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Basics Of Qualitative Research: Techniques And Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory

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... This is a qualitative study using complex though as theoretical framework and the Grounded Theory (12) as methodological framework. The study is part of the University outreach project "Learning Incubator", approved by the Research Ethics Committee under CAAE 11520312.3.0000.5306. ...
... Throughout history, educational programs have often focused on training professionals to meet the demands of society and, very rarely, on training autonomous human beings who are protagonists of their history. (12) In other words, the traditional training process has contributed little to the formation of citizens that can deal with the evolutionary dynamics of life itself. ...
... Therefore, it is an idea that captures the multidimensional phenomena that can not be separated from the whole to signify lifelong learning. (12,13) Each human being, as a complex unit (16) is flowing and becoming throughout life. Their autonomy is affirmed and strengthened in the creative, interactive and dynamic relationship with their peers and in the whole, as shown in the findings of this study. ...
... Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview data [39]. Based on Corbin and Strauss' qualitative analytic methods, this analytic technique is grounded in the process of coding similar responses from the sample and using those codes to discern important themes and patterns across participants [39]. ...
... Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview data [39]. Based on Corbin and Strauss' qualitative analytic methods, this analytic technique is grounded in the process of coding similar responses from the sample and using those codes to discern important themes and patterns across participants [39]. The first three authors followed an iterative process of independently reading the interview transcripts, developing a codebook, applying a priori codes, and comparing and revising codes using ATLAS.ti ...
... Subsequently, we located patterns in the codes and collapsed codes into themes. This was an interpretive process where we searched for meanings at the level of coding as well as contextualized understandings within the data at the level of interpreting findings [39]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed health and social inequities among migrant populations. Less empirical evidence exists about the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on migrants. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the first lockdown in France between March and May 2020 on migrants’ lives and livelihoods. We adopted a social vulnerability framework to conceptualize how the pandemic and the consequential lockdown in France contributed to a ‘compounded crisis’ for asylum seekers and undocumented migrants. This crisis encompassed health, protection, and socio-economic challenges for migrants and exposed the shortcomings of existing government policies that exclude migrants and do not address the root causes of health inequities. The study draws on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 75 asylum seekers and undocumented migrants during the pandemic lockdown in the French regions of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Île-de-France. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of implementing a cohesive pandemic response approach that views health as a fundamental inclusive right for all human beings and all policies as health policies to promote well-being for all.
... Qualitative text data were entered into a spreadsheet and two authors utilized the methodology of "Coding Consensus, Co-occurrence, and Comparison, " based on grounded theory techniques (56,57) to code responses and identify emergent themes; conflicts in coding were discussed and resolved (56). Some responses were assigned multiple codes. ...
... Qualitative text data were entered into a spreadsheet and two authors utilized the methodology of "Coding Consensus, Co-occurrence, and Comparison, " based on grounded theory techniques (56,57) to code responses and identify emergent themes; conflicts in coding were discussed and resolved (56). Some responses were assigned multiple codes. ...
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Tattoos are less prevalent in Mexico and tattooed persons are frequently stigmatized. We examine the prevalence and correlates of interest in receiving tattoo removal services among 278 tattooed Mexican adults living in Tijuana, Mexico who responded to interviewer-administered surveys, including open-ended questions. Overall, 69% of participants were interested in receiving free tattoo removal services, 31% reported facing employment barriers due to their tattoos, and 43% of respondents regretted or disliked some of their tattoos. Having a voter identification card, reporting moderate/severe depression symptoms and believing that tattoo removal would remove employment barriers were independently associated with interest in tattoo removal. Our findings suggest that there is substantial interest in tattoo removal services. Publicly financed tattoo removal services may help disadvantaged persons gain access to Mexico's labor market and it may positively impact other life domains such as mental well-being and interactions with law enforcement.
... Along with the grounded theory tradition of data triangulation (Corbin & Strauss, 2008), our case study is based on primary data sources comprising in-depth interviews. ...
... In line with grounded theory principles (Corbin & Strauss, 2008), data collection and analysis were intertwined throughout the research process, culminating in systematic analysis and categorization (Grodal et al., 2021). Inspired by Gioia's methodology (Gioia, Corley, & Hamilton, 2013;Gioia, Price, Hamilton, & Thomas, 2010), we recontextualized and structured the data with first order concepts, second order themes, and aggregate dimensions. ...
... As part of a comprehensive project based on Corbin and Straus's approach to grounded theory (GT) methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2015), this study explored the process of parental participation in DM for neonates with LTC. Given that involvement in decision-making occurs in an interactive process, participants included 23 people (10 parents, 10 healthcare providers, 1 official in the Neonatal Health Office of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and 1 professor of Jurisprudence) Principles of Islamic Law, and 1 insurance agent). ...
... Given that involvement in decision-making occurs in an interactive process, participants included 23 people (10 parents, 10 healthcare providers, 1 official in the Neonatal Health Office of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and 1 professor of Jurisprudence) Principles of Islamic Law, and 1 insurance agent). Data were generated using in-depth, semi-structured, and face-to-face interviews and observation (68 hours) and simultaneously were analyzed through constant comparison using the approach of Corbin and Strauss, 2015. It includes: 1) identifying concepts (open coding), 2) developing concepts in terms of their properties and dimensions, 3) analyzing data for the context, 4) bringing the process into the analysis, and 5) integrating categories. ...
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Background & Aims: Parental participation in decision-making for neonates with life-threatening conditions is morally and ethically approved. The health care team in the neonatal intensive care units is not prepared to involve parents in these decisions. Identifying factors affecting parental participation in decision-making can lead to removing the barriers and improving parents’ participation. The present study aimed to identify organizational factors influencing parents’ participation in decision-making for neonates with life-threatening conditions. Materials & Methods: This study is part of a comprehensive project based on Corbin and Straus’s approach to grounded theory (GT) methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2015) explored the process of parental participation in DM for neonates with LTC. Participants included 23 people (10 parents, 10 healthcare providers, 1 official in the Neonatal Health Office of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, 1 professor of Jurisprudence and Principles of Islamic Law, and 1 insurance agent). The study field included level III neonatal intensive care units of 4 teaching hospitals. Data were collected using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and observation and simultaneously were analyzed through constant comparison utilizing the approach of Corbin and Strauss, 2015. The core category and the related categories reflecting contextual and structural factors, parents’ strategies, and the outcome of the adopted strategies were identified. The contextual and structural classification reflected various factors affecting parents’ participation in DM. Since it was impossible to publish all findings in one article, the current study focused on the organizational factors influencing parents’ participation in DM. Results: Organizational factors affecting the process of parental participation in decision-making consisted of 5 main categories, including 1) power imbalances, 2) ethics committees’ deficiencies, 3) hospital regulations deficiencies, 4) resource constraints, and 5) ongoing hospitalization, the only choice. Conclusion: Organizational factors play an important role in parental participation in decision-making. Providing parents of neonates with life-threatening conditions with accommodation and, developing instructions to encourage the presence of parents in the hospital, creating rules for selecting NICU nurses is necessary. Employing an interdisciplinary team of psychologists, social workers, and trained individuals to provide parents with spiritual care is recommended. Appointing hospital ethics committees to investigate cases of critically ill infants and employing experienced and knowledgeable ethicians about the end-of-life issues in these committees are also recommended.
... Along with the grounded theory tradition of data triangulation (Corbin & Strauss, 2008), 11 our case study is based on primary and secondary data sources. Primary data sources comprise in-depth interviews. ...
... In line with grounded theory principles (Corbin & Strauss, 2008), data collection and analysis were intertwined throughout the research process, culminating in systematic analysis and categorization (Grodal et al., 2021). Inspired by Gioia methodology (Gioia,Corley,& Hamilton,12 2013; Gioia, Price, Hamilton, & Thomas, 2010), we recontextualized and structured extensive research data along with first order concepts, second order themes, and aggregate dimensions. ...
... Along with the first step in Braun and Clarke's (2019a) reflexive thematic analysis, is I familiarized myself with the data through reading and re-reading the data from the interviews in aggregate form to be fully familiar with the data. Second, I engaged in the coding stage during which I interacted with, asked questions about, and made comparisons among the data, building and developing concepts as articulated by the participants and described through my interpretive lens (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). ...
Article
Emerging adults (EAs) experience many changes throughout this life-stage, characterized by self-focus, identity explorations, instability, in-betweenness, and possibilities of optimism (Arnett, 2014). As EAs transition from home of origin into independence, they may place more reliance on social networks apart from their family of origin (e.g., friends, Rawlins, 2009). Yet, chronically ill EAs may experience complications due to the biographical disruption, or interference of expectations in one’s life (Bury, 1982), particularly given that chronic illness is typically viewed as an elderly-related issue rather than occurring with youth (Kundrat & Nussbaum, 2003). Through transitions in the EA life-stage, EAs with chronic illness may forgo sharing chronic illness-relation information or withhold expressed desire for social support to appear more “normal” to fit in with their peers (Spencer et al., 2019). Thus, I centered the present study in Petronio’s (2002) Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory to understand how EAs interact and negotiate (non)disclosure of chronic illness-related information with a friend. In the present interpretive and qualitative study, I analyzed and described how EAs interacted and negotiated the process of (non)disclosure of their chronic illness-related information with a friend. Data were 15 in-depth interviews and 15 book cover images to represent the experiences of EAs with chronic illness. In the results, I describe and explain how participants (a) engaged criteria for disclosure and identified the confidants of their disclosure, (b) created boundary rules around their chronic illness-related information, (c) perceived their friends’ role/non-role in chronic illness management, and (d) made sense of their chronic illness-related information management processes. I contribute four theoretical insights regarding CPM: (a) expanding confidant typology, (b) deconstructing disclosure criteria, (c) demonstrating dialectical tensions of private information disclosure, and (d) developing CPM concepts through metaphorical insights. I also offer two main practical implications: (a) creating a resource for EAs with chronic illness and (b) offering a strategy for arts-based therapeutic practice for those working with EAs experiencing biographic disruption. Advisor: Dawn O. Braithwaite
... A different set of questions was used in the second iteration of interview (Mauthner & Doucet, 2003) to cover theoretically emergent themes: the relevance of drug prevention to the local community of participants, the perception of drug users in the community, the role of family in concealing the drug use of its members, gender and drug use, and the rationale for drugrelated business activity within the community. This approach was inspired by the procedure of theoretical sampling found in the grounded theory method (Corbin & Strauss, 2014) and it was applied in order to explore further the categories that the authors concentrated on in the first phase of the inductive analysis. ...
Article
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Cannabis use undergoes a dynamic redefinition under selected legal frameworks globally. Many prevention programs face a dilemma between delivering abstinence objectives and pursuing more nuanced, harm reductionist aims. However, drug use in South-East Turkey is strongly stigmatized and is absent from the official life of the community, so neither of these discussions takes place. The authors participated in the development of a Drug Abuse Prevention programme for Youth and this article is grounded in qualitative data from Turkey. A follow-up study was conducted among the youth participants of a pilot phase of the program (n=20), developed by an international group of professionals in the form of an online workshop and video campaign. The data were collected by conducting a semi-structured qualitative interview. The participants live amid the omnipresence of drugs and simultaneously very actively detach themselves from it. There is a powerful taboo and families attempt to conceal the cases of drug use among them. They also stigmatize the users in order to distinguish themselves from the substance. It is counterproductive to talk about drug use to audiences who actively deny its presence within the community. The interventions ought to account for stigmatization to ensure realistic delivery.
... In the inductive phase characterized by open, axial, and selective coding (Corbin & Strauss, 2008), the interviews, narratives, and discussions were constantly read to identify the overall codes communicating specific contents. Then, the codes were categorized and repeatedly compared to outline the sub-categories. ...
... /fpubh. . and experiences from the perspective of participants and to provide insights into the complex relationships that may cause an increase or decrease of physical activity during the pandemic (27). Selection criteria were set in advance. ...
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Objective This paper explores physical activity patterns and compensation strategies of people with cardiovascular diseases. The aim is to provide insights into the factors and their relationships that may affect physical activity levels positively or negatively during the pandemic. Methods We adopted a qualitative approach with 35 participants who were purposively sampled from different provinces in Austria, including rural and urban areas. Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the second COVID-19 wave in autumn/winter 2020 and the fourth wave in autumn/winter 2021. Content analysis was applied to explore physical activity patterns, the perceived impact of the pandemic on physical activity as well as strategies adopted by participants to maintain physically active during the pandemic waves. Results Results show encouraging signs of a recovery or even increase in physical activity during the pandemic waves. The main drivers for maintaining or even increasing physical activity were intrinsic motivation and self-determined motivation relating to the pursue of individual health goals. Furthermore, analysis suggests a reinforcing effect of exercising in green natural areas by decreasing perception of effort and increasing motivation. There was also one group who experienced difficulties in adapting physical activity behaviors. Study participants who were used to exercise indoors struggled to replace accustomed activity patterns with alternatives that were not impacted by lockdown restrictions. Conclusions This study provides novel qualitative evidence on the effect of COVID-19 lockdowns on physical activity patterns of people with cardiovascular diseases. Public health interventions to enhance a physically active lifestyle during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic are recommended to target moderate outdoor exercising and enhance adaptive capacities of people with cardiovascular diseases.
... A grounded theory approach [20,21] using inductive inquiry was used to analyse data, aided by Nvivo 11® software. Grounded theory relies on simultaneous data collection and analysis in an iterative manner that enables theory construction, and does not rely on existing frameworks for analysis. ...
Article
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the drivers for infection management and antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) across high-infection-risk surgical pathways. METHODS: A qualitative study—ethnographic observation of clinical practices, patient case studies, and face-to-face interviews with healthcare professionals (HCPs) and patients—was conducted across cardiovascular and thoracic and gastrointestinal surgical pathways in South Africa (SA) and India. Aided by Nvivo 11 software, data were coded and analysed until saturation was reached. The multiple modes of enquiry enabled cross-validation and triangulation of findings. RESULTS: Between July 2018 and August 2019, data were gathered from 190 hours of non-participant observations (138 India, 72 SA), interviews with HCPs (44 India, 61 SA), patients (six India, eight SA), and case studies (four India, two SA). Across the surgical pathway, multiple barriers impede effective infection management and AMS. The existing implicit roles of HCPs (including nurses and senior surgeons) are overlooked as interventions target junior doctors, bypassing the opportunity for integrating infection-related care across the surgical team. Critically, the ownership of decisions remains with the operating surgeons, and entrenched hierarchies restrict the inclusion of other HCPs in decision-making. The structural foundations to enable staff to change their behaviours and participate in infection-related surgical care are lacking. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying the implicit existing HCP roles in infection management is critical and will facilitate the development of effective and transparent processes across the surgical team for optimized care. Applying a framework approach that includes nurse leadership, empowering pharmacists and engaging surgical leads, is essential for integrated AMS and infection-related care.
... Capturing user statements In our earlier work, 3,27 we did a comprehensive analysis of the crowd-user comments in the dataset to identify rationale and requirements-related information using the grounded theory approach of Corbin and Strass. 48 We were interested in designing an approach that captures those users statements in the Reddit forum that contains rationale and requirements-related information. For example, user statements that demand or request a new feature, a user preference on the application interface design, an issue faced by the users, or feedback about user experience with the software application. ...
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User forums enable a large population of crowd‐users to publicly share their experience, useful thoughts, and concerns about the software applications in the form of user reviews. Recent research studies have revealed that end‐user reviews contain rich and pivotal sources of information for the software vendors and developers that can help undertake software evolution and maintenance tasks. However, such user‐generated information is often fragmented, with multiple viewpoints from various stakeholders involved in the ongoing discussions in the Reddit forum. In this article, we proposed a crowd‐based requirements engineering by valuation argumentation (CrowdRE‐VArg) approach that analyzes the end‐users discussion in the Reddit forum and identifies conflict‐free new features, design alternatives, or issues, and reach a rationale‐based requirements decision by gradually valuating the relative strength of their supporting and attacking arguments. The proposed approach helps to negotiate the conflict over the new features or issues between the different crowd‐users on the run by finding a settlement that satisfies the involved crowd‐users in the ongoing discussion in the Reddit forum using argumentation theory. For this purpose, we adopted the bipolar gradual valuation argumentation framework, extended from the abstract argumentation framework and abstract valuation framework. The automated CrowdRE‐VArg approach is illustrated through a sample crowd‐users conversation topic adopted from the Reddit forum about Google Map mobile application. Finally, we applied natural language processing and different machine learning algorithms to support the automated execution of the CrowdRE‐VArg approach. The results demonstrate that the proposed CrowdRE‐VArg approach works as a proof‐of‐concept and automatically identifies prioritized requirements‐related information for software engineers.
... My scale cognition collaborator and I extended my earlier work on image function with additional collaborators, completing an analysis of science textbooks and a resulting extension of my image function typology into what we now consider a taxonomy (Peterson et al., 2021). We reported on a basic qualitative research design using a constant comparison method (Corbin & Strauss, 2008) to achieve agreement between two coders when assigning specific image functions to visual displays in science textbooks. This process resulted in an expanded and actionable taxonomy that is both attuned to science visualization practices and significantly more extensive than the earlier picture function typologies. ...
Article
Design units can better integrate themselves within research universities by producing scholarship consistent with institutional expectations, in the form of publications, grants, and patents. But significant challenges face the design faculty who must actualize this integration. I summarize my own strategic research program over three phases: an initial appointment as assistant professor; a second assistant professor appointment up to the submission of my tenure dossier; and the year following that submission. This story of phases in an early academic career illustrates challenges that are particular to junior faculty in design units, and it reveals the work required to secure publications and grants. In established research disciplines, junior faculty continue the work they began when earning their research degrees, much of which occurred in productive labs. But junior faculty in design must often initiate a research program from scratch, while already on the tenure clock. Furthermore, because research in design is heterogeneous, junior design faculty must define their own particular model of research, which also takes time, and advocate for their adopted model. I provide recommendations for design administrators and junior design faculty as a way to help elevate scholarship in design. My final recommendation for junior design faculty is to adopt the mindset of the hedonistic scholar, who does not depend upon success for personal fulfillment, but finds joy in the craft of scholarship. This is important because, as demonstrated by my own research program, significant scholarly outcomes are likely the product of years of dedication with numerous failures along the way.
... The interviews were initially coded thematically with the assistance of customer and problem zoom tools, utilizing a deductive coding method [16]. The coding strategy was changed and enhanced inductively when more subjects were identified throughout the investigation [67]. NVivo version 12, a program for qualitative data analysis, was used to help organize the data. ...
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Gluten-free food products have been developed to satisfy the needs of consumers with celiac disease. However, there has been little research on the product feature development of sustainable gluten-free instant noodles through a qualitative study to explore the customer insights related to environmental attitude and purchase decision. Using a cross-national comparative study between Thai and Danish consumers, this study aims to (1) identify the target customer segments for each country; (2) explore the target customer segments regarding behaviours, desired outcomes, and pain points; and (3) suggest gluten-free instant noodle product prototypes suitable for each country. With a qualitative interview approach, 60 target customers (30 Thai and 30 Danish) were recruited to participate in this research. In addition, a thematic analysis was undertaken to examine their behaviours, desired outcomes, and pain points toward sustainable gluten-free instant noodle products. The findings revealed that convenience-oriented customers were the target segment of gluten-free instant noodle products in Thailand. This segment primarily focused on convenience as the main reason for consuming instant noodles and had common pain points in terms of taste. In contrast, environment-oriented customers were the target customer segment in Denmark. This segment consisted primarily of young women who eat less meat and shared common pain points such as difficulty accessing more sustainable options. Hence, there is a need to educate customers in Thailand (an emerging economy) and increase their awareness regarding environmental sustainability and consumption.
... We transcribed them by combining the efforts of transcription services and manual modification, where we removed the identifiable information to protect our participants' privacy. To analyze the data, we first adopted open coding [4] to the transcriptions. Three native Chinese authors independently analyzed and coded the first 20% of the transcriptions and gathered together to discuss the codes until complete consensus on the codes is reached. ...
Preprint
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In recent years, China has witnessed the proliferation and success of an emerging kind of gig economy -- online food delivery platforms. Online food deliverers who deliver the food from restaurants to customers play an essential role in enabling this industry. Mediated by algorithms and coupled with interactions with multiple stakeholders, this emerging kind of labor has been taken by millions of people. In this paper, we present a mixed-methods analysis to investigate this labor of online food deliverers and uncover how the mediation of algorithms shapes it. Combining large-scale quantitative data-driven investigations of 100,000 deliverers' behavioral data with in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 online food deliverers, we demonstrate their working activities, identify how algorithms mediate their delivery procedures, and reveal how they perceive their relationships with different stakeholders as a result of their algorithm-mediated labor. Our findings provide important implications for enabling better experiences and more humanized labor of deliverers as well as workers in gig economies of similar kinds.
... The course coordinator and coaching staff consolidated all student team deliverables including phase assignments and final deliverables using content analysis [26][27][28]. A total of 168 representative quotes that describe reasons to choose implemented design methods in the data set were tagged to the selected design methods and examined by the course teaching staff. ...
Conference Paper
As the aviation industry has become more complex and uncertain, we need to teach aviation topics with different pedagogical approaches: making the educational setting interdisciplinary and more design-and user-driven. We developed a design curriculum to address emerging complexity around air travel journeys and piloted the curriculum at a major research university in the Netherlands. Novice students in engineering, design, and social science programs in the Future of Airport minor on campus engaged in a quarter-long design course centered on the seamless air travel experience. The course aims to teach students how to approach the complexity of an airport and the stakeholders involved and design for people in transit. Data were collected from the results of work in document format (project progress reports and final deliverables) from thirty-five student teams who collaborated with aviation industry sponsors to develop solutions to address complex system-level industry design challenges. We classified the detailed project brief and outcomes by different innovation levels (product, service, system, or socio-technical), and examined the design methods implemented by each team over the design process. Our discussion is divided into (D1) trajectory of levels of innovation traveled during the project execution, (D2) descriptive reflection on overall selecting design methods, (D3) design method selection dynamics over design phases in complex problem domains, and (D4) challenges of offering a design approach to novice engineering students, drawn from the reflection by course coordinators and coaches on the course structure and contents.
... Coding techniques suggested by Corbin & Strauss [19] and Saldaña (2014) have been adopted to form multiple levels of code, from open to selective. The data is organized at three levels: ...
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Agile approaches being practised by multiple teams operating remotely are widely adopted for large software development efforts these days. An agile setting is typically characterized by flexibility, to accommodate changing customer demands for continuous delivery of business value. A distributed setting brings about multiple demands for stability, in terms of a push for clear specification of requirements and design, and a big picture product definition. Therefore, implementing agile distributed development (ADD) projects results in an inherent conflict that must be reconciled. This article attempts to provide nuanced clarity on the notion of conflict between flexibility and stability and its management across variants of an ADD setup. Through multiple case studies, our findings suggest that the specific mode of agile project engagement and distributed team configuration drives the response to flexibility and stability respectively. Leveraging ambidexterity as a theoretical lens, this study contributes to the literature by providing insights beyond the earlier conceptualization of flexibility-stability conflict for the ADD setting. It considers contextual elements to understand the dynamics of conflicting forces. An empirical contribution of this research is the managerial framework that should assist practice in future implementations.
... Out of the 51 remaining articles, 24 were removed after full text review because they did not meet review criteria, they were either not about cultural idioms of distress, did not use displaced populations as the sample population, focused on evaluating a diagnostic tool instead of discovering local idioms, or they were commentaries without empirical evidence. Data extraction used thematic analysis and grounded theory (Corbin & Strauss, 2014) to categorize the studies into representative aspects of the compiled literature, based on emerging themes. The final list of articles and their relevant themes were coded and formulated for data extraction. ...
Article
Background: Armed conflicts and natural disasters can cause significant psychological and social challenges for affected populations. Displaced populations are extremely heterogeneous in terms of culture, language, and experiences of crises. Current diagnostic criteria is insufficient when evaluating the symptoms and treatment of mental health issues across contexts. Aim: This scoping review presents information about cultural idioms of distress across displaced populations. The review includes aspects of etiology, symptomology, and proposed intervention methods. Methods: I conducted a Boolean search of academic and grey literature for studies that described cultural idioms of distress among displaced populations. Results were analyzed using thematic analysis and grounded theory. Results: A shared sense of injustice, spirit possession, and karma are common etiologies for mental distress among displaced populations. Symptoms include somatic complaints, ‘thinking a lot’, and interpersonal challenges such as social isolation and a fear of others. Potential interventions are likely on a community-level, including the generation of community mechanisms for conflict-resolution, reconciliation, and culturally grounded healing rituals. Conclusions: It is vital to understand the ways displaced communities conceptualize their mental health in order to develop appropriate culturally grounded interventions. Understanding the etiology, symptoms, and proposed interventions can inform and improve humanitarian aid delivery of mental health and psychosocial support services.
... All the methods introduced and used in this thesis are qualitative, which I again ascribe to my Barad- (2009), is an analysis that concentrates on images and discursive content, while also being a method useful in analysing both material and discursive glitter. To begin the analysis, I skimmed documents and noted passages of apparent pertinence (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). I took this first step by primarily focusing on material glitter and initially leaving discursive glitter as a secondary focus, because the data, being affirmative policy aimed to foster STEM aspirations in girls, was obviously already discursive glitter in itself. ...
... Following the model of Corbin and Strauss [94], once the initial questions that made up the first version of the interview were defined, it was applied to a pilot sample (four participants). The data were analyzed with the qualitative analysis tool NVIVO12. ...
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Students belonging to a sexual and gender minority go through experiences of injustice in their educational centers and are victims of school bullying. This research analyzes the relationship between these experiences and their influence on the development of the Belief in a Just World, as well as the impact of their experiences on the development of their narratives. Participants are students who have suffered from bullying due to sexual and gender diversity issues during their primary and secondary education stages (ages 15–40 years). Starting from a constructivist qualitative methodological approach, a semi-structured interview was developed as an instrument for collecting data on these aspects. The information extracted was contrasted with the results of the Personal and General Belief in a Just Word Scales. The results of the first interviews provide us with prior information on current identities and narratives and their representations of justice.
... Any differences in researcher perspective were resolved by negotiation and, if necessary regrouped and recoded until consensus were reached. New codes were then fed back into the analysis to cross-check codes and themes and develop an overall interpretation of the data [21]. Trustworthiness of our data was upheld using several strategies, including immersion in data; reflexive analysis, and peer debriefing [22,23]. ...
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Background Dedicated cardio-oncology services are emerging rapidly around the world in order to provide cardiovascular care (CV) for cancer patients. The perspectives of patients regarding their experience of cardiac surveillance during their cancer journey has not been qualitatively evaluated. Methods An interpretative qualitative study. Fifteen, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a diverse range of community dwelling patients who attended a newly established cardio-oncology clinic in a large regional city in Australia. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Key themes were identified: (1) Access to a cardio-oncology clinic promotes information and understanding, (2) The experience of early CV intervention, (3) Factors promoting integrated care, (4) Balancing cancer treatment and CV symptoms and (5) Managing past and emerging CV risk factors. Conclusion As cardio oncology clinics continue to emerge, this study confirms the benefit of early access to a cardiologist for management of existing or emerging CV risk factors and diseases in the context of cancer treatment. Participants valued the opportunity for regular monitoring and management of CV issues that enabled them to continue cancer treatment. However, we identified gaps in education and support towards making positive lifestyle changes that reduce the risk of CV diseases in cancer patients.
... There are several defined methodologies that try to find patterns to synthesize information in bounded terms. They use iterative processes and identify common fundamentals [9,10]. ...
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Maintenance is one of the major concerns of the industrial sector. Acquiring better levels of maintenance maturity is one of the objectives to be achieved. Therefore, prescriptive maintenance is one of the areas of recent research. Current works in literature are focused on specifics of maintenance strategies (from preventive to prescriptive), usually related to a fixed asset. No previous work has been identified regarding the methodology and guidelines to be followed to be able to evolve within the different strategies from a generic perspective. To address the lack of a methodology that shows a more evolutionary path between maintenance strategies, this paper presents Maintenance Maturity Model M3: a maturity model that identifies three areas of action, four levels of maturity, and the activities to be carried out in each of them to make progress in the maturity level of maintenance strategies. The implementation of prescriptive maintenance should be done in a gradual way, starting at the lowest levels. M3 approaches the problem from a broader perspective, analyzing the 18 different domains and the different levels of prior maturity to be considered for prescriptive maintenance. A study has also been carried out on the different maintenance actions and the applicability of the proposed M3 maturity model to the railway infrastructure maintenance is discussed. In addition, this paper also highlights future research lines and open issues.
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The existing psychosocial Support activities in the Northern Territory, Australia, are mostly delivered through individualised outreach and client‐centred Support programs and do not currently have a strong Peer focus. To address this gap, a Peer‐Led Education Pilot was developed and implemented in Darwin, Australia. The pilot was comprised of three separate but overarching stages, and each stage was independently evaluated. In this article, results from Stage 1 will be presented, with a specific focus on the role of Peer‐to‐Peer communication in improving participants' mental health and Recovery skills. This stage involved the delivery of the My Recovery program to self‐nominated participants, and the evaluation was aimed at reporting on the appropriateness and effectiveness of the program. The evaluation was qualitative in design involving individual pre‐ and post‐program interviews with program participants (npre = 14, npost = 16) between August and October 2019. The program was well received by participants and helped build their capacity to understand and self‐manage their mental health and/or alcohol and other drug issues in an inclusive, non‐clinical, non‐judgemental space. The results highlighted the importance of including a strong Peer focus in the existing psychosocial Support services available for people with mental health issues in Darwin. The findings also underscored the inclusion of those with lived experience of mental health challenges in the design and delivery of such programs.
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Following the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities, questions concerning the joint education of students with and without special educational needs remain to be answered. Currently, there is a need for knowledge about the necessary conditions for a successful implementation of inclusive education. Thus, the aim of the present study is to identify conditions for the implementation of inclusion that are seen as necessary by primary school principals. Therefore, 32 primary school principals were interviewed. The results of the interview study reveal that factors like personnel, financial and material resources as well as building infrastructure in primary schools are seen as important requirements for the successful realisation of inclusive education. Apart from that, the importance of attitudes towards inclusion and sociopolitical conditions for the realisation of inclusion became apparent. Further conditions, which are mentioned from the interviewed principals’ point of view, are related to teacher training, appropriate class sizes and, for example, opportunities for exchanging information. The results of the study indicate that there are essential obstacles as perceived by primary school principals that can impede the implementation of inclusion in primary schools.
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An inquiry into CSR and regulatory paradigm attempts to answer far more pertinent questions rather than only focussing on the factors of economic value creation. An analysis of the role of state politics and corporate strategies of CSR delves deeper into the dynamics interplaying between multiple actors of governance archetype and tries to find answers of the wavering relationship between state, market, civil society and citizenry.
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In the current study, a mixed‐method research design was used to explore how team members' transformational leadership and effective followership relate to teamwork quality. Data were collected from 10‐student project teams (N [team] = 10; N [individual] = 84 team members) in a leadership class at a large‐sized public university in the United States. As a follow‐up, focus group interviews were conducted with two teams (n = 13 team members) to explore how team members' transformational leadership and effective followership work during team interactions. Correlation results showed that team members' transformational leadership was positively related to teamwork quality (r (82) = .84, p < .01). In the qualitative phase, findings showed that the team exhibiting centralized transformational leadership also exhibited passive team followership and low‐quality teamwork. Low‐quality teamwork was described as social loafing and polarization. In contrast, the team exhibiting shared transformational leadership also exhibited proactive team followership and high‐quality teamwork. High‐quality teamwork was described as conflict resolution and team synergy. The findings have important implications for leaders, followers, leadership educators, teams, organizations, and researchers.
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Ebeveynlik, pek çok yetişkin tarafından deneyimlenen, icra ediliş şekli araştırmalara konu olan bir roldür. Alanyazında ebeveynliğin etkinliğinin çocuğun olumlu psikolojik uyumu için önemli bir ölçüt olduğu genel olarak kabul edilmektedir. Bu sebeple hangi ebeveynlik tutumlarının çocuğun psikolojik uyumuna katkı sağlayacağı hangisinin çocuk için uyum bozucu olacağı sıkça tartışılmıştır. Ancak bu zamana kadar yapılan araştırmalardaki odağın olumsuz ebeveynlik yaklaşımlarında olduğu görülmektedir. İhmalkâr ya da ilgisiz, aşırı koruyucu, otoriter tutumlar olumsuz ebeveynlik yaklaşımları olarak açıklanmaktadır. Bu durum, olumlu ebeveynliğin tarifi açısından dar bir çerçeve sunmaktadır. Pozitif psikoloji hareketi ile birlikte pozitif kavramlara olan ilgi artmış fakat pozitif psikoloji yaklaşımı içinde ebeveynlik araştırmaları oldukça etkisiz kalmıştır. Oysaki pozitif psikoloji ebeveynliğinin, geniş kapsamlı etkilerinin olabileceği ve yeterince tanımlanması gereken önemli bir kavram olduğu düşünülmektedir. Pozitif psikoloji ebeveynliği, çocukta olumlu duyguların oluşmasını sağlayan ve çocuğun karakter güçlerini ortaya çıkarıcı bir nitelik taşımaktadır. Bu ebeveynlik modeli, hem diğer ebeveynlik tutumlarından hem de alanyazında olumlu disiplin olarak tarif edilen pozitif ebeveynlik tanımlarından farklılaşmaktadır. Alanyazında çoğunlukla zor çocukların eğitimi için destekleyici olabilecek olumlu disiplin ile tarif edilen pozitif ebeveynliği dayalı müdahale programlarının olduğu görülmektedir. Geliştirici özelliği olan pozitif psikoloji ebeveynliğe dair çalışmaların sınırlı sayıda kaldığı söylenebilir. Bu bağlamda bu çalışma ile ebeveynliği pozitif psikoloji açısından incelemek, ebeveynlik programları ve ebeveynlik becerilerini ölçen araçlar için temel oluşturabilecek pozitif psikoloji ebeveynliğe dair kavramsal bir çerçeve sunmak hedeflenmiştir. Çalışmada ebeveynlik yaklaşımları ve pozitif psikoloji hareketi, pozitif psikolojide ebeveynlik hakkında kuramsal bilgi sunulmuştur. Olumlu duyguları arttırmaya dayalı ve karakter güçlerini ortaya çıkaran pozitif psikoloji ebeveynliğinin çocuklarda olumsuz gelişimsel sonuçlara karşı koruyucu nitelik göstermesi muhtemeldir. Türkiye’de yürütülen ebeveynlik programlarına pozitif psikoloji ebeveynliğinin uygulamaları dâhil edilerek aile, toplum ve birey refahına katkı sağlanabilir. Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik uygulamalarındaki anne-baba eğitimlerinin içeriği Pozitif Psikoloji ebeveynliği yaklaşımlarına dayanarak yapılandırılabilir. Buna ilave olarak Türkiye kültürüne ve pozitif psikoloji yaklaşımına uygun bir ebeveynlik ölçeği geliştirme çalışması yapılabilir.
Conference Paper
Aims Paediatrics faces a workforce crisis and speciality training is undersubscribed.1,2,3 When choosing a career, medical students match their list of career needs with their perception of the speciality. Crucially, this is often based on personal experience of hospital wards or teaching sessions.⁴ Without a deeper understanding of the processes leading to medical students choosing paediatrics as a career, recruitment drives will miss key opportunities to influence medical students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how medical students’ perceptions and experiences of paediatrics influence their decision to pursue or avoid a career in the speciality. Methods This qualitative grounded theory study sampled sixteen University of Exeter medical students, who have completed a paediatric clinical placement. Students were recruited via paediatric societies and then snowballing was used to create heterogeneity. Between March and June 2021, interviews and focus groups were conducted via Zoom in three phases, as shown in figure 1, facilitating iterative analysis. The data was coded and analysed using Strauss and Corbin’s constructivist interpretation of grounded theory⁵ with NVIVO software. Results The study identifies the sources which contribute to students’ perceptions, many of which are informal and opinion based. The preconceptions lead students to start their placement with a degree of uncertainty. There are perceived barriers that are unique to paediatrics: children as patients, parental interactions and safeguarding children. The students doubt their ability to face these barriers in real life, which causes them to have reservations about choosing a career in paediatrics.The students are exposed to a brief snapshot of paediatrics for their placement and their perspective is coloured by a lack of insight into medical careers and knowledge required to interpret some experiences correctly. • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint Abstract 556 Figure 1 Flow chart depicting the three phases of data collection allowing for iterative • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint Abstract 556 Figure 2 Conceptional model of the effect of experience on perceptions The progression from uncertainty to a position of confidence and enjoyment is dependent on positive exposures, which can correct any misconceptions and reinforce accurate information. Given the right conditions, seemingly challenging exposures can become positive learning experiences. Conversely, there are negative, damaging exposures that need to be managed appropriately. If these negative exposures are not identified or remedied by the supervising clinicians, a cycle of uncertainty can develop. This complex process is summarised in the conceptual model, attached as figure 2. Conclusion To combat the workforce crisis facing paediatrics and to inspire the next generation of paediatricians, strategies are needed to change the perceptions that create the barrier of uncertainty and, simultaneously, clinical placements must focus on providing experiences that enable students to move from a place of uncertainty to one of confidence. References • Workforce Census Overview. 2017. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. • Specialty recruitment: round 1 – acceptance and fill rate 2020. Health Education England. • Cass H et al. Complexity and challenge in paediatrics: a roadmap for supporting clinical staff and families. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2020. • . Bland C et al Determinants of primary care specialty choice: a non-statistical meta-analysis of the literature. Academic Medicine. 1995. • . Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. 1998.
Conference Paper
Aims START (Specialty Trainee Assessment of Readiness of Tenure as a consultant) is an assessment tool used to highlight areas requiring further development in the final stages of specialist training in Paediatrics. During the COVID-19 pandemic, traditional study groups were not feasible due to lockdown measures. A group of Paediatric and Sub-speciality trainees in Paediatrics who had their START assessment in July 2020, took the initiative in forming a group together on ‘Whatsapp’ for revision purposes. Methods The author conducted an online survey via Survey Monkey. 13 ST7 and ST8 trainees were part of the group, 10 responded to the survey. Trainee characteristics are charted in figure 1. Results Group discussion, revision and role play took place for approximately 2 hours both Saturday and Sunday mornings every week, mostly on ‘Zoom’. There were 5-6 trainees during each revision session, coordinated by the authors. 31% had their START assessment within 4-6 months, 54% within 2-3 months, 7% within four weeks and 7% within 2 weeks.After July 2020, some trainees continued to run the group for October 2020 diet. The group expanded rapidly between trainees nationally. During this period of preparation, trainees developed a unique bonding. Trainees felt the best part of this group was the variation in subspecialty interests; they could draw expertise from each other that were relevant to different scenarios. During and after the meeting, the trainees freely shared constructive feedback using the ‘Assessor Feedback Form’ on the RCPCH website, learning points, and background knowledge with each other. Following the completion of START assessment in October 2020, trainees stayed in the group and continued to support each other with consultant applications and interviews. The Whatsapp group name changed from ‘July 2020 START’ group to ‘October 2020 START’ group to ‘Consultant interview preparation’ group. CCT dates ranged from February 2021 to June 2022. All trainees reported the group to be useful, relevant, valuable, good length, and quality: ‘improved my knowledge level irrespective of the START outcome’. All trainees found the group as being friendly, responsive, professional, exceeded expectations: ‘improved my confidence level’, ‘helpful even after assessment’. • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint Abstract 582 Figure 1 • Download figure • Open in new tab • Download powerpoint Abstract 582 Figure 2 illustrates the percentage of START outcome success trainees attributed to their work place and to revision group. Comments included ‘Open and honest colleagues. Happy to call friends now’‘Brilliant group! Supportive, non-judgemental, definitely exceeded expectations. Without this group I would definitely have done much worse. Reduced my workload and made me practice. Great group-thank you!’ ‘A very supportive group who share their knowledge willingly and able to give honest constructive feedback. Will be extremely useful to have this support even after finishing START’ ‘Brilliant support, lovely to meet others at the same grade. Would have loved groups like this for other assessments/difficult times of my career. Maybe throughout my career! Thank you so much! ‘ Conclusion This is a unique multi-deanery collaboration between senior Paediatric trainees in the UK who continue to support each other. Acknowledgements 1. All trainees who filled in the survey to support this write up. Declarations No conflict of interest.
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Introduction The increasing prevalence of developmental disorders in early childhood poses a significant global health burden. Early detection of developmental problems is vital to ensure timely access to early intervention, and universal developmental surveillance is recommended best practice for identifying issues. Despite this, there is currently considerable variation in developmental surveillance and screening between Australian states and territories and low rates of developmental screening uptake by parents. This study aims to evaluate an innovative web-based developmental surveillance programme and a sustainable approach to referral and care pathways, linking primary care general practice (GP) services that fall under federal policy responsibility and state government-funded child health services. Methods and analysis The proposed study describes a longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) comparing a ‘Watch Me Grow Integrated’ (WMG-I) approach for developmental screening, to Surveillance as Usual (SaU) in GPs. Forty practices will be recruited across New South Wales and Queensland, and randomly allocated into either the (1) WMG-I or (2) SaU group. A cohort of 2000 children will be recruited during their 18-month vaccination visit or opportunistic visit to GP. At the end of the c-RCT, a qualitative study using focus groups/interviews will evaluate parent and practitioner views of the WMG-I programme and inform national and state policy recommendations. Ethics and dissemination The South Western Sydney Local Health District (2020/ETH01625), UNSW Sydney (2020/ETH01625) and University of Queensland (2021/HE000667) Human Research Ethics Committees independently reviewed and approved this study. Findings will be reported to the funding bodies, study institutes and partners; families and peer-reviewed conferences/publications. Trial registration number ANZCTR12621000680864.
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The proposed paper draws attention on the topic of Economic Intelligence (EI) to elaborate how dynamic capabilities and digitalization are able to lead to increased competitiveness, effective information management and environmental monitoring. It is essential for companies in emerging economies to constantly absorb external information and apply latest technological advances to keep up with today’s competitive environment. In a universe in perpetual change, there is constant need for strong strategies for a firm to evolve. Through the unification of coordinated actions such as research, information storage and circulation and market anticipation, a firm can become economically intelligent. In other words, companies can achieve Economic Intelligence by developing strong dynamic capabilities that imply latest technologies. This paper proposes an analysis of how dynamic capabilities enhanced by digitalization are able to contribute to the development of Economic Intelligence by engaging the case of the international electronics and telecommunications equipment producer Huawei.KeywordsEconomic intelligenceDynamic capabilitiesDigitalizationHuawei
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There has been a rapid growth in the number of articles using Internet data sources to illuminate health behavior. However, little has been written about the ethical considerations of online research, especially studies involving data from Internet discussion boards. Guidelines are needed to ensure ethical conduct. In this article, the authors examine how a youth-focused research program negotiated ethical practices in the creation of its comprehensive health site and online message board. They address three situations in which ethical predicaments arose: (a) enrolling research participants, (b) protecting participants from risk or harm, and (c) linking public and private data. Drawing on the ethical principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, justice, and beneficence, the authors present practical guidelines for resolving ethical dilemmas in research on Internet communities.
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In this article I outline the case for methodological awareness as an essential component of the craft skill that qualitative researchers typically bring to their work. This is opposed to the view that good quality research can be produced by opting for the criteria promoted by one variety, ‘paradigm’, ‘moment’ or school, arguing instead that valuable lessons for research practice can be learned from each one. The ‘craft skill’ conception of research suggests that researchers should regard their activities as relatively autonomous from the need to resolve philosophical disputes. Methodological awareness, involving the capacity to anticipate the consequences of methodological decisions while carrying out a research project, can be acquired from exposure to almost any intelligent methodological discussion, as well as from critical reading of existing research studies. In making this case a summary of historical moments in qualitative research, and of key ideas presented by selected qualitative ‘criteriologists’ is provided.
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A common misconception about sampling in qualitative research is that numbers are unimportant in ensuring the adequacy of a sampling strategy. Yet, simple sizes may be too small to support claims of having achieved either informational redundancy or theoretical saturation, or too large to permit the deep, case-oriented analysis that is the raison-d'être of qualitative inquiry. Determining adequate sample size in qualitative research is ultimately a matter of judgment and experience in evaluating the quality of the information collected against the uses to which it will be put, the particular research method and purposeful sampling strategy employed, and the research product intended.
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Grounded theory methodology is a suitable qualitative research approach for clinical inquiry into nursing practice, leading to theory development in nursing. Given the variations in, and subjectivity attached to, the manner in which qualitative research is carried out, it is important for researchers to explain the process of how a theory about a nursing phenomenon was generated. Similarly, when grounded theory research reports are reviewed for clinical use, nurses need to look for researchers' explanations of their inquiry process. The focus of this article is to discuss the practical application of grounded theory procedures as they relate to rigour. Reflecting on examples from a grounded theory research study, we suggest eight methods of research practice to delineate further Beck's schema for ensuring, credibility, auditability and fittingness, which are all components of rigour. The eight methods of research practice used to enhance rigour in the course of conducting a grounded theory research study were: (1) let participants guide the inquiry process; (2) check the theoretical construction generated against participants' meanings of the phenomenon; (3) use participants' actual words in the theory; (4) articulate the researcher's personal views and insights about the phenomenon explored; (5) specify the criteria built into the researcher's thinking; (6) specify how and why participants in the study were selected; (7) delineate the scope of the research; and (8) describe how the literature relates to each category which emerged in the theory. The eight methods of research practice should be of use to those in nursing research, management, practice and education in enhancing rigour during the research process and for critiquing published grounded theory research reports.
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In this paper, I call into question the widely-held assumption of a single, more or less unified paradigm of 'qualitative research' whose methodologies share certain epistemological and ontological characteristics, and explore the implications of this position for judgements about the quality of research studies. After a quarter of a century of debate in nursing about how best to judge the quality of qualitative research, we appear to be no closer to a consensus, or even to deciding whether it is appropriate to try to achieve a consensus. The literature on this issue can be broadly divided into three positions: those writers who wish qualitative research to be judged according to the same criteria as quantitative research; those who believe that a different set of criteria is required; and those who question the appropriateness of any predetermined criteria for judging qualitative research. Of the three positions, the second appears to have generated most debate, and a number of different frameworks and guidelines for judging the quality of qualitative research have been devised over recent years. The second of the above positions is rejected in favour of the third. It argues that, if there is no unified qualitative research paradigm, then it makes little sense to attempt to establish a set of generic criteria for making quality judgements about qualitative research studies. We need either to acknowledge that the commonly perceived quantitative-qualitative dichotomy is in fact a continuum which requires a continuum of quality criteria, or to recognize that each study is individual and unique, and that the task of producing frameworks and predetermined criteria for assessing the quality of research studies is futile. Some of the implications of this latter position are explored, including the requirement that all published research reports should include a reflexive research diary.