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The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world’s teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York, NY: The Free Press

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Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
The Teaching Gap
Best Ideas from the
World’s Teachers for Improving
Education in the Classroom
James Stigler and James Hiebert
The Free Press, 1999
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Improvement Through
a Focus on Teaching
School learning will not improve
markedly unless we give teachers
the opportunity and support they
need to advance their craft by
increasing the effectiveness of
the methods they use.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. ix
1
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
What Is the Gap?
We are not talking about a gap in teachers’
competence, but about a gap in teaching
methods.
It refers to the kinds of teaching needed
to achieve the educational dreams of the
American people and the kinds of teaching
found in most American schools.
The teaching gap becomes even more
significant when one realizes that while
other countries are continually improving
their teaching approaches, the United States
has no system for improving.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. x
2
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Making Higher Standards
a Reality
Making higher standards a reality for
students will require more than just the
status quo inside our nation’s classrooms;
curriculum, assessments, and—above all—
teaching must improve dramatically. In our
view, teaching is the next frontier in the
continuing struggle to improve schools.
Standards set the course, and assessments
provide the benchmarks, but it is teaching
that must be improved to push us along the
path to success. Stigler and Hiebert, p. 2
3
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Teaching Is Responsible
for Learning
We do not minimize the importance of these
(society factors that influence learning)... but
much of what our society expects children to
learn, they learn in school, and teaching is
most clearly responsible for learning.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 3
4
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Our Past Practice
Policy makers adopt a
program, then wait to see
if student achievement
scores will rise. If the scores
do not go up—and this is most often what
happens, especially in the short run—they
begin hearing complaints that the policy is
not working. Momentum builds, experts
meet, and soon there is a new recommenda-
tion, then a change of course, often in the
opposite direction.
Significantly, this whole process goes on
without ever collecting data on whether or
not the original program was ever imple-
mented in classrooms, or if implemented,
how effective it was in promoting student
learning. Stigler and Hiebert, p. 8
5
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
The problem of how to improve
teaching on a wide scale has
been seriously underestimated
by policymakers, reformers, and the public
in this country. The American approach has
been to write and publish reform documents
and ask teachers to implement the recom-
mendations contained in such documents.
Those who have worked on this problem
understand that this approach simply does
not work. The teaching profession does
not have enough knowledge about what
constitutes effective teaching, and teachers
do not have the means of successfully
sharing such knowledge with one another.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 12
A Gap in Methods for
Improving Teaching
6
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
A Summary of the Findings Related
to Teaching Techniques
(geometry lessons in 8th grade classes)
Analysis using videotapes, 50-80 samples
Germany: Developing advanced learners
challenging content, develop
procedures in class. Much attention to
content knowledge.
Japan: Structured problem solving, refining of
lessons.
United States: Learning terms and practicing procedures.
Present definitions of terms and demonstrate
procedures. Not interactive, not attending to
thinking, not engaging in technique, shallow
demonstration of content knowledge.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 27
7
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Japan Has the Most Skillful
and Purposeful Teaching
When students are asked
to solve challenging problems,
teachers often build scaffolds
to help them. The scaffolds
come in many forms.
Sometimes they are the outcomes of
previous lessons, reviewed by the teacher.
Sometimes they are in the form of informa-
tion provided by lectures, and sometimes in
the form of mental tools provided through
memorization. What is constant is that
challenging problems are selected, and
scaffolds are provided so that students can,
at least, begin developing methods for
solutions.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 50
8
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Content Coherence
Coherence is significant. Imagine a lesson
as a story. Well formed stories consist of a
sequence of events that fit together to reach
the final conclusion. Ill formed stories are
scattered sets of events that don’t seem
to connect... well formed stories are like
coherent lessons. They offer the students
greater opportunities to make sense of what
is going on. Stigler and Hiebert, p. 61
9
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Teaching Is a System
And here is a simple truth
about teaching... Teaching is a
system. It is not a loose mixture
of individual features thrown
together by the teacher. It works more like
a machine, with the parts operating together
and reinforcing one another, driving the
vehicle forward.
This is a very different way to think about
teaching. It means that individual features,
by themselves, are not good or bad. Their
value depends on how they connect to others
and fit into the lesson.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 75
10
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
How Did We Get Here?
Teaching... is a cultural activity... Teaching,
like other cultural activities, is learned
through informal participation over long
periods of time. It is something one learns
to do more by growing up in a culture than
by studying it formally.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 86
11
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Many U.S. Teachers...
seem to believe that learning terms
and practicing skills is not very
exciting... teachers act as if student
interest will be generated only by
diversions outside of mathematics.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 89
12
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Different Perspectives Related
to Student Differences
U.S. teachers view individual
differences as an obstacle to
effective teaching... As the range
of differences increases, the
difficulties of teaching increase.
For the Japanese teacher, the differences
within a group are beneficial because they
allow the teacher to plan a lesson by using
the information that they and other teachers
have previously recorded about students’
likely responses to particular problems and
questions. Stigler and Hiebert, pp. 94-95
13
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
We Modify, But Don’t
Really Change
It has now been
documented in several
studies that teachers
asked to change features
of their teaching often modify the
features to fit within their preexisting
system instead of changing the system itself.
The system assimilates individual changes
and swallows them up. Thus, although
surface features appear to change, the funda-
mental nature of the instruction does not.
When this happens anticipated improve-
ments in student learning fail to materialize,
and everyone wonders why.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 98
14
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Systems of Teaching Are
More Than the Teacher
Systems of teaching are much more than
the things the teacher does. They include
the physical setting of the classroom; the
goals of the teacher; the materials, including
textbooks and district or state objectives;
the roles played by the students; the way
the school day is scheduled; and other
factors that influence how teachers teach.
Changing any one of these individual
features is unlikely to have the intended
effect. Stigler and Hiebert, p. 99
15
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Reform Is Often Just Different
Activities With the Same Context
Reform documents that focus teachers’
attention on features of good teaching in
the absence of supporting contexts might
actually divert attention away from the
more important goals of student learning.
They may inadvertently cause teachers to
substitute the means for the ends, to define
success in terms of specific features or
activities instead of long-term improvements
to learning.
Stigler and Hiebert, p. 109
16
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Japanese Lesson Study Model
The lesson study is
used to focus work on
improving teaching.
Is based on long-term, continuous
improvement model
Maintains a constant focus on student
learning
Focuses on the direct improvement in
teaching in context
Is collaborative
Teachers who participate in lesson study see
themselves as contributing to the develop-
ment of knowledge about teaching as well
as to their own professional development.
Stigler and Hiebert, pp. 120-125
17
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
(These suggestions are not necessarily based on a district
having a common curriculum, common materials,
and comprehensive teaching/learning system)
1) Expect improvement to be continual,
gradual, and incremental.
2) Maintain a constant focus on student
learning goals.
3) Focus on teaching, not teachers.
4) Make improvements in context of the
teaching.
5) Make improvements in the work of
teachers.
6) Build a system that can learn from its
own experience.
Stigler and Hiebert, pp. 132-136
Six Principles for Gradual,
Measurable Improvement
(School and District)
18
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Initiatives for Change
Setting the Stage
(District Work)
Build consensus for continuous improve-
ment.
Set clear learning goals for students and
align assessments with these goals.
Restructure schools as places where
teachers can learn.
Stigler and Hiebert, pp. 137-145
19
District Actions
to Support
Improvement in
Teaching and Learning
Presenter:
Betsy Eaves
Director, LEA Support Services
Reading First California Technical Assistance Center
LEA Session 3 (Round 1) - March 2003
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Reading First Districts:
Review of Session 1
We set the stage for a system-wide effort by focusing on
a coherent model for improving academic achievement
in reading in our districts/schools.
We proposed using a set of six key elements to frame
our work. These elements are key to our success and are
meant to be utilized as the basis to build a system for
academic improvement in reading in all Reading First
districts and schools.
We reviewed the grant assurances as the foundation for
our actions. The assurances have key common elements
that connect the work of the district directly to the work
of the school.
i
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
ii
Reading First Districts:
Review of Session #2
We focused on a system concern related to current
approaches to teaching and learning.
In addressing this issue, we underscored the reality of
teachers’ and principals’ perceptions related to who is
responsible for learning.
In her book, The Academic Achievement Challenge,
Jeanne Chall develops a case for the systematic imple-
mentation of specific, teacher-centered approaches to
instruction that hold the teacher accountable for effective
teaching of specific content and skills.
The conclusion of the book calls on educators to meet
the needs of all students, effectively and systematically,
by using explicit teaching techniques designed to build a
strong foundation of academic learning.
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
District Actions to Support
Improvement in
Teaching and Learning
Our work today will be to explore the
organizational components, methods,
and processes that we need to consider
as we work to build an accountability/
learning system across classrooms and
schools.
1
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
All classrooms deliver a coherent academic
program. This includes specific content
and an instructional system that is well
supported with high quality materials and
training.
Focus on Improved Instruction
Everyone is positively expected to fully
implement the agreed program and to
deepen instruction in this area using the
coordinated tools provided by the program.
All related content in this area is taught in a
high quality way to students. There are clear
standards for implementation and instruction
in the agreed program.
Key Element
#1
2
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Key Element 1:
Full
Implementation
Rubric
Level 3
Level 2
Level 1
DRAFT - First Edition
All classrooms deliver a coherent, well organized, standards based, academic program in reading and language arts. This coordinated
program includes specific content, and a complete instructional system that is well supported with high quality materials, training, and
specific instructional strategies to address student needs across all populations of students.
All rooms are organized for instruction in the program, specifically to focus the students on the content and learning strategies
embedded in the program.
All teachers and school personnel are knowledgeable about all program components and understand the instructional design of how
the program meets the standards.
All classroom teachers have been trained to an advanced level of delivery.
The school is skillfully using the program each day in all classes.
All teachers have focused their efforts on building their classroom environment to focus on key elements of the program.
The amount of time spent teaching the program is standard across classes, and additional time is allocated for specific in-depth
teaching.
The pacing of lessons is similar from class to class and demonstrates skilled teaching of each different instructional design.
Special education and other programs utilize the standards based program and coordinate instruction to create a cohesive
instructional model.
All of the suggested instructional strategies designed to meet special needs of students are implemented.
Most rooms are organized for instruction in the program.
All teachers and school personnel are familiar with the program components and know the basic structure of how the program
meets the standards.
All classroom teachers have been trained.
The school is using the program each day in all classes.
All teachers have moved away from using conflicting material.
The amount of time spent teaching the program is standard across classes.
The pacing of lessons is beginning to be similar from class to class independent of teacher skill and preference.
Special education and other programs coordinate instruction with the standards based program.
Most of the suggested instructional strategies designed to meet special needs of students are implemented.
The classrooms show some evidence of organization related to the program.
Most teachers and school personnel are familiar with the program components.
Most classroom teachers have been initially trained in the program.
The school is using the program each day in most classes.
Some classes continue to use other material.
The amount of time spent teaching the program varies across classes.
The pacing of lessons is different from class to class depending on teacher skill and preference.
Special education and other programs do not necessarily coordinate instruction with the standards based program.
Most of the suggested instructional strategies designed to meet special needs of students are not implemented.
IMPLEMENTATION
3
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
ACTIVITY #1
With your district partner, review
key element #1 and use the rubric to
begin to create a picture of the status
of implementation in your district.
Work to develop three key actions that
could be taken in the next six weeks to
move forward on the rubric.
How would you use this tool to assist
schools in examining implementation
and taking improvement actions?
4
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
5
Everyone at each school uses a frequent
assessment system directly connected
to the content of the academic program.
This system is actively used to improve
instruction.
Focus on Improved Instruction
Use of data is seen as a positive activity.
Data collection is coordinated in an
efficient and timely manner.
Assessments connect directly to instruc-
tion. All teachers/leaders understand how
to interpret the data to improve instruction.
Assessments are used by everyone to
inform instruction and as a basis for action
to improve instruction.
Key Element
#2
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Key Element 2:
Use of
frequent
assessment
system
Level 3
Level 2
Level 1
DRAFT
Everyone at each school uses a frequent assessment system directly connected to the content of the academic program. The data is collected
in an efficient and timely manner. Teachers and grade levels understand how to analyze, interpret, and use the data to improve instruction.
Teachers, to improve instruction and meet the needs of all students, actively and purposefully use this assessment system.
All teachers administer assessments at the end of each unit as suggested by the pacing guideline.
There is evidence that all teachers use agreed upon norms for administering and scoring assessments.
Data collection is always coordinated in an efficient and timely manner in preparation for use at grade level meetings.
All teachers see the use of data as a purposeful activity for the improvement of instruction.
All teachers and grade level teams demonstrate an understanding of how to analyze, interpret, and use the data to improve instruction.
The school demonstrates a consistent view of the importance of the assessment system.
Some teachers administer assessments as suggested by the pacing guideline.
There is evidence that some teachers use agreed upon norms for administering and scoring assessments.
Data collection is usually coordinated in an efficient and timely manner in preparation for use at grade level meetings.
Some teachers see the use of data as a purposeful activity for the improvement of instruction.
Some teachers and grade level teams demonstrate an understanding of how to analyze, interpret, and use the data to improve instruc-
tion.
The school is beginning to share a common view of the importance of the assessment system.
Teachers administer assessments at various times.
There is no evidence that teachers use agreed upon norms for administering and scoring assessments.
Data collection is not accomplished in a timely manner to be used at grade level meetings.
Few teachers see the use of data as a purposeful activity for the improvement of instruction.
Few teachers and grade level teams understand how to analyze, interpret, and use the data to improve instruction.
ASSESSMENT
6
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
ACTIVITY #2
With your district partner, review key
element #2 and use the rubric to begin to
create a picture of the status of the use of
curriculum-embedded assessments in your
district.
Work to develop three key actions that
could be taken in the next six weeks to
move forward on the rubric.
How would you use this tool to assist
schools in examining the purpose and
use of the assessment system and taking
improvement actions?
7
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
8
All persons work in collegial, collaborative
school and grade-level teams that focus on
developing successful, program-specific
strategies to improve achievement for all
students.
Focus on Improved Instruction
All work by the team is coherent to the agreed
program. Collaboration assists all teachers to
improve instruction. Instruction is actively
coordinated.
There is frequent and positive communication
and specific goal setting.
Active use of data leads to collaborative im-
provement, planning, and co-accountability.
Key Element
#3
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Key Element 3:
Collegial and
collaborative
grade level teams
Level 3
Level 2
Level 1
DRAFT
All teachers/leaders engage in collegial, collaborative school and grade level teams that focus on developing successful, program specific
strategies to improve achievement for all students.
Work by grade level teams is always coherent to the agreed program.
Established norms are always followed to ensure focused and productive grade level meetings.
Grade level collaboration is well focused and assists teachers to improve instruction.
Grade level meetings are scheduled on a regular and frequent basis.
Grade level meetings are attended by all teachers.
Preparation and pacing for instruction is coordinated by all team members.
Assessment data is shared and analyzed by all teachers.
Data analysis is always used to plan and improve all components of instruction.
There is evidence that team meetings always result in goal setting for improved instruction.
Information from the team meeting is always shared with leadership.
Work by grade level teams is somewhat connected to the academic program.
Norms are variably followed to keep grade level meetings focused on academic learning.
Grade level collaboration is variably focused on the academic program and assists some teachers to improve instruction.
Grade level meetings are infrequent but do occur at scheduled intervals.
Grade level meetings are attended by most teachers.
Preparation and pacing for instruction is coordinated by some of the team members.
Assessment data is shared and analyzed by some teachers.
Data analysis is sometimes used to plan and improve some components of instruction.
There is evidence that team meetings sometimes result in goal setting for improved instruction.
Information from the team meetings is sometimes shared with the leadership.
Work by grade level teams is not necessarily connected to the academic program.
Norms are not used to focus grade level meetings.
Grade level collaboration is poorly focused and does little to assist teachers to improve instruction.
Grade level meetings are scheduled on a sporadic basis.
Grade level meetings are attended by few teachers.
Preparation and pacing for instruction is coordinated by a few team members but not all.
Assessment data is shared and analyzed by a few teachers.
Data analysis is infrequently used to plan and improve components of instruction.
Meetings seldom result in goal setting for improved instruction.
COLLEGIAL TEAM MEETINGS
9
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
ACTIVITY #3
With your district partner, review key
element #3 and use the rubric to determine
the status of collegial/collaborative, grade-
level teams in your district.
Work to develop three key actions that
could be taken in the next six weeks to
move forward on the rubric.
How would you use this tool to assist
schools in examining the purpose and
use of grade-level, collegial teams in
improving instruction.
10
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Key Elements Needed in a District-Wide/School Specific Effort to
Improve and Sustain Academic Achievement for All Student Groups
All classrooms deliver
a coherent academic
program. This includes
specific content and an
instructional system
that is well supported
with high quality
materials and training.
Everyone at each
school uses a frequent
assessment system
directly connected to
the content of the
academic program.
This system is
actively used to
improve instruction.
All schools work in
collegial, collabora-
tive school and grade
level teams that
focus on developing
successful, program
specific strategies to
improve achievement
for all students.
All schools engage in
content specific, site-
based professional
development with
coaching and technical
support. Activities at
each school are devel-
oped using the data
generated by the ongoing
program specific
assessment system and
are focused on improving
instruction for all
students.
Each site principal
actively takes actions
focused on developing
and strengthening the
academic performance
of ALL students in
K-3 reading.
Everyone is positively
expected to fully
implement the agreed
program and to
deepen instruction in
this area using the
coordinated tools
provided by the
program.
All related content in
this area is taught in a
high quality way to
students. There are
clear standards for
implementation and
instruction in the
agreed program.
The district provides
content-based,
coherent, coordinated
support and leader-
ship that technically
assists the school
to focus work and
sustain specific
improvements in
reading achievement
over time.
Use of data is seen as
a positive activity.
Data collection is
coordinated in an
efficient and timely
manner.
Assessments connect
directly to instruction.
All teachers/leaders
understand how to
interpret the data to
improve instruction.
Assessments are used
by everyone to inform
instruction and as a
basis for action to
improve instruction.
All work by the team
is coherent to the
agreed program.
Collaboration assists
all teachers to
improve instruction.
Instruction is actively
coordinated.
There is frequent and
positive communica-
tion and specific goal
setting.
Active use of data
leads to collaborative
improvement ,
planning, and
co-accountability.
The following are
used to deepen and
improve instruction in
all classes:
Lesson study
Learning walks
• Practice-based
professional
development
Active coaching,
mentoring
Co-accountability is
supported and
deepened as a
collegial expectation
that is supported by
site-based, high-
quality professional
development.
Leadership team
demonstrates specific
content knowledge to
others.
Leaders take equal
responsibility for the
success of the
students and model
co-accountability.
Coordinated meetings
by leaders at the
school actively use
data to plan needed
actions and monitor
the results throughout
each assessment
cycle.
All support to schools
is coordinated and
coherent with the
agreed academic
curricular focus.
The district works to
eliminate confusion
and to support the
specific actions of the
school.
The district is actively
engaged in monitor-
ing the work of the
school and providing
content specific
technical support.
Key Elements
Focus on Improved Instruction
11
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Teacher-Centered
Improved Teaching
Leading to Improved
Student Achievement
Assessment
Data from
Instructional
Program
Professional
Development
Action Plan
• Whole group
• Grade Level
• Individual
Classroom
• Groups of
Students
Professional
Development
to Support
Schools
Special Topics
• Training of
Coaches/
Team Leaders
Analysis of Data/Plan
for Improvement to
Assist Schools
Analysis of Data/Plan
for Improvement to
Assist Teachers
Assessment
Data from
Instructional
Program
Improvement Cycle
Examining Our Systems for Actions and Support
Implementation of Core
Academic Program with
Action Plan
District Structure to
Support School
During Instructional Cycle
12
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
District Structure to Support School
During Instructional Cycle
Implementation of Core Academic
Program with Action Plan
1. How are we assisting schools with full implementation of the reading
program?
2. What are the explicit expectations for implementation, and how are
we communicating these?
3. What actions are we taking to support a teacher-centered approach and
to counter reaction based on a more student-centered perspective?
13
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Assessment Data from
Instructional Program
Assessment Data from
Instructional Program
1. How are we assisting schools with full implementation of the
assessment system for the reading program?
2. What are the explicit expectations for the administration, data tabula-
tion, and use of the assessment system? How are we communicating
these, and is there evidence that this system is informing both the
school and our district work?
3. What actions are we taking to organize the incoming data so that it
informs our work with schools?
14
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Analysis of Data/Plan for
Improvement to Assist Teachers
Analysis of Data/Plan for
Improvement to Assist Schools
1. How are we assisting schools to develop and nurture effective collegial
teams that result in teachers working together to improve instruction?
2. What are the explicit expectations for teamwork, planning, and im-
proved instruction? Collegial preparation? How are we communicat-
ing these? What services are we offering schools to support this
work?
3. What actions are we taking to support a teacher-centered approach in
planning and improving instruction? How can we develop structures
that counter reactions in schools that are based on a more student-
centered perspective?
15
Reading First
California Technical Assistance Center March 2003
Professional Development Action Plan
• Whole Group
• Grade Level
• Individual Classroom
• Groups of Students
1. How are we assisting schools to develop and nurture effective collegial
teams that result in teachers working together to improve instruction?
2. What are the explicit expectations and models for teamwork, plan-
ning, and professional development to improve instruction? How are
we communicating these? What services are we offering schools to
support this work?
3. What actions are we supporting at the school site to address diverse
student needs within the core program? What models are we developing
to assure that groups of students are supported to achieve at grade level
by the end of the school year?
Professional Development to Support Schools
• Special Topics
• Training of Coaches/Team Leaders
16
... The development of the quality of teaching and learning in music education For almost a 150 years, lesson study has been an integral part of Japanese school culture (Dudley, 2014;Lewis, 2000;Stigler and Hiebert, 1999). As a particularly effective and successful form of collaborative practitioner research, its focus is on the students learning and the development of teacher practice knowledge. ...
... Besides Japan, it is Singapore and China, in particular Hong Kong (Lo, 2009), which also have referred to a similar tradition (Dudley, 2014;Tan-Chia et al., 2013). Moreover similar efforts have been made in Western countries over the past 20years, particularly in the USA, Canada, England, Sweden, Norway (Hiebert et al., 2002, Marton andMorris, 2002) and a few years ago in Austria, where recently Peter Dudley's Lesson Study Handbook has found a wide audience in its German version (Dudley, 2014(Dudley, , 2015, and since 2019, when the first German-language handbook for collaborative development and research of teaching and learning with lesson study was published (Mewald and Rauscher, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to show that lesson study by including elements from music and music education can sustainably expand and improve the dialogical space for teaching and learning in higher education, especially for primary and secondary teacher education students. Design/methodology/approach For the first time under the topic “Lesson Study: Music in Dialogue,” corresponding study programs were prepared at the University College of Teacher Education, Lower Austria. The data material from which answers to research questions can be generated are the “Didactic Design Pattern” and classical research lesson planning, observation and discussion instruments. Moreover, discussion protocols of the reflection meetings offered insights the participants gained through sharing their experience of a series of lesson study cycles including focussed collaboration between mentors, teachers, teacher education students and primary school pupils. Findings Within the lesson study groups, the space for cooperation and dialogue widened considerably and the interest in the work and expertise of each other increased. Based on the principles of a “community of practice,” this study shows the positive effects of professional collaboration on primary and secondary teacher education students and a lasting impact on their pupils’ learning. Thereby, the dialogical principle was found to play a central and important role. In connection with music- and art-related processes, previous limitations in teaching and learning with music can be exceeded for pupils, teacher education students and teachers. Research limitations/implications This study, therefore, provides new insights into questions of organization and implementation, as well as scientific and didactic support in professional learning communities. Originality/value So far, there has been little practitioner research through lesson study in the field of music education. In particular, lesson study enhancing the cooperation between music education and other subject areas through dialogical-integrative work has brought about knowledge and insights of great importance for the further development of an appropriate didactic approach in dialogic music education.
... This warrants for continuous professional development programs for school leaders and teachers to understand the reforms' objectives and contents. Among these programs, the Ministry of Education adopted a professional development approach originally from Japan called lesson study, specifically for the nation's centralized mathematics curriculum, which Stigler and Hiebert (1999) argued often helped in implementing reform ideas. ...
... Lesson study is a teacher-initiated professional development approach set up in school and classroom settings. Stigler and Hiebert (1999) noted that the lesson study approach consisted of several successive actions plans. The first stage is for the teachers to investigate the lesson problem, plan the lesson, conduct the lesson, evaluate the lesson and reflect on it. ...
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Teachers are expected to make decisions that respond to the needs of students in classroom practices. Teacher noticing emphasizes that teachers should decide how to respond to situations in classroom practices. Moreover, one of the variables that influence teachers’ decision-making skills is teachers’ values. The purpose of this chapter is to examine elementary teacher values in terms of the decision making process underlying noticing in a specific mathematical domain, namely polygons. We have conducted this qualitative study, designed as a case study, with five elementary mathematics teachers working at elementary schools in Turkey. The participants were selected using convenience sampling. The data were collected with video-recordings of classrooms and semi-structured interviews and were coded using content analysis approach. Teachers’ values were presented in the context of teacher noticing, which is a situation-specific skill. The results shed light on the relationship between teachers’ values and teacher noticing, which focused the decision-making perspective.
... For example, mathematician Roger Penrose (1974) explained that visual appeal attracted him to study the strange symmetries in irregular tilings, a problem he pursued for the majority of his career. Unfortunately, students rarely have the opportunity to select their own problems, and, even after decades of reform efforts, they are often still provided with rote means of solving assigned problems (Jacobs et al., 2006;Litke, 2015;Stigler & Hiebert, 1999). This forecloses opportunities for students to develop a taste for problems they enjoy pursuing and strategies they prefer for problem solving. ...
Article
We build on mathematicians' descriptions of their work and conceptualize mathematics as an aesthetic endeavor. Invoking the anthropological meaning of practice, we claim that mathematical aesthetic practices shape meanings of and appreciation (or distaste) for particular manifestations of mathematics. To see learners' spontaneous mathematical aesthetic practices, we situate our study in an informal context featuring design-centered play with mathematical objects. Drawing from video data that support inferences about children's perspectives, we use interaction analysis to examine one child's mathematical aesthetic practices, highlighting the emergence of aesthetic problems whose resolution required engagement in mathematics sense making. As mathematics educators seek to broaden access, our empirical findings challenge commonsense understandings about what and where mathematics is, opening possibilities for designs for learning.
... Until now, Lesson Study is recognized as a model and puts teachers at the center of professional development activities with the desire to understand the study needs of their students. The Lesson Study model has also been introduced in many countries around the world and has attracted the attention of educators and scholars, including the United States (Frernandesz & Yoshida, 2004;Lewis, 2019;Stigler & Hiebert, 2000), Japan (Murooka, 2007;Saito et al., 2006;Saito & Tsukui, 2008a), the United Kingdom (Ruthven, 2005;Ylonen & Norwich, 2012) Australia (Widjaja et al., 2017), Hong Kong (Lee, 2008), Taiwan (Jhang, 2020), Germany or Turkey (Xu & Pedder, 2014). The American Federation of Teachers has affirmed that Lesson Study is an effective form of professional training for teachers (C. ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">The initial period of young teachers' careers is always significant in developing their professional capability. This is when teachers start coming into contact with practical teaching, which is more diversified than the theoretical training at the University. In this research, the authors propose a process of combining the Lesson Study model with the micro-lesson teaching method. This process helps young teachers, especially those working in the Northern of Vietnam, improve their planning and implementation of a lesson plan following the Lesson Study model. It has four steps: (1). Plan a Lesson Study; (2). Organize demo teaching and attend lessons; (3): Self-evaluate and discuss lessons; (4): Apply for practical teaching. The methodology research is carried out on 62 young teachers in Vietnam to measure the pre-impact and post-impact results. The results reveal that the researched group has made significant progress on their teaching performances (the average points for their capability of planning lessons have increased from 2.54 to 3.28 and the average points for their capability of implementing lesson plans have increased from 2.48 to 3.18). This development can be considered as an excellent experience to bring the Lesson Study model into Vietnamese schools to improve teaching sustainably.</p
... It is crucial in lesson study because the focus on lesson study is how the students learn. The anticipation of student response enables teachers to plan their lesson completely (Stigler and Hiebert, 1999). The absence of anticipation of student response in the EFL student teachers might be due to the format of lesson plan they designed did not require the anticipation of student response. ...
Article
The success of lesson study as an approach for teacher professional development in improving students’ learning has inspired the works on microteaching lesson study which is designed for student teachers in microteaching course. Some studies show that microteaching lesson study brought about positive result to student teachers’ pedagogical ability and content knowledge. However, that microteaching lesson study influences student teachers in their teaching internship, that is the course taken after microteaching where student teachers teach real students in real schools, has not been revealed yet. This study aims at exploring the influence of microteaching lesson study on the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) student teachers in teaching internship and to what extent the influence was to promote the EFL student teachers’ life-long learning to teach. It is a qualitative study with semi-structured group interview as the instrument of the research. The subject of the study was ten EFL student teachers who voluntarily participated in the study from twenty two student teachers. They had enrolled in a microteaching class that applied microteaching lesson study in the sixth semester and then took the teaching internship in the seventh semester. The finding of the study indicates that microteaching lesson study has considerably influences most of the EFL student teachers in gaining life-long learning to teach as they already implemented the steps of microteaching lesson study in their teaching internship initiatively. Finally, this study recommends teacher educators to adapt lesson study in microteaching course that can make the EFL student teachers to keep learning to teach.
... In the USA, Fernandez and Yoshida performed the study lesson practices for the first time in consultation with Stigler in Los Angeles in 1994 (Fernandez & Yoshida, 2004). In this respect, the lesson study became even more popular across the world together with the book co-authored by Stigler and Hiebert, 'The Teaching Gap: Best Ideas From the World's Teachers for Improving Education in the Classroom' (Stigler & Hiebert, 2009), and was studied by researchers in different countries for the last two decades and found areas of practice in different cultural contexts as a new professional development approach (Lewis, 2000;Takahashi & Yoshida, 2004;Lee, 2008;Isoda, 2010;Murata, 2011;Bütün, 2012;Ylonen & Norwich, 2013;Karadimitriou, Rekalidou & Moumoulidou, 2014;Cumhur, 2016;Shimizu, 2019;Sato, Tsuda, Ellison & Hodge, 2020). ...
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The aim of this research is to examine the effect of the lesson study practice on the academic achievements of primary school students in the Life Sciences Course. The study was performed with quantitative research method by using a quasi-experimental design, namely, the pretest-posttest control group design. The research was conducted with the participation of six primary school teachers and 167 third-year students who were enrolled at six different sections in two different primary schools at the center of Ağrı province of Turkey. The participants were selected through purposive sampling method. As the data collection tool, the academic achievement test which was prepared by the researchers was utilized. The practice of the lesson study took seven weeks and was performed in the context of achievements referred to in the Life Sciences Course Instruction Program in relation to ‘Life at Our Home’ unit. At the primary school with relatively low socio-economic and academic achievement levels, there was an increase in the academic achievements of the experimental groups in association with the practice of lesson study whereas there was no statistically significant difference in the control group. At the primary school with relatively high academic achievement and socio-economic levels, there was a statistically significant increase in the academic achievements of both the experimental groups and control group. Upon the analysis of research findings, it was found that there was a significant improvement in students’ academic achievements in association with the practice of lesson study practice particularly at schools with low level of academic achievements.
... In the lesson study (LS) with which this paper is concerned, interplay between theory and teaching practice also varies. The LS is a practice-based, research-oriented, and collaborative style of professional development (Fernandez & Yoshida, 2004;Huang & Shimizu, 2016;Quaresma, Winsløw, Clivaz, da Ponte, Shuilleabhain, & Takahashi, 2018;Stigler & Hiebert, 1999). An interplay with a primary direction from theory to teaching practice is found in Learning Studies conducted in Hong Kong and Sweden in which researchers used a specific theory, namely, variation theory (Marton & Booth, 1997), focusing on intended learning goals. ...
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It is important to understand what and how mathematics teachers learn in mathematics professional development (MPD) programs. In this paper, we examined mid-career teachers' learning in our program wherein participant teachers conducted lesson study and analyzed students' learning by collecting and discussing multiple sources of data. We approached the issue of teacher learning from the aspect of broadening teachers' perspectives on teaching and learning in a mathematics lesson. By examining the case of two teachers and focusing on their practical research activity in a lesson on transformations of geometrical figures, we identified four perspectives. These perspectives emerged and developed in different activities and at different periods between the planning of the lesson and the presentation of the final report. The process of growth was further examined using the construct of contextualization. An analysis of two sessions held immediately after the research lesson revealed that the teachers used the four perspectives to recontextualize or decontextualize several classroom situations and that dialogic interaction made it possible for the teachers to form novel interpretations of the behaviors and utterances of students and to reflect on their own instructional actions. This paper thus provides information on features of mid-career teacher learning in a university MPD program that emphasized practical research activity.
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This paper analyzes interactions between teachers and students with developmental disabilities in a special education school in China, which is still the main educational placement for the disabled in China. Video observation data collected from six students in second grade and one teacher, were coded by an improved Flanders Interaction Analysis System (iFIAS). Results indicate that the teacher played the dominant role in the class while her/his instruction was student-oriented, several evidence-based strategies were used to motivate students’ engagement, including questioning, timely feedback, reinforcement, game teaching, students’ self-determination. Few peer interactions happened due to homogeneous grouping. Besides, the frequency of interaction patterns between teachers and students with developmental disabilities (DD) of different learning ability was similar while the interaction patterns were different. There were more non-academic interactions between the teacher and students with most serious disabilities in the class than others, while there existed more cognitive extension-partial and full interactions between teachers and students with least serious disabilities in the class than others. The results shed light on how teachers interact with students who have DD, and how interactions can be differentially delivered to students with DD of various learning abilities.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı eğitim sistemiyle ünlü olan gerek gelişmişliği ve gerekse kalkınma hızıyla dikkat çeken, güçlü bir ekonomiye sahip olan, dünyadaki en büyük ve en kapsamlı uluslararası öğrenci başarılarını değerlendirme testlerinden (TIMSS, PISA) oldukça başarılı sonuçlar alan Japonya’nın, ilkokul matematik öğretim programının standartlarının ve öğretim kılavuz kitabının revizyonunda göz önünde bulundurulan hususları derinlemesine analiz etmektir. Araştırmada, nitel araştırma modelinin desenlerinden doküman incelemesi kullanılmıştır. Toplanan veriler içerik analizine tâbi tutulmuştur. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Masami Isoda editörlüğünde (2010), Japonca ve İngilizce paralel çevirisi yapılan, Japonya’da kullanılan ilkokul matematik öğretim programının standartları ve öğretim kılavuz kitabının birleşimi oluşturmaktadır. Japon öğretim programı hazırlanırken sıklıkla öğretim programının içerik öğesine ilişkin düzenlemeler yapılmıştır. Öğretim programındaki konuların içeriği üzerinde önemle durulmuş, somut örnekler verilmiştir. Konuların içeriği bilişsel ve duyuşsal alan ile ilgili temalar altında toplanmıştır. Öğretim programının hedefleri ise önemli ölçüde duyuşsal alan üzerine yoğunlaşırken, bilişsel alan ile ilgili amaçlar üzerine de vurgu yapılmıştır. Öğretim programının tasarımı sırasında sıklıkla içerik üzerine vurgulamalar yapılırken, bilişsel ve duyuşsal alan ile ilgili vurgulara da yer verilmiştir. Japon öğretim programı içeriğini kullanırken dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlar, özellikle bilişsel alan altında toplanırken, duyuşsal alan teması altında toplanan hususlara da vurgu yapılmıştır.
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