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The performing school: managing, teaching, and learning in a performance culture

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... A performance management approach can ensure that everyone is on the same page about what success looks like, and the role that each person plays within that setting. This increases the likelihood that each person has a clear idea of what is expected of him or her, and because the roles are differentiated, allows for more efficient and targeted training (Gleeson & Husbands, 2001). ...
... This type of measurement assumes that quality can be described and measured in the language of indicators. Activities that cannot be captured by instruments are not considered (Ball, 2001;Gleeson & Husbands, 2001). ...
... Broadly, this translates to policies about school structure, prescribed curricula, and prescribed assessment. At the district or school level, there is a focus on effectiveness and improvement that results in interventions in pedagogy and new kinds of professional development and teacher evaluation (Gleeson & Husbands, 2001). There are also rewards and sanctions in place in order to hold people and institutions accountable for their performance. ...
Article
This study aimed to understand how 35 focal students in a No Excuses high school, a charter school model designed to promote social mobility, made decisions about if and where to go to college. This study draws on college choice, cultural capital, and performance management literature to understand how the high school context at the focal school influenced students' college choice processes. Drawing on data from interviews, observations, and documents, this exploratory study found that Performance High provided extensive college resources and support to its students, which was consistent with how researchers conceptualize a "college-going culture" in high schools. Further, the high school used a performance management approach, in which administrators held teachers and students accountable for meeting particular college related metrics, such as the number and types of applications students were required to submit. The study found that focal students submitted applications and enrolled in college at high rates. Thirty-four of the 35 focal students planned to attend college the following fall. However, rather than exhibit the sense of entitlement and expectation that research describes for students who benefit from dominant forms of cultural capital, most of the focal students' college choice processes were characterized by hesitation, ambivalence, and doubt. Further, the findings suggest the performance management approach assimilated students to one model of college choice that did not easily accommodate students' preferences. These findings highlight the difficulties for schools in providing cultural capital for students independent of their families, and suggests the need to reconceptualize "college-going cultures" to not only consider the college outcomes and the density of resources in the high school context, but how well students absorb cultural capital, which may be important for social mobility.
... Pero la rendición de cuentas o accountability en educación resulta muy administrativa, se encuentra muy influida por la dimensión financiera e, incluso, cuando incorpora a sus indicadores los resultados de los exámenes que realiza el alumnado, al contrario de lo que ocurre en Inglaterra, no presiona a los centros en lo que respecta al rendimiento. (MAHONY;HEXTALL, 2000;GLEESON;HUSBANDS, 2001) De hecho, ningún sistema de información o herramienta digital para la evaluación ha sido desarrollado para hacer al profesorado responsable en mayor medida. La LOLF resultó muy burocrática, y ha servido principalmente para justificar los procesos de toma de decisiones para la reducción de presupuestos así como procesos para la aplicación de recortes, mediante el empleo de instrumentos considerados absolutos incluso desde un punto de vista de gestión. ...
... Pero la rendición de cuentas o accountability en educación resulta muy administrativa, se encuentra muy influida por la dimensión financiera e, incluso, cuando incorpora a sus indicadores los resultados de los exámenes que realiza el alumnado, al contrario de lo que ocurre en Inglaterra, no presiona a los centros en lo que respecta al rendimiento. (MAHONY;HEXTALL, 2000;GLEESON;HUSBANDS, 2001) De hecho, ningún sistema de información o herramienta digital para la evaluación ha sido desarrollado para hacer al profesorado responsable en mayor medida. La LOLF resultó muy burocrática, y ha servido principalmente para justificar los procesos de toma de decisiones para la reducción de presupuestos así como procesos para la aplicación de recortes, mediante el empleo de instrumentos considerados absolutos incluso desde un punto de vista de gestión. ...
Article
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La historia de la administración pública francesa en educación se encuentra sólidamente vinculada al legado napoleónico y al nacimiento de la Tercera República. La importancia del legalismo presenta un impacto en la acción de los diseñadores de políticas, inspectores y directores de los diferentes niveles jerárquicos, situándoles en posiciones de mando, autoridad y subordinación. Debido al peso de los servicios públicos y del funcionariado en Francia, es principalmente el Estado quien se está viendo transformado con algunos efectos sobre el sector de la educación. Este orden burocrático es hoy día desafiado por la implementación de la nueva gestión pública o new public management (NPM). La ley para la modernización de las finanzas públicas ha reorganizado el gasto público en educación de acuerdo a amplios programas que implementan los 3 principios del NPM: economía, eficiencia, efectividad. Sin embargo, Francia ha desarrollado una rendición de cuentas carente de mercado educativo. Se trata además de un NPM sin demasiada descentralización y flexibilidad. Mientras otros sectores implicados en las políticas públicas, como el sanitario, han conocido ya importantes cambios en su organización y condiciones de trabajo, el educativo parece adentrarse en una nueva etapa marcada por la reestructuración de las profesiones relacionadas con la enseñanza. La mejora de la comprensión del proyecto de modernización y NPM en el sector de la educación pasa por observar su relación con algunas transformaciones importantes y globales dentro del Estado central. La politización de diseñadores de políticas de alto rango, diversificación de servicios y responsabilidades, individualización y movilidad, o pago por actividad puesta en práctica, son algunos de los principales componentes de la desregulación del Estado que presenta impacto sobre los profesionales desde formas más sutiles e invisibles.
... The steady trajectory from the 1970s of neo-liberalism across all sectors of English education is now very apparent, with the increasing 'marketisation' of schooling and higher education, alongside growing emphasis on 'performativity' for schools and teachers (Gleeson and Husbands, 2001). Education policy in England under the Coalition Government between 2010 and 2015 overtly weakened the role of local government in guiding local schools and instead strongly encouraged state-funded schools to operate outside local education authority structures, and be directly responsible to central government. ...
Article
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We trace the recent development of the Oxford Education Deanery as an expansion of an initial teacher education partnership to include wider school-university collaboration in professional development, and in research. The current policy pressures in England are described on both school-university partnerships for initial teacher education, and on schools and universities generally. Then, using cultural historical theory, we show the recent development of a complex alliance through shared understandings of motives, which created common knowledge expressed within a common narrative. We argue that such re-imagined school-university partnerships offer an optimistic future for teacher education.
... The notion of specification is a strong mechanism both within the construct of the regulated accountable teacher and the transparent audited teacher (also see Chapter 6). Gleeson and Husbands (2001) give an example of the increasingly meticulous specification associated with performative accountability. They introduce the concept of macro-and micro-educational levels: ...
... L'accent mis sur l'efficacité des écoles a rendu ces derniers responsables de l'atteinte des objectifs et des standards fixés par le management, en fonction desquels ils étaient récompensés ou sanctionnés. Ce « management de la performance » (Gleeson & Husbands, 2001) a récupéré non seulement les travaux et les instruments de mesure de la school effectiveness mais aussi les conceptions du nouveau management public restructurant les services publics dans le domaine de la santé, de l'équipement, des finances (Clarke & Newman, 1997). Dans cet esprit, les enseignants sont perçus comme des unités de travail qui peuvent être dirigées et distribués en fonction de critères et d'objectifs du management sans lien avec les caractéristiques des personnes. ...
Article
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This article relates the beginning and developments of a set of scientific studies which have been granted full recognition at the international level: "the paradigm of efficient schooling". It shows how this theory, based on the designing of measuring instruments, has gradually influenced management and education policies in the thriving for excellence and the quality of the education systems. By rallying allies, implanting its laboratories, and expanding its connections into big international organizations, efficient schooling has also contributed to the birth of a political rhetoric which puts the blame on the teaching profession while shifting critical tests.
... External evaluation through inspection is part of the increased accountability culture in English schools (Chitty, 2004;Gleeson & Husband, 2001). There has been a clear shift in accountability in teaching since the 1988 Education Reform Act, from teacher professionalism, with accountability to themselves, their colleagues and their students (self-regulation), to accountability to external agencies including the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted), a non-ministerial department of the UK government. ...
Article
The research explores the views of teachers about how their teaching is evaluated by others. The tensions between evaluations motivated by the drive to improve practice (school self-evaluation) and evaluation related to external accountability (external evaluation – inspection) are considered, linked to findings and ideas reported in the literature. The study was undertaken using interviews (which included reflection on critical incidents during inspection) and incorporated the use of drawings as a research tool. Much of the data gathering and analysis were undertaken by five Third-Year undergraduate Education Studies students working under the direction and tutorage of the author (Hopkins). The findings validated those reported in the literature about the negative experiences of external evaluation (inspection) and point towards ways in which these might be reduced. The use of drawings alongside semistructured interviews proved to be a particularly powerful means of eliciting teachers’ thinking and feeling. The involvement of undergraduates as co-researchers provided them with a rich and authentic opportunity to gain insights into the professional world of teachers which they were preparing to join.
... The account is then judged in relation to performance, thereby shifting accountability to include an evaluation of efficiency (Elliott 2001) and effectiveness (Power 1999), and enable the subsequent bureaucratic control of teacher and school performance (Ranson 2003), as is often seen in the press. This form of answerability becomes a potentially punitive approach for teachers and schools (Elliott 2001;Gleeson and Husbands 2001). This creates a culture of performativity (Ball 2003;Lyotard 1984) where educators are governed by this technology of continuous accountability, where accounts are audited through local, national, and international comparisons to legitimate political action (Nóvoa and Yariv-Mashal 2003). ...
Article
Media reportage often act as interpretations of accountability policies thereby making the news media a part of the policy enactment process. Within such a process, their role is that of policy reinforcement rather than policy construction or contestation. This paper draws on the experiences of school leaders in regional Queensland, Australia, and their perceptions of the media frames that are used to report on accountability using school performance. The notion of accountability is theorised in terms of media understandings of ‘holding power to account’, and forms the theoretical framework for this study. The methodological considerations both contextualise aspects of the schools involved in the study, and outline how ‘framing theory’ was used to analyse the data. The paper draws on a number of participant experiences and newspaper accounts of schools to identify the frames that are used by the press when reporting on school performance. Three frames referring to school performance are discussed in this paper: those that rank performance such as league tables; frames that decontextualise performance isolating it from school circumstances and levels of funding; and frames that residualise government schools.
... In both cases it is driven by sincerely held, often long term aspirations rooted strongly in teachers' values and beliefs. Or aspirations may be more narrowly instrumental, for example maintaining a 'normal desirable state' in the classroom (Brown & McIntyre, 1992) or 'playing the game' (Gleeson & Gunter, 2001). This game can take the form of fabrication of the school's image -careful impression management and discourses of excellence (Keddie et al., 2011) and the concealing of 'dirty laundry' (Cowie et al., 2007), as well as more serious corruption and cheating (Ball, 2003;Sahlberg, 2010). ...
... It is believed that this dual pressure, market + state, when added to external support (e.g., teacher training, curriculum materials, professional support), will enhance quality provision, and that low-performing schools will assumedly disappear because of low enrolment ('natural selection') or owing to state regulations and penalties. This configuration has given rise to the performing school, with the mission to constantly act and perform for others in order to compete, remain attractive, and position itself advantageously in the marketplace (Ball, 2001Ball, , 2003 Gleeson & Husbands, 2001). Under this model, an entrepreneurial rationale is injected into public educational service, placing cost-benefit analyses and 'quality measurable evidence' at the center of schools' attention. ...
Article
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Market and accountability educational reforms have proliferated around the globe, along with high expectations of solving countries' school quality deficits and inequities. In this paper I develop an analytical framework from a critical sociology angle for analyzing the effects of these policies within schools. First I discuss conceptually the configuration of this quasi-market schema and develop the notion of the 'performing school'. Additionally, I study the effects of these policies within schools, based on a literature review of 130 papers, and focused particularly on a smaller body of critical sociology research (56 papers). The aim is not to produce a comprehensive overview of policy benefits and disadvantages, but to understand school transformations within the current policy scenario. Schools, in this context, are placed within a competition-based schema, where managers and teachers continuously have to compete, marketize and perform 'successfully' according to external criterion. These policies are not only changing school practices and triggering 'secondary' effects, but, moreover, they are transforming school life, ethics and teaching profession subjectivities in complex and deeply-rooted ways. In this paper I attempt to challenge policy assumptions and a technocratic view of policy implementation, and invite readers to rethink the nature and consequences of these policy formulae.
... Meanwhile in England, according to Gleeson and Husbands (2001), performance management of teachers acts as a policy device that binds together micro and macro forms of intervention that involve measured levels of teacher, pupil, and school performance, connected to external inspection, funding, pay, staffing, and resources. Teachers have become micro 'managed' to the point that their productivity can be 294 M. Katsuno measured locally against national standards in terms of the test results and examina- tion performances of their students. ...
Book
This book explores the impacts of the introduction of new teacher evaluation policies on teachers and head teachers in Japan, particularly that of producing and reinforcing mutual policing relations among teachers and the destabilisation of their identities. It is timely given the big surge of interest world-wide in measuring and developing teachers’ quality to ensure better learning outcomes. As in many other countries, teachers in Japan have to account for their performance and competence in new ways. This book focuses on the nature and impact of these new accountabilities by drawing on data from a national survey and in-depth interviews with a sample of teachers and head teachers as it surveys: •New teacher evaluation policies •Theories of teacher evaluation and performativity •Views on the new teacher evaluation policies •The enactment of the new teacher evaluation policies The quantitative data is used to show how teachers experience and perceive the new teacher evaluation policies and practices, and the qualitative data is used to discuss the depth of analysis required to look at the nature of performativity. This book will be a valued addition to the research base upon which both policy makers and practitioners across the nations can draw for the improvement of teacher evaluation as a means of professional development and accountability.
... «Academic knowledge» is thus limited to and replaced by «performative knowledge», which emphasizes its instrumental elements, and its potential to accomplish certain prescribed results, relevant to the world the market and the economy (BALL, 2001). As a result, education is colonized by technocratic managerial perceptions, and operates based on a discerning set of ideologies and practices, the introduction of techniques for the evaluation of the work done in schools, for the accountability and surveillance of teachers, concrete objectives and control procedures, and continuous assessment of student achievement (GLEESON and HUSBANDS, 2001;GEWIRTZ, 2002;RANSON, 2003;BALL, 2003). ...
Article
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This paper investigates the content and the different «dimensions» of «quality» in the current «policies of knowledge» of the European Union as they are specified by the renewed Lisbon Strategy and in the frame of the construction of a «measurable Europe of Knowledge». The study analyses critically the policy discourses and policy practices of the European Union from 1994 to 2010 using both primary (e.g. official documents) and secondary (e.g. scholarly articles, studies and research) sources. It consists of four sections: The first section refers to the current constructions of quality discourse in the European context (e.g. globalization, knowledge economies and GATS, new public management, new governance, etc.). In the second section, we examine the integration of «quality» in the EU’s discourses and policies (Treaties, Action Programs as well as in the general, vocational and higher education initiatives). The third section reviews the quality discourse in the context of the late EU’s policy processes (Lisbon, Bologna and Copenhagen). In the final section we put forward a critical reading of the «audit/ quality» nexus based on a «policy by numbers» technocratic-managerial rationale aiming at the construction of a measurable «Europe of knowledge».Este artículo investiga el contenido y las diferentes «dimensiones» de «calidad» en las actuales «políticas de conocimiento» de la Unión Europea, del modo en que están especificadas por la renovada «Estrategia de Lisboa» y en el marco de la construcción de una «Europa del Conocimiento Medible ». El estudio analiza en profundidad los discursos políticos y las prácticas políticas de la Unión Europea desde 1994 hasta 2010, utilizando a la vez fuentes primarias (por ejemplo, documentos oficiales) y secundarias (por ejemplo, artículos, estudios e investigación académicos). Consta de cuatro secciones: La primera sección se refiere a las actuales construcciones del discurso sobre la calidad en el contexto Europeo (por ejemplo, globalización, economía del conocimiento, la nueva gestión pública, nuevos gobiernos, etc.). en la segunda sección, examinamos la integración de la «calidad» en los discursos y políticas de la UE (Tratados, Programas de Acción así como las iniciativas generales, vocacionales de la educación superior). La tercera sección revisa el discurso de la «calidad» en el contexto de los actuales procesos políticos de la UE (Lisboa, Bolonia, Copenhague). En la última sección, presentamos una lectura crítica del nexo «auditoría/calidad», basado en una «política de los números», de objetivo tecnocrático-gerencial de la construcción de una «Europa del conocimiento» medible.
... For the family, the diagnosis is often used to ask the teacher to adjust the assessment of the child's behavior and performance in light of the same diagnosis. The greatest common denominator between parents and teachers of this process is not to focus on the resources of "the child"—on how he or she can learn to handle the demands of the context (Gleeson & Husbands, 2001; Iudici, 2013). Justifying the child's behavior and not urging its resources begins a process of the reduction of opportunities for development and of the legitimization of the role of being "different" or "sick. ...
Article
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ADHD is considered an impairing psychological disorder that predominantly affects children and is characterised by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. This diagnosis has become controversal in literature do to the conceptual resistances expressed by clinicians and pediatricians in considering a simple list of behaviors as a psychological syndrome, in absence of physical test or single cause demonstrating it. They have to be considered implications linked to the overuse of the diagnostic label; within these, the risk (by teachers and school managers) of justifying and supporting interventions for differentiating teaching strategies and menaging difficult student-case, the financing of which would be impossible without diagnosis. As a result, a considerable amount of research has been completed in recent years to better understand the phenomenon. In the present paper features for and against the use of the diagnosis will be present and discuss apart from the critical analysis of different frameworks and by introducing a relational perspective deriving from the labeling theory and interactionism. Operational suggestions and strategies for teachers and families dealing with minors are also presented, both in schools and in clinical setting.
... In both cases, it can be driven by sincerely held, often long term aspirations rooted strongly in teachers' values and beliefs (Belo et al., 2014). Or aspirations may be more narrowly instrumental, for example maintaining a 'normal desirable state' in the classroom (Brown & McIntyre, 1992) or 'playing the game' (Gleeson & Gunter, 2001). This game can take the form of fabrication of the school's image -careful impression management and discourses of excellence (Keddie, Mills & Pendergast, 2011) and the concealing of 'dirty laundry' (Cowie, Taylor & Croxford, 2007), as well as more serious corruption and cheating (Ball, 2003;Sahlberg, 2010). ...
Chapter
The concept of teacher agency has emerged in recent literature as an alternative means of understanding how teachers might enact practice and engage with policy (e.g. Lasky, 2005; Leander & Osbourne, 2008; Ketelaar et al., 2012; Priestley, Biesta & Robinson, 2013). But what is agency? Agency remains an inexact and poorly conceptualised construct in much of the literature, where it is often not clear whether the term refers to an individual capacity of teachers to act agentically or to an emergent ‘ecological’ phenomenon dependent upon the quality of individuals’ engagement with their environments (Biesta & Tedder, 2007). In this chapter, we outline the latter conception of agency, developing a conceptual model for teacher agency that emphasizes the temporal and relational dimension of the achievement of agency. Why does this matter? Recent curriculum policy in many countries heralds a [re]turn to the centrality of the teacher in school-based curriculum development. In many cases, this renewed emphasis on teachers is explicitly tied to change agendas, with teachers described as agents of change. And yet such change agentry (Fullan, 2003) and teacher agency more broadly are often circumscribed by features of the contexts within which teachers work – for example accountability mechanisms and other forms of output regulation of teachers’ work – leading to engagement with policy that is often instrumental and blighted by unintended consequences. In the chapter, we illustrate how a detailed understanding of teacher agency and the conditions under which it is achieved offer considerable potential in enabling teachers to engage with curricular policy in more meaningful ways.
... According to its perspective, this crisis has its roots in the apparent loss of consensus and cultural unity within Occidental societies more generally, and in particular in Spain. As observed by other academics in different contexts (Apple 2001a;Ball 2003;Gleeson et al. 2001), the explanations of such a crisis and the consequent political alternatives are formed by elements that come from the foundation's two ideological sources: neoconservatism and neoliberalism. On one hand, FAES stresses the loss of a normative consensus on the aims and means of education among its own actors; on the other hand, it criticises the continuous pre-eminence and centrality of the role of the state in the organisation and operation of the education system to the detriment of market mechanisms. ...
Article
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The way in which societies around the globe are governed is changing towards more flexible and networked forms where the government is not the sole and main responsible actor in the organisation, funding, delivery and evaluation of public services. Analysing the new roles of philanthropic organisations, think tanks and business organisations is a key task in order to understand the expansion of neoliberal ideas and solutions in the field of education policy. Taking as a starting point the set of ideological pillars and discursive practices of the Spanish neoliberal think tank Foundation for Social Studies and Analysis (Fundación para el Análisis y los Estudios Sociales, FAES) and its networks of academics and experts, this article aims to offer a deeper understanding of the processes through which new models of public management and market-based solutions are being promoted and enacted in the Spanish educational arena. To do this, we will experiment with tools derived from what is known as ‘network ethnography’, a new methodological approach that combines aspects of Social Network Analysis with more traditional ethnographic methods.
... L'accent mis sur l'effi cacité des écoles a rendu ces derniers responsables de l'atteinte des objectifs et des standards fi xés par le management, en fonction desquels ils étaient récompensés ou sanctionnés. Ce « management de la performance » (Gleeson et Husbands, 2001) a récupéré non seulement les travaux et les instruments de mesure de la school effectiveness mais aussi les conceptions du nouveau management public restructurant les services publics dans le domaine de la santé, de l'équipement, des fi nances (Clarke et Newman, 1997). Dans cet esprit, les enseignants sont perçus comme des unités de travail qui peuvent être dirigées et distribuées en fonction de critères et d'objectifs du management sans lien avec les caractéristiques des personnes. ...
Article
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Résumé Le paradigme de « l’école efficace » s’appuie sur la promotion de différentes mesures des résultats scolaires, non seulement dans le domaine cognitif ou celui des compétences de base, mais aussi dans celui des compétences sociales ou affectives des élèves. Cette conception de l’évaluation des apprentissages par les tests a contribué à stabiliser les interprétations du monde scientifique et politique dans des normes, des procédures, des informations, contribuant également à inscrire les conceptions de l’école efficace dans les pratiques des acteurs et dans l’orientation des politiques d’éducation. Cet article retrace la construction sociale des réseaux scientifiques et politiques ayant facilité un rapprochement entre recherche, management et politiques de l’éducation, entre production de connaissances scientifiques et outils de pilotage des systèmes éducatifs.
... The third tension was related to technology, but more about culture than content. Other educational arenas have long courted both the parlance and practices of teaching as a "performance art" (Rives, 1979;Redington, 1983;Dawe, 1984;Pineau, 1994;Whatman, 1997;Brent, 2005;Hart, 2007;Schmenner, 2013), and with education as functioning within a "performance culture" (Gleeson and Husbands, 2004). Elsewhere, classrooms have been reimagined as "theaters" with teachers encouraged to develop new "acting skills" in service to their learners (Griggs, 2001;Tauber and Sargent Mester, 2007). ...
Article
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The Covid‐19 pandemic has challenged medical educators internationally to confront the challenges of adapting their present educational activities to a rapidly evolving digital world. In this article, the authors use anatomy education as proxy to remap and reflect on the past, present, and future of medical education in the face of these disruptions. In doing so, the authors highlight three tensions surrounding the present of anatomy education: organizational, educational, and cultural. In addressing these tensions and inspired by the historical Theatrum Anatomicum (Anatomy 1.0) the authors argue replacing current (Anatomy 2.0) anatomy laboratory dissection standards with a prototype (3.0) anatomy studio. In this studio, anatomists are web‐performers who not only collaborate with other foundational science educators to devise meaningful and interactive content, but who also partner with actors, directors, web‐designers, computer engineers, information technologists, and visual artists to master online interactions and processes, thus optimizing students` engagement and learning. This anatomy studio also offers students opportunities to create their own online content and thus reposition themselves digitally, a step into developing new competency of stage presence within medical education. So reimagined, Anatomy 3.0 will launch students into evolving new era of tele and digital medicine as it helps to foreshadow forthcoming changes in medical education.
... The findings of Zehra (2016) confirmed that T&D works as a barometer for measuring performances of banks and their respective workforce. The earlier work of Gleeson and Husbands (2001) also found that most widely used tool in the banking sector is training and development for improving the workers' performances and overall organizational efficiency. Moreover, recent studies confirmed that employees' professional growth and development and accomplishing business objectives are likely due to effective and efficient T&D programs ( Zehra, 2016;Faridi et al., 2017). ...
Article
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This paper examines the impact of modern and traditional training and development programs on the employees of banking sectors' organizational commitment and overall performance within Karachi, Pakistan. Furthermore, the paper explores the causal-effect relationship between organizational commitment's distinctive attributes and T&D program through mediating role of job satisfaction, by particularly looking at the contractual and permanent employees. By combining the strata, convenience, and purposive sampling, we gathered data from the 307 employees working in the Karachi's banking sector. Since, the study falls largely into positivist paradigm thus quantitative analysis are conducted in this study. Interestingly, the findings revealed that modern methods of training and development are highly preferred by the contractual workers. In addition to that, the working efficiency of the employees aging between 30-40 years is significant positively affected by modern T&D methods. On the other hand, working efficiency does not improve for the permanent employees under both; traditional and modern methods to notable extent. In addition to that, irrespective of the type of employment status, the affective and normative commitment of male employees is significant positively affected by the salary increment while the continuance commitment of female workers is significant positively affected by the training and
... On the other hand, Zehra (2016) argued training and development is a barometer for measuring the employee and organizational performance. Additionally, training and development methods are used in the banking sector for improving organizational efficiency and individual performances ( Gleeson & Husbands, 2001). Furthermore, Zehra (2016 argued that T&D program facilitates organization in the attainment of business objectives and professional growth and development of employees. ...
Article
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This article investigates the impact of traditional and modern training programs on the overall performance and commitment to employees in public banking sector of Pakistan. Additionally, the study examines the relationship between antecedents of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Bank of Khyber, First Women Bank, National Bank of Pakistan, Sindh Bank, and The Bank of Punjab are currently operating public banks in Pakistan. Thus, all five considered in this study using strata sampling technique. Total 26 Branch Managers participated in interviews whereas 292 completed survey questionnaire. Results showed modern T&D methods preferred by contractual employees whereas permanent employees prefer traditional methods of training and development. Moreover, T&D significantly affect the continuance commitment (CC) of female employees whereas salary increment enhances males' normative commitment (NC) and affective commitment (AC). Additionally, both modern and traditional T&D methods improve job satisfaction. AC and NC are relatively higher in public bank employees in comparison to CC, resulting from training and development program.
... Among topics for debate has been the application of this data by external agencies, known to use the same information at different times and for different purposes (Connolly et al. 2018). There are fears that teachers' moral obligation to do the best by their pupils has, at times, been challenged by the need to 'play the game' (Gleeson and Gunter 2001). Under Williams, the Welsh Government has ended the routine publication of teacher assessment data and national test results, and sought to reduce the weight of outcome indicators on school categorisation. ...
Article
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Wales’ education system is part-way through an extensive journey of reform. This contextual paper explores the evolution of that journey, from the establishment of the Welsh Parliament in 1999 to late 2020, as Wales readies itself for the launch of a radical, new national curriculum. Drawing from a range of international literature and experience, it provides an overview of key policy developments and insight into the rationale for decisions taken by the Welsh Government to effect change. To do this, it separates reform into three core phases, each with its own characteristics borne out of landmark events that helped shape contemporary political and public discourse. In particular, the paper examines the impact of Wales’ shifting approach to policy development on the teaching workforce and considers implications for those at the site of practice. Ahead of forthcoming parliamentary elections, the paper resolves that a new, long-term approach to policy reform and teacher development is needed if Wales is to realise its ambitious vision for education.
... In both cases, it can be driven by sincerely held, often long term aspirations rooted strongly in teachers' values and beliefs (Belo et al., 2014). Or aspirations may be more narrowly instrumental, for example maintaining a 'normal desirable state' in the classroom (Brown & McIntyre, 1992) or 'playing the game' (Gleeson & Gunter, 2001). This game can take the form of fabrication of the school's image -careful impression management and discourses of excellence (Keddie, Mills & Pendergast, 2011) and the concealing of 'dirty laundry' (Cowie, Taylor & Croxford, 2007), as well as more serious corruption and cheating (Ball, 2003;Sahlberg, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
The concept of teacher agency has emerged in recent literature as an alternative means of understanding how teachers might enact practice and engage with policy (e.g. Lasky, 2005; Leander & Osbourne, 2008; Ketelaar et al., 2012; Priestley, Biesta & Robinson, 2013). But what is agency? Agency remains an inexact and poorly conceptualised construct in much of the literature, where it is often not clear whether the term refers to an individual capacity of teachers to act agentically or to an emergent ‘ecological’ phenomenon dependent upon the quality of individuals’ engagement with their environments (Biesta & Tedder, 2007). In this seminar, I outline the latter conception of agency, developing a conceptual model for teacher agency, which emphasizes the temporal and relational dimension of the achievement of agency. Why does this matter? Recent curriculum policy in many countries heralds a [re]turn to the centrality of the teacher in school-based curriculum development. In many cases, this renewed emphasis on teachers is explicitly tied to change agendas, with teachers described as agents of change. And yet such change agentry (Fullan, 2003) and teacher agency more broadly are often circumscribed by features of the contexts within which teachers work – for example accountability mechanisms and other forms of output regulation of teachers’ work – leading to engagement with policy that is often instrumental and blighted by unintended consequences. In the seminar, I illustrate how a detailed understanding of teacher agency and the conditions under which it is achieved offer considerable potential in enabling teachers to engage with curricular policy in more meaningful ways.
... Yn achos y maes cyntaf, mae'n hysbys ers blynyddoedd lawer fod atebolrwydd drwy reoleiddio allbynnau yn gallu creu diwylliannau perfformiadol lle mae penderfyniadau ynghylch addysgu yn dod i gael eu gwneud i fodloni cynulleidfaoedd allanol yn hytrach na chwrdd â meini prawf addysgol (e.e. Gleeson a Gunter, 2001;Keddie et al., 2011;Sahlberg, 2011). Felly mae llunwyr polisi yng Nghymru o dan ddyletswydd i ystyried yn ofalus sut mae polisïau'n gallu gweithredu fel hyn, a sut mae gwahanol bolisïau'n gallu tynnu'n groes i'w gilydd; er enghraifft, sut byddai polisi atebolrwydd yn gallu tanseilio nodau polisi ar y cwricwlwm. ...
Article
Mae’r Cwricwlwm i Gymru 2022 arfaethedig yn cynnig gweledigaeth newydd fentrus ar gyfer cwricwlwm, addysgu a dysgu. Yn ogystal â’r pwys y mae’n ei roi ar bedwar diben allweddol, mae’n darparu hyblygrwydd ac ymreolaeth fwy o lawer i athrawon ac ysgolion, yn rhoi lle canolog i ddysgwyr mewn penderfyniadau ar y cwricwlwm, yn hyrwyddo mathau gweithredol o addysgeg a sgiliau’r unfed ganrif ar hugain ac yn lleihau manylebu ar gynnwys y cwricwlwm. Yn debyg i enghreifftiau eraill o ‘gwricwla newydd’ o gwmpas y byd, mae’n dod law yn llaw â set gymhleth o elfennau cwricwlar rhyngweithiol, a heriau sy’n cynnwys medrusrwydd wrth ddylunio’r cwricwlwm a’r galluedd sydd ei angen gan y rheini sy’n gweithio gyda’r cwricwlwm. Yn yr erthygl hon, rydym yn trafod heriau a chyfleoedd sy’n codi wrth ddiwygio’r cwricwlwm yn yr achos hwn yng ngoleuni’r profiad o ddiwygio cwricwla mewn gwledydd eraill. Yn benodol, rydym yn tynnu sylw at yr angen am roi sylw i’r atebolrwydd, y dysgu proffesiynol a’r cyd‐destun mewn rhwydweithiau cymdeithasol sydd eu hangen i wireddu dyheadau o ran y cwricwlwm cenedlaethol yng Nghymru.
... Although the foregoing definition governs language teacher education, in general education, the concept of teacher autonomy has metamorphosed. Gleeson and Gunter (2001) chart this metamorphosis as follows: ...
Article
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The theory and practice of language teacher autonomy seems to be contradictory in terms. While, in theory, language teaching is conceptualized as a reflective process wherein teachers exercise their professional expertise, in many contexts including some private language schools of Shahrood and Semnan, teaching performance is tightly monitored through closed-circuit cameras. This study attempts to explore language teachers’ perceptions of teaching under video surveillance through elicitation data gathered and analyzed based on grounded theory. Iterative data collection and analysis and the constant comparative techniques revealed that video surveillance negatively affects language teaching since the participants believed it violates their rights to privacy, induces artificial practice, suppresses teacher initiatives, and deskills teachers by inducing disused atrophy. Through the counter-evidence presented by the language teachers, it was also found that the rationales for using video surveillance are unjustified. The findings of this study have clear implications for managers, supervisors and language teachers teaching in private language schools in the context of this study and other similar contexts.
... The development of accountability discourses have moved teachers from a position of relative autonomy, through a period of controlled autonomy in the 1980s and 1990s, to a situation of productive autonomy, where they have been reduced to technical workers, implementing teaching strategies and programmes of work decided by others (Gleeson & Gunter, 2001). Avis (2005, p. 211) described the system of accountability as a 'regime of truth', in which correct conceptions of good teaching practice are determined by the Official Recontextualising Field (where the official knowledge of the state and its agents is sited -see Bernstein, 2000), and in which alternative visions from the Pedagogic Recontextualising Field (where official knowledge is translated into actual programmes of teaching and learning -that is, by teachers, lecturers, educational managers, researchers, etc.) are denied any legitimacy or voice. ...
Article
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In a review of scholarly articles about the concept of empowerment, the author argues that the idea of empowerment has been deployed in three main ways. The first is where empowerment is conceived as a liberatory idea, in which power is transferred in education from the traditionally powerful to subsidiary groups within the educative process. The second conceptualises empowerment as a technique of governance, a way of disciplining modern citizens into a regime of self-surveillance. The third identifies empowerment, divorced amongst educationalists from wider social and political movements, as a distraction, which dissipates the potential for real educational change. The article concludes that a re-connection with the political is a necessary pre-condition for the achievement of the transformative potential of empowerment programmes.
... The policy was made official in a green book called The Performing School. Managing, Teaching and Learning in a Performance (Gleeson and Husbands, 2000), a report meant to revise teachers' professional careers by inaugurating a system of performance-related pay (PRP). Contradictory reports were written up by the National union of teachers (NUT), which even went to court to obtain a revision of performance-based standards (but only succeeded in obtaining a small change). ...
Article
Références du dossier : "New Public Management et professions dans l'État : au-delà des oppositions, quelles recompositions ? ", Sociologie du Travail, Volume 53, Issue 3, July-September 2011, Pages 293-348 Dans cette 4e section, l'auteur examine les recompositions du travail et de la profession enseignante dans le contexte de la réforme de la Troisième Voie en Angleterre.
... In both cases, it can be driven by sincerely held, often long term aspirations rooted strongly in teachers' values and beliefs (Belo et al., 2014). Or aspirations may be more narrowly instrumental, for example maintaining a 'normal desirable state' in the classroom (Brown & McIntyre, 1992) or 'playing the game' (Gleeson & Gunter, 2001). This game can take the form of fabrication of the school's image -careful impression management and discourses of excellence (Keddie, Mills & Pendergast, 2011) and the concealing of 'dirty laundry' (Cowie, Taylor & Croxford, 2007), as well as more serious corruption and cheating (Ball, 2003;Sahlberg, 2010). ...
Book
While decades of education policy have sought to marginalise the teacher through an emphasis on the production of outputs and outcomes and a more general push for effectiveness at system level, more recent policies are beginning to reconnect with the crucial role that teachers play in educational change, innovation and improvement. This book provides a detailed exploration of the idea of teacher agency by deepening understanding of what teacher agency is, by arguing how and why it is important for meaningful educational practice, and by identifying what might help and what might hinder the promotion of teacher agency. It looks particularly at teachers’ beliefs and values, professional vocabularies and discourses, relationships and structures, and the impact of wider cultures of accountability and performativity. The book introduces an ecological approach in which teacher agency is not seen as an individual capacity but as an achievement that is the outcome of the interplay of individual capacity with contextual factors and resources. The book provides extensive discussion of existing research literature on education policy, teacher professionalism and teacher agency. It situates the ecological approach within wider discussions about professional control, professional autonomy and professional agency. And it explores the complexities of teacher agency and its achievement through a discussion of findings from empirical research on teacher agency within the context of a major educational reform: the introduction of Scotland’s Curriculum for Excellence. The book provides concrete recommendations for the promotion of teacher agency, highlighting the importance of combining the enhancement of individual capacity with changes in the cultures and structures of educational practice.
... Commentators in the field note that educational change in England has long been characterised by a performativity and accountability culture (Gleeson and Husbands, 2001;Ball, 2013;Ball, 2015). This culture emphasises pupils' academic achievement ...
Conference Paper
This thesis explores how English primary school senior leaders create the conditions for teachers’ professional learning, associated with improvements to their practice, as part of the process of school-based change. It further explores how knowledge about this might be developed with reference to transformative learning theory (Mezirow, 1991), which is a ‘theory of adult learning addressed to those involved in helping adults learn’ (Mezirow, 1991, p.33) within the context of change. A small-scale study of nine leaders (heads and deputies) was conducted. The qualitative research was undertaken using a constructivist-interpretive approach. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant; questions related to leaders initiating change, leaders’ views about teachers as learners, and leaders supporting teacher resilience. Electronic analysis software, NVivo, was utilised for thematic analysis to identify themes within the data. The themes related to: senior leaders developing teachers’ understanding about the need for changes to their practice by sharing a rationale; senior leaders organising teachers’ professional learning through practical activities, related to school improvement initiatives promoting internal and external collaborations; and leaders supporting teachers’ resilience. The themes emerging from the data analysis were related back to literature on the leadership of change and teacher learning. They were further interpreted, where relevant, against key areas of transformative learning theory and the ten stages of the theory. The research methodology had several limitations which contributed to too much unfocused data or prevented richer data from being obtained. Nevertheless, the research develops links between the context and culture of leadership and conditions senior leaders create for the teacher learning associated with change. It also interprets the conditions created by leaders for teacher learning against transformative learning theory, which I consider could benefit senior leaders, who might use this knowledge to strengthen their leadership of change.
... Husbands, 2001). En las escuelas italianas, por ejemplo, en los últimos años para la evaluación que se ha extendido la suministración de las pruebas estandarizadas, cuyo objetivo es examinar la inteligencia utilitaria, funcional dentro del sistema de producción. ...
... This exemplifies where once teachers had a certain amount of autonomy as 'experts' in the processes of how children learn and what needed to be taught, this autonomy has been gradually eroded and replaced by greater controls over pedagogy and the curriculum to accommodate this testing culture (Gleeson and Gunter 2001). The following two quotes perhaps further epitomise this lack of autonomy teachers have today and the tensions they face: ...
Chapter
Cudworth provides a structural analysis of educational underachievement. He presents an illustration of how the shifting nature of schooling as a neo-liberal market-driven system continues to spatially marginalise children from Gypsy/Traveller communities. Engaging with the narratives from practitioners (including teachers, head teachers, trainee teachers and others such as Traveller Education Support Staff) and deploying the spatial lens, the chapter explores this marginalisation in relation to how educational policies are ‘played out’ at the micro level of the school and the classroom. The analysis focuses on the ways in which educational policy has embodied certain ideas that have eroded equality of opportunity for children from Gypsy/Traveller communities.
... When we look at the results the average [IB Diploma result] in the world is 29 and we have 37 points". This quotation draws our focus to the pragmatic concern of marketization within education-the need for schools to compete and perform (Gleeson & Husbands, 2004). ...
Preprint
This article takes a 'vertical' comparative case study approach to the study of the human rights logic of the International Baccalaureate. It explores how the global human rights logic is experienced and adhered to by students taking the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in one state school in Poland. As part of a larger study the article uses the data scores from the Human Rights Competence Development Survey (Parish, 2018) as a measure of the level to which students adhere to the human rights logic of the International Baccalaureate. Semi-structured interviews with a small sample of students and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Coordinator were conducted to explore how those students experience the International Baccalaureate human rights logic in an attempt to understand why they have or have not developed high levels of adherence. The findings indicate that adherence to the human rights logic varies depending on factors both within and beyond the school learning community. What also becomes clear is that there is logic hybridity as the human-rights-promoting logic competes with the more pragmatic concerns of examination success and university ambitions.
... When we look at the results the average [IB Diploma result] in the world is 29 and we have 37 points". This quotation draws our focus to the pragmatic concern of marketization within education -the need for schools to compete and perform (Gleeson & Husbands, 2004). ...
Article
This article takes a ‘vertical’ comparative case study approach to the study of the human rights logic of the International Baccalaureate. It explores how the global human rights logic is experienced and adhered to by students taking the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in one state school in Poland. As part of a larger study the article uses the data scores from the Human Rights Competence Development Survey (Parish, 2018) as a measure of the level to which students adhere to the human rights logic of the International Baccalaureate. Semi-structured interviews with a small sample of students and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Coordinator were conducted to explore how those students experience the International Baccalaureate human rights logic in an attempt to understand why they have or have not developed high levels of adherence. The findings indicate that adherence to the human rights logic varies depending on factors both within and beyond the school learning community. What also becomes clear is that there is logic hybridity as the human-rights-promoting logic competes with the more pragmatic concerns of examination success and university ambitions.
Article
This article explores the relationship between education reform and gender equity, both within and between nation states. Utilising feminist critical policy analysis and post-colonial theory, it examines how education reform over the past decade has impacted on gender equity, and how educational reform is itself gendered. It considers the nature of gender restructuring; maps significant shifts in gender equity policy in the wider context of educational and social inequality debates; and through an analysis of recent research on gender identity, schooling and leadership argues that gender can no longer be privileged when identifying and responding to educational inequality. Key assumptions underpinning how social change and education reform delivers equity are questioned, concluding with feminist theorising about how social justice may inform equity policy and practice in culturally diverse educational contexts.
Chapter
Bewertungen sind ein essentieller Bestandteil des sozialen Lebens. In der Interpretation unserer Alltagswirklichkeit, in der wir unseren subjektiven Sinn erschließen und uns in der Welt positionieren, bewerten und beurteilen wir fortlaufend Menschen, Dinge, Ideen, Werte oder Situationen – und zwar von frühester Kindheit an. Schon Kinder aktivieren, wenn sie auf eine einfache Frage wie ‚Hattest Du eine schöne Zeit?‘ angemessen mit ‚ja‘ oder ‚nein‘ antworten, bestimmte mentale Prozesse, einschließlich einer rückblickenden Betrachtung des Ereignisses und der mehr oder weniger bewussten Anwendung von Kriterien, was eine ‚schöne‘ Zeit ausmacht (vgl. Broadfoot 1996, S. 3).
Article
This chapter provides an analysis of the rise of ‘scientific management’ an ‘social efficiency’ theories in the early 1900s, traces their impact on the structure and administration of education systems, and critically analyses their contribution to the emergence of a new orthodoxy outcomes-based education (OBE) approaches to school curriculum and assessment reforms in selected twentieth and twenty-first century western public education systems. The chapter also demonstrates that the (re)emergence of outcomes-based education has won support from politicians, policymakers, and education administrators seeking to monitor and raise student achievement (by specifying performance targets and outcomes clearly) at the same time as exercising greater surveillance and tighter control over the professional work and lives of classroom teachers. The chapter concludes that the ‘scientific management’ and social efficiency theories of the past, and OBE more recently, have provided a convenient, hegemonic, and technicist rationale for implementing wide-ranging education reforms designed ostensibly to enhance not only educational achievement but also economic efficiency, productivity, and prosperity. Their joint legacy has resulted in a profound reconfiguration of what counts as ‘worthwhile knowledge’ in the twentieth and twenty-first century.
Chapter
This chapter examines the processes of change that have been under way in teacher education in England. The trends that are revealed are consistent with a centrally controlled development of a marketised approach. There has been a diversification of provision with new entry routes which have little or no higher education input, as well as a growing emphasis on performance and ‘accountability’. The overall effect has been to create a fractured system with considerable instability especially for traditional providers of teacher education. This has been accompanied by a growing sense of constraint on the nature of teaching, based on a simplistic view of the profession which assumes that teaching can be encapsulated in a list of measurable standards or competences.
Chapter
The literature discussed within this chapter concerns school leadership research undertaken in England over the last 20 years. We have chosen this chronological period for historical reasons given the emergence of leadership as the dominant discourse within the English school context during the mid-1990s. The first strand of leadership research grew as a result of Government interventions in the early years of the new millennium to promote school improvement through, for example, increasing training and development opportunities for school leaders and beginning to differentiate between conditions for learning in schools serving more advantaged communities and those serving socioeconomical disadvantaged communities. A second strand of research on school leadership in England concerns the definition, identification and elaboration of the characteristics and behaviours of successful head teachers. A third strand of research has been the development of theories of distributed leadership, a concept that implies the involvement of the many rather than the few in leadership tasks and is premised on ‘a collective approach to capacity building in schools’ (Harris A. Crossing boundaries and breaking barriers: Distributing leadership in schools. Specialist Schools Trust. Available at: http:// www. sst-inet. net, p. 7, 2005). A fourth strand of leadership research is undertaken largely by educational sociologists who position themselves as critics, both of the effects of government policy upon schools, teachers and head teachers and fellow researchers who, in their view, do not distance themselves sufficiently from government policy in their work and, therefore, are accused of colluding with it (Thrupp M. Schools making a difference: Let’s be realistic! School mix, school effectiveness and the social limits of reform. Open University Press, Buckingham, 1999). The fifth and final strand of research deals with the notion of leadership across multiple schools and agencies that has emerged in the English school context alongside the increase in interschool collaboration as a means of school improvement.
Chapter
Der folgende Beitrag geht der Frage nach, inwieweit sogenannte innovative Konzepte beruflicher Bildung Bildungschancen für diejenigen eröffnen, denen der Zugang zu den Ressourcen Bildung und Ausbildung auf den etablierten Wegen versperrt oder nur sehr erschwert möglich ist. Fast alle Länder der Europäischen Gemeinschaft haben, oft mit finanzieller Unterstützung aus dem Europäischen Sozialfonds (ESF), Maßnahmen und Programme implementiert, die durch berufliche Orientierung und Bildung und durch praktische Arbeitserfahrungen, die soziale und berufliche Integration von Jugendlichen fördern sollen, die unter den aktuellen Bedingungen des Arbeits- und Ausbildungsmarktes von Ausgren-zung bedroht sind. Ein europäischer Vergleich1 von Maßnahmen und Methoden der Benachteiligtenförderung zeigte, dass trotz aller unterschiedlicher Strukturen der Berufsbildungssysteme, die Programme, die auf die Eingliederung Jugendlicher in Ausbildung und Beruf abzielen, ähnlichen pädagogischen Ansätzen folgen. Sie wenden sich an junge Menschen, deren Verortung im jeweiligen Bildungssystem aus sozialen Gründen stark problembehaftet ist, was u. a. in mangelndem schulischen Erfolg zum Ausdruck kommt. Maßnahmen, die darauf abzielen, (Aus-)Bildungsabbrüche zu vermeiden und zu verhindern, dass Jugendliche aus den Systemen und Institutionen der beruflichen Bildung herausfallen, bauen dabei auf ähnliche pädagogische Konzepte.
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This research paper investigates the impact of T&D program on the level of employees' organizational commitment and overall performances in the Banking sector of KPK by considering Bank of Khyber as a case study. Study aims to critically examine all three attributes of organizational commitment (affective, normative, and continuance commitment respectively) and its impact on the job satisfaction in banking sector of KPK, Pakistan. The notions of Guest et.al, (2003) and Wall & Wood (2005) are taken as a foundation to explore the linkage between organisational commitment and T&D program, however both these studies had not investigated all three attributes in equal manner. The focus of these previous studies were more on affective and continuance commitment and did not investigate the causes and consequences that make these attributes to create an impact on the overall performances. Thus this study is significant because it attempts to explain in exploratory manner the reasons behind impact created by training. Inductive approach in a cross-sectional design following interpretive research philosophy research is carried out. The bank of Khyber, KPK is case study selected with 15 regional and branch managers as participants for interviews and 277 employees participated in the survey questionnaire, selected through stratified, convenience, and random sampling technique. Results of present study indicates that to retain skilled workforce, organization has to work on their continuance commitment by offering them promotion and salary increment because these are two factors that enable firms to retain skilled workers. Training increases employees' affective and normative commitment more in general as compare to continuance commitment. This paper contributes to the field of management and administrative sciences by investigating the relationship between T&D program and employees' performance and organisational commitment by exploring workforce and management's perspective through financial institution. It adds to the managerial literature related to T&D in relation with organisational commitment and overall performance in developing country's context.
Chapter
As we reflect on our careers, beginning in public education and participating in academic life at Canadian universities for several decades, we are struck by the enduring importance of relationships in educational work. This is particularly evident in the small rural university where we work presently and in our engagement with local schools. The significance of relationships arises from our research and is taken up in our postgraduate courses in education and counselling. In both instances, seasoned educators display a longing to talk about the intersections of relationships and managerial encroachments on educators’ sense of being (dis)empowered. It is the focus of spirited conversations when we are in schools for any reason — supervision of students, collaborations with schools or research interviews. While conversations that take up concerns about standardisation of various sorts figure prominently in all aspects of our work, relationships are always there. They are there particularly when educators and counsellors talk about what is possible in schooling and what makes it possible. Conversations about relationships in and around schools reveal a great deal about the kinds of environments that empower educators and their students and those that disempower them. In this chapter, we share stories from counsellors, teachers and administrators as we reflect on such empowering and disempowering environments. We begin with a review of various effects of the new managerialism on schooling as a frame for exploring these issues, touching on the hopefulness suggested in affective pedagogies.
Article
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The lived experiences of primary school teachers within a culture of performativity, is a study that aims to gain an indepth understanding of how primary school teachers experience the phenomenon of performativity and the meaning that they give to it. Performativity has a particular meaning in this article and refers to what French philosopher Lyotard (1984) referred to as the shortest input/output ratio. It is about the pressure to perform in various spheres of life including in education, where measurable outputs are valued above the processes of education. Ball (2003:216) described performativity as a technology, "a culture and a mode of regulation that employs judgements comparisons and displays as means of incentive, control, attrition and change - based on rewards and sanctions." The article clarifies what performativity is and concepts that are related to this phenomenon. From this exercise it is inferred that performativity in education is used as a political and bureaucratic mechanism wherein teachers are required to demonstrate that they are accountable (in a pejorative sense) for their work. Conducting this study was important because there is a paucity of studies in South Africa that investigate what are the lived experiences of primary school teachers in a context where performativity is the dominant regime. This qualitative study is guided by the hermeneutic-phenomenological research approach of Van Manen (1990). The unit of analysis of the study is teachers of primary schools located in the Groot Drakenstein Valley in the Western Cape Province. Data was gathered through phenomenological interviews and participants' own written narratives. Purposive sampling was used and the sample comprised 7 teachers whose ages varied from 40-59. The four existentials identified by Van Manen is used to guide the analysis of the data. The study produced the following findings: The existential "lived space" (spatiality) brought to the fore the emotional processes that participants had to endure in their attempts to conform to the discourse of performativity; the existential "lived body" (corporeality) highlighted issues related to accountability and the physiological side effects produced by performativity; the existential "lived time" (temporality) depicted teachers' past, present and future lived experiences within the educational landscape; the existential "lived other" (relationality) layed bare the interpersonal relationships between participants and other role players. The study concludes that performativity discourses have significant implications for teachers. Both the physiological and emotional effects of performativity, changed (mostly negatively) teachers' commitment and how they view their teaching careers. Moreover, performativity changed the nature of relationships, not only the interdependent learner-teacher relationship, but also relationships with other role-players such as colleagues and curriculum advisors. Futhermore, the study gives legitimacy to what Aoki (1999) called the curriculum-as-lived. He argued that the curriculum-as-lived by learners and teachers needs to be recognised along with the curriculum-as-planned and that the tensioned space between the two is a space of both struggle and creativity. He writes: "It is in this space of between that our teachers, sensitive to both curriculum-as-planned and curriculum-as-lived, dwell, likely finding it a tensioned space of ambiguity, ambivalence, and uncertainty but simultaneously a vibrant site ⋯ but nevertheless a site that beckons pedagogic struggle, for such a human site promises generative possibilities and hope. It is, indeed, a site of becoming, where newness can come into being" (1999:81). The lived world of teachers and learners are mostly ignored by policy/curriculum makers - the reason why there remains a policy-practice gap, and why continued reference is made to the failure of curriculum implementation.
Article
Research interest in educational governance has increased in recent years with the rise to prominence of transnational organisations such as the Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) and the importance attached to international comparison of educational systems. However, rarely do educational researchers consider the historical antecedents that have attended these developments. Yet to more fully appreciate where we are now it is necessary to examine the national and global events that have shaped the current policy context. This paper presents a review of educational governance in the UK from the 1970s seeing in this a trajectory from the emergence of accountability to today's overriding concern with digital data. In doing this, the paper aims to go beyond providing a historical account, rather its purpose is to shed light on educational change; and further, to analyse the contribution of educational research to an understanding of events as they have unfolded over the past five decades. While it is necessarily rooted within the particular historical context of the UK it can be read as an analysis of the factors influencing educational change in the context of globalised policy spaces more broadly. A recurrent theme is the appearance of the ‘unanticipated consequence’, one of the most important issues the social sciences has to contend with. Thus, a tentative theory of ironic reversal as a source of policy failure emerges that is not only of relevance to educational policy but also of wider significance.
Chapter
Internationally, there has been considerable political activity around the question of how to better prepare quality teachers and make training institutions more accountable. In Australia, the 2014 report Action now: classroom ready teachers illustrates many of the underlying assumptions, perceived problems and potential solutions driving this agenda. This report, similar to reports in other countries, reinforces the public perception that the “quality” of teachers is deteriorating and the only solution is to intensify accountability regimes through increased levels of control. To this end, the Australian federal government committed $16.9 million to the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership to ensure that “teachers are better trained”. This involves a greater focus on accountability, accreditation, regulation, selection, assessment, content and evidence about “what works”. This chapter critically reflects on the Australian Action now: classroom ready teachers report as a case study of policy rhetoric and policy reality. Drawing on the tradition of critical policy analysis, the chapter sets out to examine (i) the broader social context in which this reform initiative is located, (ii) the key normative values and assumptions underpinning the report, (iii) gaps, silences and contradictions in policy discourses, and (iv) alternative conceptions of teacher education grounded in a more relational and intellectually engaged response.
Article
The proposed Curriculum for Wales 2022 presents a bold new vision for curriculum, teaching and learning. Together with its focus on four key purposes, it affords substantially more flexibility and autonomy to teachers and schools, positions learners as central to curriculum decision making, promotes active forms of pedagogy and twenty‐first‐century skills and reduces specification of curriculum content. Like other ‘new curriculum’ examples around the world, it brings with it a complex set of interacting curricular elements, with challenges including curriculum design capability and the agency required of those working with the curriculum. In this article, we discuss challenges and opportunities for this curriculum reform in light of international curriculum experience. In particular, we highlight the need for attention to the accountability, professional learning and social network context necessary for the realization of national curriculum aspirations in Wales.
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Konvenčný profesijný rozvoj učiteľov, aj keď je na mnohých miestach – zvlášť na Slovensku – stále v plnom prúde, začína byť čím ďalej, tým silnejšie kritizovaný pre pasívny prístup k učeniu sa, pre ignorovanie miestnych rozdielov v kontexte škôl a pre svoj formát postavený na jednorazových stretnutiach, workshopoch či dokonca len prednáškach. Publikácia sa preto pokúša inšpirovať výskum aj prax ďalšieho vzdelávania učiteľov smerom k rozvoju školy ako profesijnej učiacej sa komunity, postavenej na vzájomnej pomoci, sieťovaní, spoločných hodnotách, dobrých vzťahoch, vízii a premyslených procesoch. V monografii autori vykresľujú obraz o škole, ktorá implementuje rôzne rozvojové stratégie a postupne buduje svoju novú kultúru. Do tohto obrazu zasadzujú učiteľku Zuzanu, ktorá v konkrétnych situáciách spoznáva charakteristiky profesijných učiacich sa komunít, aby tieto aspekty následne popísali v nadväznom odbornom texte. V profesijnej učiacej sa komunite ide na jednej strane o odbornosť a systematickosť, na druhej strane však zároveň o vzťahy a tvorivosť. Na jednej strane stojí metodicky presné pozorovanie, zbieranie dát a ich analýza, na druhej strane vzájomná pomoc, dôvera, spolupráca, emocionálna podpora a osobný charakterový rast. Takýto rozvojový zásah vyžaduje a zároveň podporuje zmenu kultúry školy od administratívno-formálnej k sebareflektujúcej a sebariadiacej.
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