The development of education in post-conflict ‘Somaliland’

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Incl. bibl, abstract. In the light of fresh international initiatives to achieve Universal Basic Education and gender equality in education by 2015, this paper examines factors affecting its realisation in the context of Somaliland. In a 'country' where over 80 percent of the school age population are receiving little meaningful education, the paper reflects on more flexible approaches to education to enable sustainable education for children and disadvantaged adults. The paper draws on fieldwork data from a DfID-funded study (DFID ED2000/107) and the authors' own experiences. The discussion highlights the peculiar circumstances of Somaliland. It charts the provision of Education in Somaliland from the colonial era through post-independence times to the civil conflict which led to the destruction of education in the country. It goes on to look at the progress being made at the present time following 'stop-gap' measures for emergency education towards revitalising enhanced education. It completes the picture by describing challenges to the achievement of the UBE target. The authors review aspects of alternative and flexible educational approaches and urge the integration of these non-formal systems with the formal, governmentally controlled school systems being restored in Somaliland. They do so while sounding a note of caution that for all the energy and enthusiasm associated with these approaches, they have yet to be evaluated for their effectiveness in providing quality basic education.

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... 158). Parents also keep their children, especially the girls, at home to protect them from abduction; most of the abductions take place in school (Bekalo, Brophy, & Welford, 2003). Boys are used as combatants, and girls are used to cook and clean (O'Malley, 2010). ...
... Most trained teachers fled the civil war in Somalia; female teachers are especially scarce. The gender balance among teachers affects whether or not girls attend school (Bekalo et al., 2003;Colclough, Al-Samarrai, Rose, & Tembon, 2003;Kirk 2003). This gender balance among teachers is especially important in a conservative Islamic country, like Somalia. ...
... This gender balance among teachers is especially important in a conservative Islamic country, like Somalia. Furthermore, a 1997 survey found that 30% of schools had no toilets, and about 90% had no running water in the school compound (Bekalo et al., 2003). The limited number of female teachers combined with the limited sanitation in schools is a significant barrier to schooling for girls. ...
A civil war has raged in Somalia for the past 20 years. The civil war fragmented the country into three zones: the Central South region, Somaliland, and Puntland. Puntland and Somaliland are relatively stable; however, Central South Somalia remains unstable. How has the ongoing civil war affected educational access in the Central South region of Somalia? This article examines 3,100 households, presents the extent of the education access in this increasingly unstable region of Somalia, and identifies the major challenges of expanding education access.
... However, tribalism and divide and rule tactics by the military regime led to the outbreak of civil war 1991 (Abdi, 1998). The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system in Somalia (Bekalo, Brophy, & Welford, 2003;Cassanelli & Abdikadir, 2007;Morah, 2000;UNDP, 1998;World Bank, 2006). Previous research cited declining enrollments, teacher brain drain, declining quality, and declining budget allocation as evidence of education system's pre-war collapse. ...
... Previous research cited declining enrollments, teacher brain drain, declining quality, and declining budget allocation as evidence of education system's pre-war collapse. For example, in 1984 government spending on education was only 1.5-2% of the national budget (Bekalo et al., 2003); by 1987 Somalia had one of the lowest primary school enrollment rates in the world (UNDP, 1998). ...
... (p.226) Parents therefore keep heir children, especially the girls, at home to protect them from violence and sexual exploitation. Girls receive extra protection because of the value placed on virginity-virgins command a higher bride price (Bekalo et al., 2003). ...
A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated risk and vulnerability during conflict; therefore, girls experience conflict differently from boys. This paper has two aims to (1) push Somalia back into the international development agenda and (2) highlight the state of girl's education in Somalia. The study examines 5969 households and presents the patterns of educational enrollment and attendance of girls in Somalia, and identifies the major challenges of expanding education access in Somalia.
... The World Bank (2006) reported that by 1989/1990 primary and secondary school enrollment had declined to only 60,00 pupils from about 300,000 in the early-1980s. The civil conflict that broke out in 1991 was the final blow for an already collapsed education system (Bekalo et al., 2003;Cassanelli and Abdikadir, 2007;Morah, 2000;Retamal and Devadoss, 1998;UNDP, 1998;World Bank, 2006). ...
... Recent research shows a resurgence of schooling in Somalia (Bekalo et al., 2003;Cassanelli and Abdikadir, 2007;World Bank, 2006). In 1995 there were 159 primary schools with an enrollment of 27,000; by 2004 the number of primary schools increased to 354 with an enrollment of about 300,000 (Bekalo et al., 2003;Dennis and Fentiman, 2007;World Bank, 2006). ...
... Recent research shows a resurgence of schooling in Somalia (Bekalo et al., 2003;Cassanelli and Abdikadir, 2007;World Bank, 2006). In 1995 there were 159 primary schools with an enrollment of 27,000; by 2004 the number of primary schools increased to 354 with an enrollment of about 300,000 (Bekalo et al., 2003;Dennis and Fentiman, 2007;World Bank, 2006). Despite the increased enrollment, the challenges facing Somalia are immense. ...
Somalia gained its independence in 1960; however, civil conflict broke out in 1991. The outbreak of civil conflict was the final blow for already collapsed education in Somalia. The civil conflict completely destroyed the remaining educational structure. Despite the protracted nature of the conflict Somalia has slowly been pushed Somalia out of the active international agenda. This paper aims to highlight the state of education in Somalia. The study examines 5969 households and presents the patterns of educational enrollment and attendance in Somalia, and identifies the major challenges of expanding education access in Somalia.Research highlights▶ School enrollment and attendance in Somalia has increased but continues to be the lowest in the world. About 37% of children in Somalia reported they have never been to school. ▶ Koranic schools account for close to 27% of children who reported they attended school. ▶ Girls, nomads, and children in rural areas continue to face significant obstacles to schooling.
... However, during the colonial periods, the introduction of the Western education system into Somaliland was influenced by the British (1898British ( -1969 and the socialist countries' educational ideologies . Further, the influence of the educational philosophies of the Westerns continued in the post-conflict transformation periods (after 1990) through international NGOs and UN agencies with the intention of the rehabilitation and development of Somaliland's education (Bekalo et al., 2003). Consequently, the different literature and the study of Ahmed and Bradford (2011) categorized this colonial-type education history of Somaliland into three broad periods: Colonial rule , the post-colonial education provision , and education in a post-conflict transformation (1990-the present). ...
... Since 18 May 1991, education has been recognized as a basic human right that should be provided to all citizens MoEHS, 2015), and attempts to revive schooling started under the trees, since the ruins of former schools still contained unexploded ordinance or booby traps. Later on, school buildings were repaired or rebuilt, private and public schools and colleges were opened at a dramatic rate and a large number of schools received more children (Bekalo et al., 2003). Local and international NGOs have had significant involvement in the rehabilitation and development of Somaliland's education (Bekalo et al., 2010). ...
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This study examines the education policies and education sector strategic plans of Somaliland. For this purpose, qualitative research was adopted and data were collected from reviewing education policies, education sector strategic plans, the joint review of the education sector analysis reports, and the curriculum frameworks of Somaliland. Besides, data were obtained through key informant interviews with purposely selected five higher officials of the Ministry of Education and through focus group discussions. Findings suggest that since its inception, the Somaliland education system was influenced by the Western curricula and the current education policy practice also has its own shortcomings to address the required access, equity, relevance, and quality of education. The lack of standardized policy frameworks, low funding, scarce resources, a limited number of qualified teachers and educational leaders, lack of unified curricula, absence of national language instructional policy, low enrolment, and high dropout rates of students, lack of favourable school environment, and shortage of required education data were among the major challenges deterring the education policy practices of Somaliland. Accordingly, establishing a well-designed education framework; developing unified national curricula and language policy; enhancing the quantity and quality of teachers and school leaders; increasing the education budget and educational resources, and improving the quality assurance and data systems in the country are some of the major practical implications.
... The relationship between school attendance and these community factors may not necessarily operate independently of each other since, for instance, agricultural livelihood and lower levels of infrastructural development are more likely to be present in rural communities (Moyi, 2012;Siddhu, 2011). Rural communities in turn tend to have lower levels of women's education due to unfavourable cultural attitudes towards girls' education, traditional attitudes to women which position women as subservient and as home makers, and poor school provision (Bekalo et al., 2003;Warrington and Kiragu, 2012). The modelling procedure in steps 2 and 3 are intended to observe whether the relationship between school attendance and the proportion of mothers with secondary or education in a community is robust. ...
... As children become older, the cost of attending school becomes greater and so they are removed from school. For older girls, research has found that attrition is a common observation in rural areas for cultural and economic reasons related to the preservation of their virginity (to secure a high bride price) and initiation ceremonies in preparation for early marriage (Bekalo et al., 2003;Moyi, 2012). ...
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In Sierra Leone girls are 23.4% less likely to attend secondary education than boys. This difference between sexes increases the gender gap in educational attainment since women's education is positively associated with children's educational wellbeing. This paper investigates the relationship between children's school attendance, their mothers' level of education, as well as the overall level of women's education at the community level in Sierra Leone using multilevel statistical modelling techniques and the country's 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data. The findings suggest that, regardless of a child's own mother's education, an increase in the proportion of mothers with secondary or higher education in a community by 10% improves the probability of attending junior secondary school significantly by 8%; a 50% increase improves the likelihood of attending school by 45%. There was no significant relationship between the proportion of better educated mothers in a community and primary school attendance. However, relative to children whose mothers had no formal education, children whose mothers had attained primary, secondary or higher education were 7%, 14% and 22% more likely to attend primary school respectively. Future policies should seek to promote girls' education at post-primary education and develop community based programmes to enable the diffusion and transmission of educational messages.
... Such progress is attributed to the implementation of several initiatives and policies, namely, the preparation of a Somali-own curriculum framework with consistent language instruction, the expansion of affordable mobile phone and internet services, the collaboration between the community members and international organizations in creating educational opportunities, the development of a school census for collecting and reporting education system data, and the piloting of an early grade reading assessment strategy in Mogadishu in 2013-15 [27]. Specifically, the collaboration between the community members and international organizations helped with providing basic and vocational education, leading to the betterment of education in Somalia [28]. Although Somalia is the closest country to Yemen, the cultural and social differences between the two countries make it difficult to transfer the experience. ...
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Education, the backbone of any nation’s development, demands the presence of not only infrastructure and facilities but also a peaceful environment. The war in Yemen has had a strong, negative impact on education. In our study, we employed narrative inquiry and developed a structured interview guideline to explore the experiences of school teachers and leaders regarding the war’s impacts on education. After collecting and analyzing one hundred written narratives, we developed and conducted a semi-structured interview with four female and six male school teachers and leaders to answer the study questions. The findings highlighted the displacement and discrimination, the use of children as fighters for the future, the conflict of identities among children, the destruction of children’s physical and mental health, the exploitation of education for financial benefits, the normalization of negative behaviors, and the destruction of teacher’s dignity. These findings were also conceptualized in a simple model that showed the interaction of these war impacts on the teachers and learners. Further, focusing on how the domestic cultural and social contexts interact with these impacts is necessary to enhance understanding, solidarity, and tolerance among individuals and achieve a peaceful and cohesive society.
... Some studies have examined why conflict may not have the same effect for boys. Conflict may increase the time that girls spend traveling to and from school (Bekalo et al., 2003). Some empirical research indicates that distance may affect girls' access to education disproportionately even in peacetime, because a long walk provides opportunities to question girls' sexual purity (Murphy et al., 2011). ...
This article aims to fill a gap in the literature regarding violence against students in humanitarian crisis contexts by comparing the risk perceptions of young refugees during the time they were out of school to the time they were enrolled in an educational program. Through this comparison, the article aims to generate deeper reflection on the pervasive assumption that education protects. It argues that this is not necessarily the case, or at least that the reality is much more complex. This research used a mixed method with a sequential exploratory design, which allows to give priority to data, lived experience, and the field. Consequently, this article presents a case study of the accelerated education program in Dadaab refugee camp. The results showed that being enrolled in school can reduce the perception of some risks, but increase others, such as physical assault and gender-based violence.
... The armed conflict along with other numerous consequences also impacted women's education in District Swat, and has been a focus of research in gender and development related studies (Bekalo, Brophy, & Welford, 2003;Buvinić, DasGupta, & Shemyakina, 2014;Shepler & Routh, 2012;Tahiraj, 2010;Valente, 2014). This study argues that in talibanization women and women related services had been subject to damage and vulnerabilities and concentration on their restoration require particular focus from relevant stakeholders and policy makers. ...
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Women's education was under attack by militants in the Swat valley. Violence against schoolgirls by the militants in the Swat valley of Pakistan along-with the two phases of military operation (2007 and 2009) and displacement of Swat residents created a negative atmosphere for women's education. This study addresses the experiences of schoolgirls during conflict and post-conflict situations. In a post-conflict situation, women faced challenges in gaining their position in the field of education. The study is based on the analysis of 13 semi-structured interviews with undertaken with Pakhtun women (women representing Pakhtun tribe) selected through snowball sampling technique from two tehsils of Swat Valley, who have continued their struggle for continuing their education in the post-conflict situation. The study examined the experiences of these women under the conditions of patriarchal system [Pakhtunwali] and militancy by using the concepts from Bourdieu's theory of practice. The collected information was analyzed qualitatively under different themes to clarify the issue under study. It suggests that women of Swat overcome the status of being a victim of militancy to agents of change. Despite their vulnerabilities in the situations created by conflict and culture, these young women struggled to bring positive change in their lives.
... School enrollment rates drop significantly (Lai and Thyne, 2007;UNICEF, 2017), as does school attendance (UNICEF, 2012(UNICEF, , 2017. This typically holds true more for girls' education than for boys' (Bekalo, Brophy and Welford, 2003;Burde and Linden, 2013). This is often related to the distances that need to be travelled, threats to girls who attend school, or because girls need to work at home to compensate for family losses. ...
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By the end of 2019, 4.8 million refugees and migrants had left Venezuela – making it the largest external displacement crisis in the region’s recent history. Of these, 1 in 4 was a child. Across Latin America and the Caribbean, since November 2020, 137 million girls and boys are missing out on their education due to the prolonged closure of schools during COVID-19. The implications are troubling, especially for migrant and refugee children, for whom access to inclusive and equitable education remains a major challenge. This study collates evidence from Latin America, the Caribbean and across the world to gain a better understanding of the multifaceted linkages between education and migration. It estimates gaps in educational outcomes; identifies structural barriers to education; and highlights promising practices to inform policy.
... It lays north of Equator, and it has a coastal line to the north extending 850 km of Aden gulf coastline. It has an area of 109 square kilometers (Bekalo et al., 2003), a population of 3.8 million (Statistics, 2017). Af-Soomaali (Somali) is the official language of the Republic of Somaliland, and Arabic is the second language (Government, 2000). ...
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This study deals with the conflict of franchised cross-border higher education. The constitution of Somaliland on article 15 No.4 loosen the gate of education for foreign institutions, but bilateral relation between Ethiopian universities and Somaliland higher education is experiencing conflicts. The conflicts are between franchisor and franchisee and among franchisee shareholders. The reasons for the problem are unknown since the existence of cross-border foreign universities in Somaliland. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the reasons behind the conflicts and the effect of the conflicts on the learning-teaching. Case study design was applied. The research approach was qualitative, and both primary and secondary sources of data were employed. Interview, document analysis, focus group discussion (FGD), and observation were drawn for data instruments. The results show that the franchising mode of contract/agreement is not respected by the shareholders, absence of trust exists in franchised relationship, the involvement of the Somaliland National Commission for Higher Education (SNCHE) is late on the contract and conflicts, the higher education is running without higher education policy, interruption of the learning-teaching, student transfer, and stakeholders suspicion towards cross border universities. The country has joined the world map after Somalia’s destructive civil war and focused on development in many aspects. Likewise, the researchers planned to contribute tangible asset for the recently emerged Somaliland National Commission for Higher Education. So that it initiates local or international researchers in this area for further researches. Keywords: Cross-border higher education, conflict, franchising mode, Somaliland higher education.
... For example, Somaliland mothers often worked outside the home to support the family because men had been killed or fled. Thus, they relied on girls to work at home more than they would otherwise (Bekalo, Brophy, & Welford, 2003). Some empirical research indicates that distance may affect girls' access to education disproportionately even in peacetime, because a long walk provides opportunities to question girls' sexual purity (Murphy, Stark, Wessells, Boothby, & Ager, 2011). ...
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In this article, we conduct an integrative and rigorous review of theory and research on education in emergencies programs and interventions as international agencies implement them in areas of armed conflict. We ask several questions. How did this subfield emerge and what are the key conceptual frameworks that shape it today? How do education in emergencies programs affect access, learning, and protection in conflict-affected contexts? To answer these questions, we identify the conceptual frameworks and theoretical advances that have occurred since the inception of the field in the mid-1990s. We review the theories that frame the relationship between education and conflict as well as empirical research that tests assumptions that underpin this relationship. Finally, we assess what we know to date about “what works” in education in emergencies based on intervention research. We find that with regard to access, diminished or inequitable access to education drives conflict; conflict reduces boys’ and girls’ access to education differently; and decreased distance to primary school increases enrollment and attendance significantly for boys and even more so for girls. With regard to learning, education content likely contributes to or mitigates conflict, although the mechanisms through which it does so remain underspecified; and peace education programs show promise in changing attitudes and behaviors toward members of those perceived as the “other,” at least in the short term. Finally, providing children living in emergency and postemergency situations with structured, meaningful, and creative activities in a school setting or in informal learning spaces improves their emotional and behavioral well-being.
... De moins en moins de filles sont envoyées à l'école et l'école n'est plus considérée comme ayant une utilité sociale 18 : à quoi sert l'instruction à part faire des diplômés sans emploi qui du coup prennent les armes ? On a là, au moins pour les garçons, une situation très différente de celle observée par Bekalo, Brophy et Welford (2003) en Somalie, où l'éducation joue encore un rôle clé. ...
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Education in crisis in Southern Congo-Brazzaville : what re-engagement of the State ? » In the southern part of Congo-Brazzaville, and particularly in the Niari area, the local populations were very affected by the successive wars of the 1990s and by the disengagement of the State. The education system was not spared. If the State has recently started to seek to establish a new form of “national unity” in the southwest of Congo, its intentions are not devoid of political motivations, even if such policy has had the advantage to bring the region to the fore. But there are still many gaps to fill : despite a few hyper visible and prestigious achievements, the education system is agonizing in rural areas and in small towns. This article stresses the territorialized logics of the State and international organizations which, unwillingly for the latter, marginalize the former pockets of opposition and contribute to reinforce regional and social disparities, notably with regard to the educational trajectories of both pupils and teachers.
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This study aims to explore the practice of Islamic education leadership in the conflict state, in Pattani Southern Thailand, a region where the conflict is prolonged until the decades are between the Malay Muslim minority with the Thai government that is Buddhist. Using a qualitative approach with the method of case study, this study focused on Madrasah Pattani, with the head of madrasa, one teacher, and three alumni as informants. Interviews were conducted with FGD to find out the extent of leadership in Pattani Madrasas during the conflict. The results were found that in hard conditions, the madrasa could develop a strong madrasa vision by adopting a modern curriculum and integrate it with the Islamic curriculum of Islam. Although this method has been opposed to the entry of Buddhist teachers, the head of madrasah neutralise by making several activities to create social cohesion and build cooperation with universities abroad. Leadership mode is rare and difficult to implement in areas that are being hit by an ethno-political conflict on behalf of religion.
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The Somali education sector had almost collapsed by the time Somalia’s government collapsed in 1991. However, an education sector re-emerged in the self-declared independent Republic of Somaliland. Despite limited resources and lacking international recognition as a state, education continues to be provided. This paper sets out to analyse the role played by the state in this process. Although practices of organising primary education provision are largely located outside the state framework, the state continues to be productive for non-state actors in their continuous attempts to deliver education. Despite its distant role, the state is not completely powerless within the organisation of the sector. The paper describes first how the state accumulated sufficient power to be in charge of the education sector. This is followed by three cases unpacking how the state and its power is re-produced between state and non-state actors.
This chapter begins by discussing the optimistic consensus that surrounds the potential role of schooling in peacebuilding in post-conflict societies, despite the enormous difficulties and challenges faced and despite the role of schooling in sometimes helping to foment violence in the first place. It cites international organisations, government development agencies and academics who express the view that education can be transformed (a commonly used word in the literature) and can play a positive role. The second section of the chapter looks at the importance of evidence, arguing that much of the literature on education and peace is prescriptive and aspirational in nature. This is why it therefore seemed important to carry out a wider study of the literature and evidence on the role of schooling in conflict-affected and post-conflict developing societies to examine whether there was a large amount of wishful thinking or whether schooling really could be transformed to make a significant contribution to peacebuilding.
Provision of education and other basic services in fragile and conflict-affected contexts can be an important means of building positive peace. However, service provision suffers when government is absent or too weak to carry out this function. In such circumstances, the peace-building function of education may be lost unless other means of provision are developed. UNICEF supported education in Somalia in 1996–2010 as part of its mandate. Though it was not the only international agency working in education in Somalia, UNICEF took a leading role for much of the early crisis period. Facing variable instability and a lack of functioning government, especially in the south-west (central/south zone), UNICEF took advantage of shifting opportunities to educate thousands of children and adults. The agency’s longstanding presence and focus on children, families and communities gave it unusual credibility. Close partnerships with local NGOs permitted outreach to diverse communities and capacity to exploit emergent opportunities. Instructional content provided basic skills; negotiated with stakeholders, it was suitable for both public and Qu’ranic schools. UNICEF varied activities according to local stability and partner capacity. Basic components were introduced first, additional components added as conditions stabilized and capacity grew. Efforts were evaluated and programme elements revised. Unable to rely on central government, UNICEF engaged flexibly with sub-national governing entities including nascent zonal governments to support educational provision.
Incl. tables, abstract and bibl. references One central pillar of the Eritrean revolution is the modernization of gender roles within Eritrean society, through education. This article, based on ethnographic style research, looks at the personal experiences of young women in Eritrean secondary schools. These girls' journeys are discussed in terms of gender resistance, exemplifying modernity, and gender accommodation, exemplifying tradition. It is argued that these categories are not as dichotomous as claimed by the education policy agenda: in contrast, many young women strive to find a balance between the two. Ultimately, the success of the Eritrean model of the modernization of gender roles should be measured in terms of having created an environment in which women are able to strive to fulfil their aspirations.
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Higher education is an important form of investment in human capital. In fact, it can be regarded as a high level or a specialised form of human capital, the contribution of which to economic growth is very significant. It is rightly regarded as the “engine of development in the new world economy” (Castells, 1994, p. 14). The contribution of higher education to development can be varied: it helps in the rapid industrialization of the economy, by providing manpower with professional, technical and managerial skills. In the present context of transformation of societies into knowledge societies, higher education provides not just educated workers, but knowledge workers to the growth of the economy. It creates attitudes, and makes possible attitudinal changes necessary for the socialisation of the individuals and the modernisation and overall transformation of the societies. Fourthly, and most importantly, higher education helps, through teaching and research in the creation, absorption and dissemination of knowledge. Higher education also helps in the formation of a strong nation-state and at the same time helps in globalisation. Lastly, higher education allows people to enjoy an enhanced ‘life of mind’ offering the wider society both cultural and political benefits (TFHES, 2000, p. 37).
Somalia and Somaliland are both inhabited basically by Somaliswith small Oromo minorities in both, and a large Swahili minority in the latter. Both have multiple clans, sub-clans, lineage and blood groups and in both Islam is central to social values. Somalia had no history of a stable state before Italian rule but Somaliland did (Haud-Hargeisa-Berbera-Arabia trade axis centred). The United Republic of Somalia (rejected in the referendum by Somaliland) passed from political instability to two decades of Said Barre's increasingly centralised and repressive dictatorship which waged war against the North-west (Somaliland) and North-east (Bosaso) as well as against Ethiopia. The dictatorship collapsed in 1991 basically because of the 1987-91 Somaliland Liberation war. The economies of Somalia/Somaliland turn on pastoral production, commerce and remittances. These have recovered in part in Somalia and fully in Somaliland. However, only a fraction of the Barre regimes dissolution of service delivery and user friendly law and order capicity has been made good in Somaliland and virtually more in Somalia. USA/UN intervention did limit starvation and-for a time-open violence. That was at a high cost in finances, in the reputation of peacekeeping and to Somalis. UNOSOM answered political and civil questions before having any real grasp of civil, political and economic realities. The price was to entrench warlords and militias and to marginalise 'peacelords' (elders and merchants). Somaliland, never occupied by UNOSOM, has engaged in a series of large, long peace conferences of elders from all parts of its territory leading to a real if fragile national/territorial identity with personal security in most areas, an elected president and two house parliament, a user friendly police force and court system and the beginnings of a restored professional civil service.
Whether talking to local farmers or studying academic papers there is general agreement that environmental degradation is impacting upon agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. In a country, where around 90% of the population are dependent on agriculture for subsistence requirements and a similar fraction of the country's export income is generated from the agriculture sector, environmental degradation with subsequent decline in agricultural productivity has serious repercussions on household and national economies alike. This paper argues that given the intimate relationship between environmental degradation and poverty, environmental education has an important role to play in any poverty alleviation strategy. The paper explores the history of environmental education in Ethiopia and concludes that the formal sector, which has thus far formed the main point of delivery, is not well suited to delivering a meaningful programme that can elicit progress towards more sustainable land-use practices. The authors argue that non formal and participatory programme delivered through existing local organizations can have a ‘wider broadcast’, a more immediate impact and are better able to absorb and utilize local knowledge.
Conclusion In the last two decades of the twentieth century, many Africans have experienced decline or stagnation in the quality of their lives. The continued high rates of poverty and declining educational enrolments in the region are outcomes of multiple factors, including escalating debt and declining development assistance on the global level and fiscal mismanagement, weak governance and continued population growth within African countries. One realization that has come from the experiences of recent decades is that poverty is both a cause and an outcome of low educational enrolments. Breaking the cycle requires great effort on two fronts simultaneously: (a) a targeted attack on poverty through policies that promote sustainable and equitable development; and (b) an unwavering long-term investment in basic education (Psacharopoulos, 1995). The question remains whether international organizations, African governments and local communities will heed the lessons learned from past missteps and apply them to future educational initiatives. Both the international community's renewed awareness of the importance of basic education and the recent educational efforts of African-based NGOs suggest that the answer to this question is a tentative ‘yes’. Perhaps the first decade of the new millennium will bring a more definitive answer.
Despite advances in modern communication and the proliferation of information, there remain areas of the world about which little is known. One such place is Somalia. The informed public is aware of a political ‘meltdown’ and consequent chaos there, but few comprehend the causes of this tragic crisis. Unless and until there is greater understanding of the basic issues involved, Somalia will continue to suffer mayhem and chronic disorder. This article assesses some of the factors involved in the current civil war in Somalia, especially as they pertain to the inter riverine region of the south. Particular emphasis is placed on the Dighil/Mirifle clan in that region. In contrast to the single cause analysis that attributes all to Siad Barré's dictatorship, which is adopted by nearly every Somali scholar and politician, the article investigates the social causes of the worst civil war in the modern history of this country. The single cause analysis is inadequate because it is not so much scientific as ideological, and represents the desire of nomadic groups to impose cultural and political hegemony on the settled agro‐pastoralist groups in and around the inter‐riverine region in the south. The basic tenet of this hegemonic ambition is an invented homogeneity, which presents Somalia as one of the few culturally homogeneous countries in Africa, if not the world. The Somali people are said to have a single language and to share a mono‐culture. In fact, Somalia has always been divided into southern agro‐pastoral clans and northern nomadic clans which have distinctively different cultural, linguistic, and social structures. The monoculture about which most students of Somalia speak is extrapolated mainly from the study of the northern part of the country, where most of the research into Somali culture was undertaken. The assumptions and extrapolations of these northern‐based studies were later applied to other parts of the country without any scientific basis. The myth of Somali homogeneity played a major role in the rise of nomadic clans to political predominance, and the appropriation of resources from the less warlike and intensely religious agro‐pastoral groups in and around the inter‐riverine region. A major factor in the Somali conflict is the struggle among clans for control of limited and increasingly scarce resources, especially land and water. More specifically, it is a violent competition between the Darood and Hawiye clan families for political and economic dominance of the inter‐riverine region.
In pre-colonial traditional Somalia, education was dispensed through informal systems of communal interaction. With the arrival of colonialism in the mid-late 19th century, formal programmes of learning were slowly but steadily established. These were limited in scope and were essentially designed for the purposes of colonization. With independence in 1960, the education sector developed very quickly with pre-1991 civilian and military governments building hundreds of schools, training tens of thousands of teachers, adopting the Latin script for the writing of the Somali language, and successfully implementing nation-wide literacy programmes. But with the collapse of the Somali state in 1991, all modern systems of learning in the country were destroyed by the fighting factions, and Somalia has since been a country without any formal programmes of education. This paper first looks at the history of education in Somalia, then it describes and analyses the nature as well as the magnitude of destruction, and ends with an urgent appeal to the international community to come to the rescue of Somalia's children, and help resuscitate and reconstitute the country's structures and forms of learning.
The 1977–8 war in the Horn of Africa and its traumatic aftermath has brought Somalia to a critical junction. The expulsion of the Soviets in November 1977, following their overtures to Ethiopia, and the subsequent rout of the Somali army, along with Ogadeni guerrillas, by a combined Cuban–Ethiopian–Yemini force led by Russian generals, has left this nation demoralised, isolated, and ideologically sundered. A fluid and somewhat confused socio-economic and political situation, only made less chaotic by President Mohamed Siad Barre's powerful personality and will to survive, characterises this post-war Somalia.
This paper provides a framework of analysis of economic markets in stateless Somalia. It argues that the informal market that sustained private sector activities under the repressive policies of Siad Barré's government has provided a functioning system to the economy. In small communities that achieved internal law and order, their economy boomed in an unprecedented free-market environment, and the no-government situation has proven to be far better than the repressive government institutions and policies of Barré's era. However, the economic expansion is chaotic and there is a strong new demand for an accountable and effective government that could provide essential public goods for sustainable economic development.
While Koranic schools are omnipresent throughout Somaliland and can boast a student enrolment rate of 60% compared to just 17% in primary schools, their contribution to basic education is either not known or thought to be insignificant. This paper reports on a survey to establish the current structure of Koranic schools in Somaliland, with a view to documenting the changing nature of the institution and assessing its potential to effectively address the expansion of basic education. It discusses survey findings on the material conditions of the Koranic schools; enrolment by age and sex; background of the teachers; opportunities for learning beyond memorisation of the Koran; and level of community and outside involvement in managing and sustaining the schools. The conclusion drawn is that Koranic schools have remained remarkably resilient and popular since their introduction in Somaliland 700 years ago, and contrary to common beliefs about the institution, virtually all the Koranic schools surveyed included elements of basic education and thus offered more than rote memorisation of the Koran.
Clusters, as spatial concentrations of economic activity, constitute an important form of coordination with significant repercussions in the configuration of firm and territorial strategies. They are recognized, both by academics and policymakers, as a territorial pattern of economy yielding critical issues in terms of competitive advantage, innovation, and economic growth. Despite that, a rigorous and clear-cut definition of cluster is still far from being reached. In the present paper, resorting to a critical synthesis of the literature on networks and clusters, we propose a unified, encompassing, and less blurred definition of cluster.
The paper provides a comprehensive update of the profitability of investment in education at a global scale. The rate of return patterns established in earlier reviews are upheld: namely, that primary education continues to be the number one investment priority in developing countries; the returns decline by the level of schooling and the country's per capita income; investment in women's education is in general more profitable than that for men; returns in the private competitive sector of the economy are higher than among those working in the public sector; and that the public financing of higher education is regressive. The above findings are discussed in the context of controversies in the field, concluding that investment in education continues to be a very attractive investment opportunity in the world today - both from the private and the social point of view.
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ACCESS: An Alternative Route to Basic Edu-cation for Children in Ethiopia
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Somalia: paradoxes of private prosperity, poverty pockets, volatile vulnerability and public pauperisation
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Somalia: Nation in Search of a State A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastorals and Politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa
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BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee). 1995. Non Formal Primary Education: Annual Report
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The legacy of complex emergency in Somalia and Somaliland: local effect, rehabilitation and approaches to peace making and state reconstruction. COPE Working Paper no. 23
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Girls and Schools in Sub-Sah-aran Africa: From Analysis to Action
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Population Estimates for Somaliland
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Letter from Mogadishu
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Convention on the Rights of the Child
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Survey of Primary Schools in Somalia
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MOEYS (Somaliland Government, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports)
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Education For All Assessment Report
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Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey: Northwest Somalia (Somaliland)
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