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Strategic management for school development: leading your school's improvement strategy

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... Teacher 2, on the other hand, would initiate it, but she pointed out that the principal's or vice-principal's support is essential in order for the community initiative to receive acceptance. Furthermore, tasks beyond the regular teaching duties might be seen as an opportunity for careerist (Fidler, 2002) to gain reputation, influence, knowledge, monetary compensations, or promotions (York- Barr & Duke, 2004;Barth 2001). When asked why Teacher 2 would like to continue to lead family involvement at her school, she said that it can increase her creativity and experience and teacher 1 for increased motivation. ...
... It might also help the initiator predict who might be the most suitable agents and how likely the initiative will stand strong and endure during the implementation and the institutionalization stages, when stakeholders are more likely to lack impetus . At these stages, it is important that the teacher leader identifies and encourages change drivers, co-operatives and careerists (Fidler, 2002), who can have a positive influence on the team. ...
... Hence, the reflective session should be done anonymously by making use, for example, of graphic thinking tools (see Appendix 1) where the answers are representative of the groups. This exercise could also help resisters or luddites, skepticals and ambivalents (Fidler, 2002) channel their resistance. It helps participants think not only of facilitators, obstacles and possible solutions to achieve their goals, but also to keep a visual image of the desirable future outcomes. ...
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“English Language Teacher Development: Theory, Research & Practice” is entirely based on the work and research activities conducted by mentors and managers of English Language Teacher Development Project (ELTDP), which is part of the Native Speaker Programme (NSP) initiated by the Malaysian Ministry of Education (MOE) and implemented from 2011 – 2013. ELTDP is under the British Council (BC) banner, which is one of the consortiums given the project by the Malaysian government. The chapters in this book are solely based on research and academic work and activities that involved the guiding, mentoring, and facilitating of teachers, and the researching of teaching-learning processes that transpired as a result of the involvement of mentors. 􏱀􏰉􏰻􏰋􏰗􏰉􏰖􏰍􏰔􏰖􏰂􏰇􏰎􏰉􏰐􏰒􏰉􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉􏰴􏰅􏰖􏰂􏰖􏰗􏰀􏰉􏰥􏰃􏰙􏰍􏰟􏰖􏰊􏰉􏰦􏰴􏰥􏰨􏰉􏰂􏰃􏰉􏰃􏰔􏰇􏰅􏰗􏰇􏰇􏰉􏰇􏰎􏰖􏰂􏰖􏰍􏰓􏰤􏰉􏰅􏰇􏰔􏰖􏰇􏰻􏰖􏰍􏰓􏰤􏰉􏰲􏰍􏰋􏰊􏰖􏰣􏰖􏰍􏰓􏰉􏰋􏰍􏰎􏰉􏰄􏰙􏰐􏰊􏰖􏰗􏰀􏰖􏰍􏰓􏰉 these chapters in the form of a manuscript. After reading the initial drafts that were sent to me, it was quite evident that the best form of publication would be an ‘edited book’ that would contain different chapters but with a central theme that would connect the chapters to each other, giving strength and credibility to the proposed manuscript. After examining 􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉 􏰗􏰙􏰐􏰁􏰖􏰂􏰂􏰇􏰎􏰉 􏰎􏰅􏰋􏰡􏰂􏰗􏰉 􏰋􏰍􏰎􏰉 􏰋􏰐􏰗􏰂􏰅􏰋􏰟􏰂􏰗􏰤􏰉 􏱀􏰉 􏰋􏰊􏰗􏰃􏰉 􏰅􏰇􏰋􏰊􏰖􏰣􏰇􏰎􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰋􏰂􏰉 􏰁􏰃􏰗􏰂􏰉 􏰃􏰡􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉 􏰗􏰙􏰓􏰓􏰇􏰗􏰂􏰇􏰎􏰉 􏰟􏰀􏰋􏰄􏰂􏰇􏰅􏰗􏰉 discussed various issues related to teacher professional development in East Malaysia. Hence it was decided that the central theme of the book would be related to issues of teacher development. The fact that teacher development is also an integral element of NSP, 􏰖􏰂􏰉 􏰻􏰋􏰗􏰉 􏰗􏰂􏰅􏰃􏰍􏰓􏰊􏰒􏰉 􏰡􏰇􏰊􏰂􏰉 􏰐􏰒􏰉 􏰐􏰃􏰂􏰀􏰉 􏰴􏰥􏰉 􏰋􏰍􏰎􏰉 􏰁􏰒􏰗􏰇􏰊􏰡􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰋􏰂􏰉 􏰋􏰉 􏰄􏰙􏰐􏰊􏰖􏰟􏰋􏰂􏰖􏰃􏰍􏰉 􏰃􏰡􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰖􏰗􏰉 􏰍􏰋􏰂􏰙􏰅􏰇􏰉 􏰻􏰃􏰙􏰊􏰎􏰉 􏰐􏰇􏰍􏰇􏰲􏰂􏰉 Malaysians, especially those linked directly to NSP and anyone with educational interests since a huge amount of money was invested into NSP. The publication would disseminate vital information about ELTDP and how it was implemented in schools in East Malaysia, as well as gaining understanding to what extent the Malaysian teachers and pupils gained and learned from the NSP initiative. I reviewed the drafts and provided suggestions for further improvement by the authors. The chapters were then compiled as a complete manuscript, which was then reviewed by an external reviewer. The Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Press agreed to co-publish this book with BC as a meaningful and useful collaboration. It was agreed that USM Press would 􏰖􏰍􏰗􏰄􏰇􏰟􏰂􏰉 􏰋􏰍􏰎􏰉 􏰇􏰹􏰋􏰁􏰖􏰍􏰇􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉 􏰲􏰍􏰋􏰊􏰉 􏰎􏰅􏰋􏰡􏰂􏰉 􏰃􏰡􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉 􏰁􏰋􏰍􏰙􏰗􏰟􏰅􏰖􏰄􏰂􏰉 􏰐􏰇􏰡􏰃􏰅􏰇􏰉 􏰖􏰂􏰉 􏰖􏰗􏰉 􏰄􏰙􏰐􏰊􏰖􏰗􏰀􏰇􏰎􏰉 􏰗􏰃􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰋􏰂􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉 book would achieve the international academic quality and standard. USM Press will also distribute the books to its partners and all other interested parties, especially those in the 􏰲􏰇􏰊􏰎􏰉􏰃􏰡􏰉􏰇􏰎􏰙􏰟􏰋􏰂􏰖􏰃􏰍􏰉􏰖􏰍􏰉􏰺􏰋􏰊􏰋􏰒􏰗􏰖􏰋􏰑􏰉􏰴􏰥􏰉􏰻􏰃􏰙􏰊􏰎􏰉􏰃􏰔􏰇􏰅􏰗􏰇􏰇􏰉􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉􏰂􏰇􏰟􏰀􏰍􏰖􏰟􏰋􏰊􏰉􏰋􏰗􏰄􏰇􏰟􏰂􏰗􏰉􏰋􏰍􏰎􏰉􏰄􏰅􏰇􏰄􏰋􏰅􏰋􏰂􏰖􏰃􏰍􏰉􏰃􏰡􏰉 􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉􏰎􏰙􏰁􏰁􏰒􏰤􏰉􏰲􏰍􏰋􏰍􏰟􏰇􏰉􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰉􏰄􏰅􏰖􏰍􏰂􏰖􏰍􏰓􏰉􏰟􏰃􏰗􏰂􏰗􏰉􏰋􏰍􏰎􏰉􏰋􏰊􏰊􏰉􏰃􏰂􏰀􏰇􏰅􏰉􏰅􏰇􏰊􏰋􏰂􏰇􏰎􏰉􏰄􏰙􏰐􏰊􏰖􏰗􏰀􏰖􏰍􏰓􏰉􏰟􏰃􏰗􏰂􏰗􏰤􏰉􏰋􏰍􏰎􏰉􏰙􏰍􏰎􏰇􏰅􏰂􏰋􏰏􏰇􏰉 other administrative decisions related to the publication of this book. I am extremely happy with the quality of chapters contributed by the authors. I consider these to be some of the best works that I have edited and compiled in an edited book. However, my main hope and concern is that teachers and other stakeholders would read this book and gain valuable insights and knowledge about teacher development. Hopefully, this will ignite and spark their own development. As for the MOE, this book provides an idea of the kind of activities that could be integrated into NSP. In addition, this should be a useful resource to relook at the current overall policies and practices of teacher professional development in Malaysia.
... Na přelomu tisíciletí se již téma objevuje jako jedno ze základních v moderním managementu škol, př. Prosser (1999), Elsner (1999), Dziergowska (2000), Fidler (2002), Obdržálek a kol. (2004). ...
... Tématu image školy se věnuje velká pozornost ve studijních materiálech pro managementy škol v Anglii (např. Fidler, 2002) odkud jsme čerpali inspiraci i pro ČR. Například Brent a Ellison (1997) v marketingu školy přímo vybízeli k přezkoušení image své školy (volně přeloženo): ...
... Odborníci jistě mohou oponovat, že vytvoření vhodného nástroje není jednoduchou záležitostí, ale na druhou stranu právě pro zvýšení zapojení především pedagogického sboru do procesu autoevaluace a řízení kvality ve škole doporučují tento postup např. Evans (1995), Elsner (1999), Fidler (2002 a potvrzuje to i naše zkušenost z praxe v ČR. ...
Book
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Nová učebnice Marketing školy klasicky vychází ze základní aplikace marketingu pro oblast služeb a specificky vzdělávacích služeb. Základní zaměření je na efektivní komunikaci škol s veřejností. Mezi výrazné novinky patří prezentace školy jako značky, návod na realizaci komunikační kampaně se zaměřením na cílové skupiny škol. Dále je to orientace na využití technologií v marketingu, tj. zde tím zejména myslíme www stránky škol a komunikaci prostřednictvím sociálních médií. Přidány jsou i náměty pro realizaci průzkumu potřeb a přání veřejnosti ve vztahu ke škole a pro případný vznik marketingového týmu školy. Mezi klasická témata patří strategické plánování, utváření kultury a image školy. Učebnice má didaktickou úpravu a odkazuje na náměty z praxe našich škol i ze zahraničí.
... Conducted research focused on the dimensions of school culture within Czech schools. As is mentioned above, the theoretical construct of this research was prepared on the basis of the literature review (among others, Bush, 2003;Everard et al., 2004;Fidler, 2002;Gruenert, 2000;Maslowski, 2006;Peterson & Deal, 1998). ...
... The first inspiration for the development of this tool came from publications by Everard and Morris (1996); Everard et al. (2004); and a description of Handy´s four culture models by Bush (2003). A tool for school culture assessment by Fidler (2002) was also taken into account in the preparation of the second version of this School Culture Inventory. School Culture Inventory contains 16 items, which were developed to assess school culture in important domains by creating sub-categories and possible variables of school culture. ...
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The aim of the research was to find out what factors of school culture affect the expected results of teaching and learning processes in basic schools. The research evaluated current and desired school culture in selected basic schools to identify culture gaps. Research using School Culture Inventory explored relations among selected sub-categories, namely between the sub-categories focused on shared objectives, trust in school leadership, and on managerial approach and the important sub-categories focused on innovation process and expected results of teaching and learning processes. The independent evaluators were final year students of the Faculties of Education from two universities in the Czech Republic who assessed schools after one month of their position at the selected schools (the research sample included 182 basic schools). The findings provided the evidence of current culture gaps and of a positive association between higher positive evaluations in the sub-category leadership and management and the sub-category expected results of teaching and learning processes. The results brought by the research will help school leaders when they plan to shape or change the culture of the schools they manage.
... The various strategic approaches aim to move educational institutions from their present position to a desirable future position (Davies & Ellison, 2003;Fidler, 2002;West-Burnham, 1994;Wheale, 1991). The strategy of focus aims to direct activities to specific customer segments. ...
... The purpose of strategic management is to achieve the desired objectives in the future. The strategic management also involves the development of the organization and its present activities to achieve the objectives set in the strategic plan (Davies & Ellison, 2003;Fidler, 2002). According to Peters (1988), the strategy is used to create organizational capabilities to react to the changing environment. ...
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This study analyzes the strategic planning of the ICT center, which is a joint venture of three higher education institutions. The strategies of focus and operations excellence are natural choices to define the strategic outlines for the center, which aims to increase the economic growth of the region. The selected strategies are described in this study using the balanced scorecard approach. It allows the network of organizations to articulate and communicate their strategy to their employees and stakeholders. The concept of the strategy map is used to describe the strategy. The decentralized efforts of separate organizational units would most likely fail without the network strategy and cooperation.
... t century, namely 1) the environmental crisis, 2) globalization and, 3) post-modernism; 4) secularization; 5) crisis of science and technology; 6 ) the penetration of non-Islamic values; 7) improved the image of Islam; 8) revitalization of Islamic civilization; 9) feminism and gender; 10) Human Rights; 11) internal matters of Islam (David. 2005 andFidler. 2002). ...
... r should select any kind of strategies such as: a) vertical corporation strategy, b) aggressive strategy, c) divesment strategy, d) concentric diversication strategy, e) rational strategy, f) market driven strategy, g) competence based strategy, h) process based strategy, i) context based strategy and h) non rational based strategy (David. 2005 andFidler. 2002). ...
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This article intends to elaborate a charge include life skills opportunities in both madrasah curriculum of ibtidaiyah, tsanawiyah and aliyah. The approach used is the science of Islamic education. Some important concepts in Islam that allows it to be analyzed and used as the basis of life skills-based curriculum contained in QS. Al-Ghâsyiyah [88]: 17-20, QS. Fâthir [35]: 39, QS. Al-Jâtsiyah [45]: 12-13, QS. Al-A‟râf [7]: 56-85 and QS. Al-Hujurât [49]: 1, 13, 18. Ethical values (Rasul Muhammad) Islam that allows elaborating life skills is shiddiq, amanah, fathanah and tabligh. The fourth value is assumed to equip graduates of madrassas that he later had a number of personal, social, academic, vocational and soft. The fourth value is assumed to equip graduates of madrassas that he later had the skills. A number of core Islamic values should be in synergy with the age issues such as democracy, globalization, the mastery of science, technology and information (the environment).
... According to Fidler (2002), the concept of the environment "arises from the systems theory and by which an organization is surrounded by a boundary, everything outside the boundary is termed as the environment". Thus an educational organisation interacts with this external environment, which is constantly changing and getting more complicated as the pace of technological progress and globalisation accelerates. ...
... The external environment provides the external context in which education managers operate. The environment's socio-technical influences are sometimes categorized as PESTE: political, economic, social, technical, and educational (Fidler, 2002). ...
Book
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Education has an increasingly significant role in forming a more sustainable, equitable and prosperous society. The rapid change, especially the dramatic accereration of knowledge, demands continuous learning, while the meaning of learning itself has changed. School leadership plays a key role in coping with these changes, particularly in schools, by enhancing people's competence and efficacy and helping them share their knowledge with each other. This book is one of the results of the 19th ENIRDELM Conference, which dealt with the connection between learning and school leadership, including the impact of leadership on qualitative and measurable learning outcomes as well. You can find a road range of inspiring studies about leadership issues at system, organisational and personal levels. You will also find answers to questions such as: what insturctional leadership means in daily practice, how school leaders' competencies can be measured, or what the modernist HRM and OD methods or models like GARUDA, RDA, and PDA signify. Reading this book you can enjoy a variety of approaches to the crucial topic of modern societies' sustainable development adopted by respected authors.
... The desired future state of an organization is expressed by the vision. Strategic planning requires an explicit description how an organization is moving from the present day described by the mission in the intended direction and state (Fidler, 2002;Davies and Ellison, 2003). A well-expressed vision should be simple, short and understandable and it should motivate the members of the organization to work towards it with pride and enthusiasm. ...
Chapter
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This study analyses how strategic management is integrated with budgeting in the cities using the Balanced Scorecard approach, which provides a general framework to communicate and implement strategies. The approach is useful in accomplishing the strategic objectives, measures, and targets decided by city councils. It is important to align the strategic plans of various units at the different organizational levels of the city and link them together in the budgeting process, which is the main management system in most public sector organizations. The study shows how the electronic collaborative technologies can support strategic planning, implementation, and preservation of organizational knowledge. The management information system provides a platform to integrate organizational knowledge and development to facilitate strategic management.
... Strategic management is a matter of developing the organisation and its present activities to achieve the desired objectives in the future (Fidler, 2002;Davies & Ellison, 2003). The new strategies of HEIs typically reflect the existing strategies, which are tailored to meet the needs of the organisation and its stakeholders. ...
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This chapter presents the strategies of higher education institutions and how they can be described using the balanced scorecard approach. The pedagogical ICT strategy describes the virtual learning and e-entrepreneurship in higher education. Strategic themes are presented to describe what management believes must be done to succeed and achieve the desired outcomes in virtual learning and e-entrepreneurship. Strategy maps are used to describe the strategy in a graphical representation. In addition, the study presents an example of the cooperation between a higher education institution and a spin-off company. This chapter helps the educational administrators to better describe and implement strategies for virtual learning and e-entrepreneurship.
... Southworth 2002;Male 2006). Believing that different styles of leadership are needed for different contexts and occasions, Fidler (2002) states that 'leadership is a complex area with many apparently contradictory requirements, [and that] suggestions that particular approaches to leadership should be universal ... should be resisted' (p. 32). ...
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This paper reviews models and constructs of leadership in order to examine critically the role of educational leaders in supporting learning and development in Saudi Arabian public schools. The main conclusion reached is that the current system views educational leadership as the responsibility of a single person and suggests maintenance rather than development and management rather than leadership. Whilst there is now a governmental policy aspiration to implement collaborative learning this seems contradictory with their way of leading Saudi education which models a centralised decision-making culture inside educational settings. The construct of Pedagogical Leadership is suggested, therefore, as a way to change the culture of teaching and learning in Saudi schools and the principal recommendation is to reform the Saudi public school system in order to give more flexibility and autonomy for leaders to be able to cope with the continuously changing demands of learning and knowledge development.
... (Cohen,1990). Bu bağlamda çalışmalardaki gruplara ait sonuçlar arası çıkan anlamlı farkın ne derece önemli olduğunu gösteren bir başka ölçüt ise etki büyüklüğüdür (Fidler, 2002). Cohen (1988) etki büyüklüğü değerlerini yorumlamak amacıyla geliştirdiği modelde etki büyüklüğü değerlerinin anlamlılık düzeylerini sınıflamaya çalışmıştır. ...
... Skolas aizvien vairāk izmanto internetu, izstrādājot mājas lapas, lietojot eklasi, kas palīdz skaidrot skolas stratēģisko plānu, kā arī pieejamība regulāri atjaunināt saturu sāk piedāvāt jaunas komunikācijas iespējas, kas nav bijušas pieejamas agrāk (Fidler, 2002). Šo iespēju ir jānovērtē, jo tā prasa salīdzinoši mazus ieguldījumus, bet ātru un ērtu veidu kā publiskot jaunāko informāciju par skolu, tostarp attēlus, un viegli uzrunāt mērķauditoriju. ...
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Article consists of three parts - theoretical, empirical research and recommendations for improvement the school website photo galleries. Publication analyses ideas (Weber&Mitchell, Ķestere, Kaļķe, Fischer&Kiefer, Veide) that reveal importance of the teacher's image in the representation of the school, significance of the picture and selfpromotion in the school context. The empirical study consider teacher’s image in 17 Latvian school website photo galleries and surveys 102 primary school student’s parents to find out their views on the school website photo galleries impact on the selection of the school for their children. Analysis of the theoretical literature and interpretation of the results of the study highlights recommendations for the improvement of the school website photo galleries as a type of school's self-representation.
... Strategic management builds bridges between the perceived present situation and the desired future position described by the vision (Bush & Coleman, 2000;Fidler, 2002;Johnson & Scholes, 2002). Higher education institutions adapt their strategies to the education policy and changing environment. ...
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This abstract describes the networked cooperation of the academic libraries and the consortium of the digital libraries of the Finnish universities of applied sciences and their strategic plan for the Web service. It argues that it is reasonable to plan the strategies for the network, because no single library has complete control over all the aspects that are necessary to develop the cooperation between the libraries. The strategy is the basis for a cooperation enabling electronic services for the libraries. The findings of this study are useful to the administrators of educational institutions aiming to plan a networked strategy and improve the cost-efficient cooperation of otherwise independent organisations.
... One of the greatest weaknesses in the literature has been the striking lack of precision in the use of the term and even what constitutes the concept. As a result, the term strategy remains frustrating (Quong, Walker, & Stott, 1998), elusive (Fidler, 2002), and considerably misunderstood (Eacott, 2008b). The phenomenon of strategy within educational leadership is of interest for two reasons. ...
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Strategy is an ambiguous term in the field of educational leadership. This article reports on a study in which I sought to investigate how practicing school principals and the literature construct the concept. Specifically, I investigated the congruence between two sources of data: the transcribed texts of interviews with practicing principals and a systematic search of peer-reviewed journal articles extending over a 28-year period. The poor match between practitioners and the literature in how they portray the strategic role of school leaders challenges scholars and practitioners alike to reconsider the conceptualization of strategy. If strategy is to become a meaningful construct in the field, then a broader, more discursive lens is required; otherwise, the concept risks fading into obscurity or becoming little more than yet another adjectival form of leadership. Over the past few decades, the use of the term strategy and, implicitly, strategic has experienced a series of intellectual ebbs and flows within the field of educational leadership. One of the greatest weaknesses in the literature has been the striking lack of precision in the use of the term and even what constitutes the concept. As a result, the term strategy remains frustrating (Quong, Walker, & Stott, 1998), elusive (Fidler, 2002), and considerably misunderstood (Eacott, 2008b). The phenomenon of strategy within educational leadership is of interest for two reasons. First, as governments encourage an enterprising culture (McWilliam, 2000) in the delivery of education, as built on a market ideology and explicitly linking economic prosperity with student achievement, the relationship between school leadership and society moves beyond the mere instruction of children toward a greater level of interdependence. Second, scholarship on the strategic role of the school leader has tended to follow practitioner
... These intentional and structured changes realised as part of the school development process (Fidler, 2002;Fullan, 1991) can be established at different school levels, which include  organisational level (i.e., school program, school culture, work with parents, etc.),  teaching level (developing teaching quality through alignment with students and their needs, practical trainings, interdisciplinary learning, etc.),  individual level (development of human resources, including supervision, continuing education, work shadowing, etc.) (Dalin, 1996;Rolff, 2013). ...
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The fact that benefits related to teacher collaboration are associated with characteristics of successful schools makes collaboration particularly relevant for school development processes. The goal of the present study was to identify patterns in perceptions of collaboration and compare them with regard to its perceived benefits, such as professional development, reduced workload, and improved student focus. Results based on cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, and analyses of variance revealed four collaboration patterns that also differed with regard to the benefits of collaboration perceived by teachers. Findings indicate that teachers apply forms of collaboration that are connected to a relatively small decrease in their own autonomy. Teachers who collaborate also perceive benefits, and teachers who feel pressurised by the principal to collaborate neither collaborate more nor perceive more benefits to collaboration. All findings are reviewed with a focus on school development processes, and recommendations for practice are offered.
... Specifically , lack of interest in ICT from some teachers appeared to result in the development of EN. Individuals are regarded as being more or less welcoming of change for reasons related to personality or motivation (Fidler, 2002; Hoban, 2002; Riffel & Levin, 1997). Motivation may in fact be linked to teachers' sense of their own professionalism (Evans, 1998). ...
Article
a b s t r a c t To illustrate the conditions under which successful innovation adoption takes place, this paper focuses on the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) through emerging communi-ties in schools. Two types of such communities are described in terms of the degree of participation in the implementation: school-wide communities and enclaves. The article describes implementation practices in four primary schools with reported high ICT use, selected as case-studies. Four criteria, reflecting the domain, personnel relationships, policy and implementation goals and strategies, as well as staff consis-tency, are employed to outline the existence and types of communities of implementation within these schools. Findings indicate that, although both school-wide communities and enclaves are present in suc-cessful schools, enclaves – compared to school-wide communities – are related to lower levels of imple-mentation. Based on these findings the authors discuss policy directions towards the development of school-wide communities as a purposeful implementation strategy to help transition ICT institutionali-zation from the initiation to the habitualization stage.
... On the other hand, Ensari (2005) defines strategy as an action map that is followed on the path to reaching the targets that allow continuity of organizations by gaining competitive advantage. Fidler (2002) indicates that strategy is a process of change that affects the organization as a whole in the long term. ...
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