caucasus and a member of EHEA responds to the global phenomenon employing several reforms, support schemes, and institutional initiatives. Lastly, reflecting on current trends and policies, the author attempts to map the prospects for internationalization of Georgian higher education. This chapter offers a promising area for comparative and international research on internationalization and contributes to the literature on academic mobility in Europe.
Article
This article explores academic mobility in the European Union (EU) and partner-related living arrangements in early career stages. The data are drawn from interviews carried out with couples as part of a qualitative study focusing on university graduates who lived in Germany before pursuing their careers in other member states, namely France and the Netherlands. The analysis suggests a framework for empirical research that combines studying the interactions within couples along with factors resulting from the political governance of cross-border mobility in the EU. This article looks empirically at four types of intra-EU mobile careers with distinct partner-related living arrangements and considers how gender intersects with the conditional and exclusive entitlement to free movement within the EU. As the findings demonstrate, the living arrangements of young academics and their partners are not only a consequence of mobile careers, but such arrangements can in turn affect mobility decisions. Furthermore, the EU’s free movement policies can present obstacles in the early stages of a career, during which academics and their partners are likely to experience periods of interrupted economic activity. Moreover, couples in which the partner is a third-country national face severe restrictions. The free movement rights of the academics and their partners, as well as their conditions for exercising these rights, proved to have a strong impact on the couples’ unequal mobility opportunities.
Article
The academic world is developing rapidly with many new countries becoming significant contributors to research. One important strategic issue is to ensure that the collaboration network develops at least in the same pace as the academic world is developing. This study proposes a new method to compare countries’ growth in research, thus highlighting that Indonesia, Iran and Pakistan are the countries with the highest growth among all countries with more than 10,000 Scopus publications in 2018. A new indicator for collaboration intensity is also proposed, which makes it easy to check to what extent the collaboration pattern incorporates countries with rapid growth. Using Sweden and Indonesia as examples, the study shows differences on national level as well as between different scientific disciplines. Whereas Sweden’s collaboration is very much focusing on other mature research countries with low growth, Indonesia’s collaboration is including other countries with rapid growth. In terms of policy, the study and the proposed methodology support better-informed strategy decisions as regards the prioritisation of countries for research collaboration. It argues that there is a need for strategies and policy support at different levels, if a more balanced mix of research collaboration is to be obtained. To manage rapid changes, it might be necessary to shift from a mainly reactive development of the collaborations to a more proactive one that fosters links to the rapidly developing research countries.
Article
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Globalisation is a major driving factor in the Higher Education sector, which has resulted in significant developments relating to international academic mobility. This includes the establishment of international campuses, increasingly global facing research and extensive student international exchange schemes. We explore the advice given to LGBTQ+ staff and students in UK Higher Education Institutions (‘HEIs’) who engage in international mobility of this kind. Analysing data collected through Freedom of Information requests, we demonstrate that the advice given is overwhelmingly heteronormative, ignoring the potential challenges that LGBTQ+ travellers might fact and underestimating the impact of the disparate global landscape of LGBTQ+ rights. Drawing on agency literature, we argue that HEIs should develop detailed and informed policy which gives LGBTQ+ travellers greater agency during the travel process. We suggest that the lessons that can be learned from the UK context can be applied internationally by HEIs adapting to and developing in the increasingly globalised HE landscape.
Article
The skill-attracting policies encouraging the internationalisation of higher education are compatible with a modernisation discourse, at the heart of which lies a belief that international researchers are highly embedded super-achievers allured by targeted policies. By focusing on the life stories of foreign-born scholars working in Poland (100 in-depth interviews), and Polish department heads (20 interviews) this article revealed three paradoxes that should never have come to be according to the Western modernisation paradigm. The first paradox is related to the expectation that policies targeted at incoming scholars should be the first and foremost enticement for international scholars. The second paradox stems from the fact that some internationally mobile academics representing the humanities and social sciences—in their biographical narratives—highly criticise current academic policies focused on internationalisation. The third paradox is related to the fact that, counterintuitively, less embedded academic migrants perform better. This is an outcome of the life strategy of top-performing scholars, who decide to work in Poland only upon receiving a prestigious and temporary, often EU-funded, scholarship (e.g., Marie Curie). Building on the empirical material from Poland, this article introduces a new notion—the ‘internationalisation against the grain’ to embrace the paradoxes of internationalisation from many peripheral countries.
Article
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In this paper, we analyze the educational paths and networks of core staff members (n = 3325) of the world’s top 100 sociology departments. Results show that a significant overrepresentation of central countries and considerable gender bias can be found throughout sociology departments with strong male dominance in high positions. By using an improved word-systemic model for the interpretation of our data, we were able to categorize the main agents and patients in the world-system of global elite sociology, and we could also describe those centripetal and centrifugal forces that absorb and reeducate peripheral talent while excluding those without Western reeducation.
Article
Academics are increasingly seeking employment abroad. Despite their growing number, there is limited research on how academics secure positions at foreign universities. The literature does indicate however, that academic hiring is not a standardised meritocratic process, but influenced by academic tradition and social capital. Drawing on this perspective, this study explores the role social capital plays among international and local hires at two universities (located in the U.S. and Flanders), that exhibited contrasting approaches towards recruiting foreign talent. At the U.S. university, social capital was used to counterbalance lacking elements in a candidate's curriculum vitae related to their professional experience. At the Flemish university, social capital was used to signal a candidate's compatibility with the ethos of the hiring university or system. The study demonstrates that the role social capital plays is not exclusively determined by nationality but linked to an academic's professional background which signals their insider/outsider status in the system of their employment.
Article
Faculty recruitment has become a new challenge for public higher education institutions (HEIs) in China since the 1990s. Based on the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework, this study analyzed the faculty recruitment preferences and the effects of selected organizational factors on these preferences at top national HEIs from 2002 to 2016. Regression analysis results revealed the predominant effects of faculty mobility, student enrollments and total revenue on the variances of total new faculty, newly graduated faculty and experienced new faculty respectively. The categorical independent variables of prestige, type, merger and region exerted small but statistically significant influences on faculty recruitment. This study concluded that the recently developed academic market in China is already hierarchically stratified. HEIs with greater resources, privilege and advantageous external environment dominated the academic market with potential negative impact on the equity and vitality of the entire higher education sector.
Article
Female representation among students and graduates in higher education is growing internationally. This is a promising trend for achieving gender balance in top positions in academia. But there is still a long way to go, as women accounted for 26 per cent in top positions at European higher education institutions in 2018. In this article, we examine the influence of international recruitment of researchers on the gender balance—or the lack of gender balance—in Norwegian academia. We draw on data from the Norwegian Register of Research personnel, linked with population statistics from Statistics Norway. These data show that 38 per cent of the researchers at Norwegian higher education institutions in 2018 were born abroad. The share of foreign full professors has increased from 16 per cent in 2001 to 27 per cent in 2018, while for postdocs there has been an increase from 31 to 69 per cent. In terms of overall gender composition, a higher percentage of the foreign-born researchers are male compared with the native Norwegians. The incidence of international recruitment differs significantly across academic fields and is particularly prevalent in engineering. This is also the field where the gender balance is most skewed generally. Taking these variables into account, we conclude that international migration is not among the factors contributing to the gender imbalance in Norwegian academia. In fact, international recruitment has contributed positively to the gender balance in Norway in the majority of the fields analysed.
Article
Research policy often asks for international academic collaboration or collaborations between universities and other actors in society. To improve the understanding of such collaborations, a systematic analysis of academic–corporate co-publications was conducted, with a focus on the international dimension. Based on the global volume of publications in the Scopus database, one result is that academic–corporate co-publications enjoy a higher citation impact than other types of publications. Another result is that such co-publications are to a large extent internationally co-authored. Studies of ten countries and the ten plus ten largest academic and corporate institutions in these countries in terms of academic–corporate co-publications confirm these results and provide further details. Finally, the results indicate a positive correlation between the share of academic–corporate co-publications in a country and the innovation performance in indices such as the Global Innovation Index and the European Innovation Scoreboard. This study highlights the need to consider the numbers of co-authors and the high share of international co-publications when analyses are based on academic–corporate co-publications. Even though academic–corporate co-publications only reflect a small part of all academic–corporate collaborations, academic–corporate co-publications are shown to be useful as one of many potential tools to assess collaborations between academic and corporate actors and associated investments in research and innovation. It is also argued that the results of the study support policies promoting academic–corporate collaborations leading to co-publications.
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The paper examines the nexus between skills mismatch, educational/industrial policies, and brain circulation in Israel. Focusing on the field of life sciences (LS), it argues that migratory movements of highly educated Israelis are fueled by vertical (inadequate level) and horizontal (inadequate type) skills mismatches. It shows that whereas many so‐called bio‐brains migrate due to being underqualified (lacking postdoctoral training), their return is often delayed or prevented altogether due to shortage of academic positions and the incompatibility between their fields of (academic) specialisation and the (industrial) jobs available in the country's small LS industry. Drawing on primary and secondary qualitative data, the paper analyses the structural forces and agentic articulations behind this migration paradox, which sees departing bio‐scientists who are underqualified for academic positions becoming (potential) returnees who are largely overqualified and inappropriately trained for industrial jobs. The paper concludes by highlighting potential avenues for research on the links between skills mismatch and international mobility.
Article
The objective of this article is deepening the understanding on the factors associated to universities’ potential for attracting academic talent. To do so, it analyses the staff of Spanish public universities in regards to a set of indicators on academic mobility. The results of this exploratory study show: (1) the significant influence of the State normative frameworks on universities’ capacity to attract non-local academics, even in a decentralized State, where powers relating to higher education have been transferred to regional governments; (2) the positive relationship between size and age of regional higher education systems and their tendency to localism, in absence of a structure of incentives for mobility; and (3) the importance of universities’ strategic behavior on the outcomes of their hiring processes.
Book
À quelles conditions les échanges sur le marché du travail peuvent-ils être considérés comme équitables ? Cette question, que délaissent la plupart des analystes, appelle un renouvellement théorique substantiel. Les auteurs, mettant en perspective l’approche sociétale et l’économie des conventions, comparent les marchés du travail britannique et français, à l’aune de nouveaux indicateurs : les règles de valorisation du travail et les principes de justice qui les guident. L’observation porte notamment sur les intermédiaires du marché du travail, leurs outils de sélection, les cadres institutionnels de leur action. Cette approche permet d’interroger les responsables des politiques publiques sur les principes de leurs actions dans de nombreux domaines : arbitrage entre mesures pour l’emploi et l’insertion, entre intermédiation privée et publique, entre assurance et assistance, lutte contre la discrimination, etc. Elle questionne également les acteurs du marché du travail en situation d’évaluateurs : leurs méthodes sont-elles objectives et justes ? Cet ouvrage nourrit la critique des inégalités sur le marché du travail avec leurs conséquences sur l’exclusion et le chômage. (Résumé éditeur)
Article
The Review of Higher Education 26.4 (2003) 521-522 Higher education is everywhere under increasing pressure to expand its historic teaching function (in the vocabulary of the day, to supply the human resource infrastructure for the new "knowledge-based" economy) in addition to advancing technological and economic development through its traditional research and development functions. At the same time that these economic development expectations are rising, actual resource commitments to the enterprise are falling. Higher education, in short, is increasingly pressured to deliver more public goods with less public support. To use an old-time manufacturing analogy, the operative challenge has become how to adapt a gas-guzzling engine designed for small-scale production so that it can be efficiently mass produced in an increasingly demanding environment. What sorts of changes are required in the assembly line, the technology, and the workers? The model that arose in Western Europe over the past centuries, at least on the Continent, is one of higher education as a state function, financed and controlled either by the central government (France and Italy) or by some combination of federal and local government (Germany and Spain), leavened by national or regional labor unions (Scandinavia). Britain, of course, provides the obvious exception here with its historic tradition of corporate faculty control supplemented by strong public finance, at least until the Thatcher reforms of the 1980s. How have the European countries adapted their national systems to the pressures/challenges we have identified? With what success? And with what impact on the academic professions and the infrastructure of the higher education enterprise? Are common themes/experiences emerging? How have the Humboltian systems, modeled on a unity of teaching and research, adapted compared to the Napoleonic systems, which separate research and teaching? What can we learn from the early experience? These are intriguing and important questions, especially as Europe seeks to transform itself from a polyglot of nations, faiths, and languages to a functioning economic, if not quite political, unit. And these are precisely the kinds of questions addressed by Jürgen Enders and eighteen of his colleagues in their review of academic changes sweeping through fourteen countries. As Enders suggests in his panoramic and instructive introduction, virtually every European nation has, over the past two decades, "reformed" the governance of its system of higher education from boutique to mass production; and virtually all such reform efforts have the same three characteristics: (a) a movement from a common legal homogeneity of the higher education system toward greater heterogenization of the system (greater institutional division of labor); (b) from centralized, bureaucratic state control to more empowered institutional management within broad state parameters; and (c) from state control to greater responsiveness to market mechanisms by developing competition between and within institutions of higher education, introducing competitive resource allocation, and tying performance funding mechanisms to outcomes evaluation. These three themes are amply illustrated in these reports on the fourteen focus countries. The great danger, of course, in casting so wide a net is that the individual stories will bear little relationship to the central themes, let alone to each other, with the result that, however informative, the resulting motley mix of self-contained tales will be essentially unrelated and not mutually enriching. Enders and his colleagues have clearly made an extraordinary effort to avoid that outcome. Each of the country chapters was obviously written from a shared outline, describes recent developments, provides basic data on the academic profession (numbers, working conditions, compensation, etc.), and identifies the most salient current issues. While a common outline assures some common content, it does not ensure that authors make connections explicitly either with the common themes identified by the editor or with similar developments in other country chapters. And here, the book, like many edited volumes, falls short. While there is an occasional reference to the basic analytic framework Enders sets in the introduction, his concepts do not serve as a common point of departure for all of the chapters. While hardly surprising, this effect might have been offset...
Article
Using data gathered in a series of interviews with management and union officials in over 75 companies between 1964 and 1969, this report analyzes the concept of the internal labor market and describes its relevance for federal manpower policy. The management interviews, which were mostly in personnel, industrial engineering, and operations areas of manufacturing companies, were supplemented by data on the disadvantaged provided by civil rights, poverty, and manpower agencies. The report utilizes the framework established in the study to show that the internal market does not imply inefficiency and may represent an improvement in dealing with structural unemployment. (BH)
Article
Diversity may occur amonginstitutions that are considered to be similar.This is one of the arguments developed in thispaper through the empirical analysis of facultyrecruitments in history and mathematics withinGerman and French universities. This studyshows that the definition of what constitutes a`good candidate' varies greatly from onedepartment to another and affects the criteriato be taken into account and their respectiveweight in the decision. These variations are tobe explained by the internal dynamics of theparticular national academic labour market, thespecific situation of the department and alsoby its development strategy.
Article
Peer review, up or out rules, tenure and the negative seniority wage premium are distinctive features of the North American market for professors. Besides evaluating some explanations, this paper also presents the historical record and contemporaneous features which all models have to confront.
Article
Since unification, the debate about Germany's poor economic performance has focused on supply-side weaknesses, and the associated reform agenda sought to make low-skill labour markets more flexible. We question this diagnosis using three lines of argument. First, effective restructuring of the supply side in the core advanced industries was carried out by the private sector using institutions of the coordinated economy, including unions, works councils and blockholder owners. Second, the implementation of orthodox labour market and welfare state reforms created a flexible labour market at the lower end. Third, low growth and high unemployment are largely accounted for by the persistent weakness of domestic aggregate demand, rather than by the failure to reform the supply side. Strong growth in recent years reflects the successful restructuring of the core economy. To explain these developments, we identify the external pressures on companies in the context of increased global competition, the continuing value of the institutions of the coordinated market economy to the private sector and the constraints imposed on the use of stabilizing macroeconomic policy by these institutions. We also suggest how changes in political coalitions allowed orthodox labour market reforms to be implemented in a consensus political system.
Article
This paper uses on the job screening to derive a stochastic and dynamic model of hiring, promotion, and dismissal policies, and their impact on total firm employment and output. The model provides an explanation of the up or out rule observed in many organizations. It also provides an explanation for a cost of adjustment mechanism for the stock of human capital in a firm. /// Tamisage sur le lieu de travail, règles promotion ou renvoi, et croissance de la firme. Les auteurs utilisent le tamisage sur le lieu de travail pour dériver un modèle stochastique et dynamique des politiques d'embauche, de promotion et de renvoi, et de leur impact sur les niveaux totaux de production et d'emploi de la firme. Le modèle fournit une explication de l'existence de la règle `promotion ou renvoi' qui est en vigueur dans plusieurs organisations. Il fournit aussi une explication pour l'existence d'un mécanisme de coût d'ajustement pour le stock de capital humain dans une firme.
Etude de cinq commissions de spe´cialistes en histoire. Rapport d'enqueˆ International Study of Higher Education: Norway
  • M Blangy
  • C Musselin
  • Paris Cso
  • I Bleiklie
  • R Høstaker
  • A Vabø
Blangy, M. and Musselin, C. (1996). Etude de cinq commissions de spe´cialistes en histoire. Rapport d'enqueˆ CSO, Paris. Bleiklie, I., Høstaker, R. and Vabø, A. (2000). International Study of Higher Education: Norway. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Charle, C. (1994). La Re´publique des universitaires, 1870–1940.
Etude de cinq commissions de spe´cialistes en mathe´matiques
  • S Oliveira
Oliveira, de S. (1998). Etude de cinq commissions de spe´cialistes en mathe´matiques. Rapport d'enqueˆ CSO, Paris.
Transforming Universities: Changing Patterns of Governance, Structure and Learning in Swedish Higher Edu-cation Des marche´s du travail e´quitables? Approche comparative France/Royaume-Uni
  • M Bauer
  • S Marton
  • B Askling
  • F Marton
Bauer, M., Marton, S., Askling, B. and Marton, F. (1999). Transforming Universities: Changing Patterns of Governance, Structure and Learning in Swedish Higher Edu-cation. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Bessy, C., Eymard-Duvernay, F., de Larquier, G. and Marchal, E. (2001). Des marche´s du travail e´quitables? Approche comparative France/Royaume-Uni. Bruxelles: P.I.E. – Peter Lang.
Academic Staff in Italy
  • R Moscati
Moscati, R. (2000). 'Academic Staff in Italy', in Enders, J. (ed.), Employment and Working Conditions of Academic Staff in Europe. Francfort on Main: Materialen und Dokumente, Hochschule und Forschung, pp. 156–167.
Les chercheurs et post-doctorants e´trangers travaillant dans les insti-tutions publiques de recherche et les entreprises
  • F Dedieu
Dedieu, F. (2002). Les chercheurs et post-doctorants e´trangers travaillant dans les insti-tutions publiques de recherche et les entreprises. Report for the Direction de la Programmation et le De´,Ministè re de l'Education nationale, France.
Commissions de recrutement: commissions de spe´cialistes. Etude du recrutement des professeurs d'histoire dans quatre universite´s allemandes
  • A Fresse
Fresse, A. (1998). Commissions de recrutement: commissions de spe´cialistes. Etude du recrutement des professeurs d'histoire dans quatre universite´s allemandes. Me´ de DEA, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.
Chi governa lUniversità? II modo academico italiano tra con-servazione e mutamento
  • R Moscati
Moscati, R. (ed.) (1997). Chi governa lUniversità? II modo academico italiano tra con-servazione e mutamento. Napoli: Liguori.
Wissenschaft als Beruf oder Karriere?', presented at the confer-ence on ''Wissenschaft zwischen Geld und Geist
  • K.-U Mayer
Mayer, K.-U. (2000). 'Wissenschaft als Beruf oder Karriere?', presented at the confer-ence on ''Wissenschaft zwischen Geld und Geist'', Max-Planck-Institut fu¨ -senschaftsgeschichte, Berlin.
Academic Identities and Policy Change in Higher Education. London and PhiladelphiaRank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts
  • M Henkel
  • E P Lazear
  • S And Rozen
Henkel, M. (2000). Academic Identities and Policy Change in Higher Education. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Lazear E.P. and Rozen, S. (1981). 'Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts', Journal of Political Economy 89(5), 841–864.
L'expertise importe´e: monographie sur le recrutement des professeurs de mathe´matiques dans quatre universite´s allemandes
  • A Fresse
Fresse, A. (1999). L'expertise importe´e: monographie sur le recrutement des professeurs de mathe´matiques dans quatre universite´s allemandes. Paris, rapport CSO.
Musselin and with the collaboration of S. Jarraffoux and M. Houk) 1997. La mobilite´ chercheurs publics en Europe. Rap-port comparatif sur les enqueˆtes qualitatives mene´es en France
  • E Mouranche
Mouranche, E. (under the direction of C. Musselin and with the collaboration of S. Jarraffoux and M. Houk) 1997. La mobilite´ chercheurs publics en Europe. Rap-port comparatif sur les enqueˆtes qualitatives mene´es en France, Allemagne et Grande Bretagne.Ministè re de la Recherche, Paris.
Comment choisit-on sescollègues a` l'universite´ recrute-ment des mathe´maticiens et des historiens et les marche´s du travail universitaires en France
  • C Musselin
Musselin, C. (forthcoming). Comment choisit-on sescollègues a` l'universite´ recrute-ment des mathe´maticiens et des historiens et les marche´s du travail universitaires en France, en Allemagne et aux Etats-Unis.
Address for correspondence: Christine Musselin
  • Sweden
  • Conference
  • Windermere
Sweden', presented at the 13rd CHER annual Conference, Windermere. Address for correspondence: Christine Musselin, Centre de Sociologie des Organisations – FNSP/CNRS, 19 Rue Ameí, 75007 Paris, France Phone: +33-1-40-62-65-70; E-mail: c.musselin@cso.cnrs.fr
Comparative career-systems in higher education – England and
  • M Sjoï
Sjoï, M. (2000). 'Comparative career-systems in higher education – England and