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Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind.

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... view on quality of life and caring for others. While comparing Germany and Iran, Hofstede et al. (2005) conclude that Germany is a masculine country, in which performance is valued and leaders' assertiveness level is expected. Iran is the opposite, being a feminine country, in which a hierarchical society accepts inequalities, and leaders are seen as the main decision-maker. ...
... Iran is the opposite, being a feminine country, in which a hierarchical society accepts inequalities, and leaders are seen as the main decision-maker. Hofstede et al. (2005) conclude their research by stating that female leaders would face more obstacles in masculine countries where gender differences were evident. They focus on the power distance, which determine the relationship between leader and group will in the equality factor. ...
... Overall, it depends on the culture to determine what kind of leadership style develops and will be the most effective one. Salami (2011) supports Hofstede's (2005) determination that a feminine culture leader will focus more on the general teamwork. House et al. (2004) define in their GLOBE study that it is particularly social divisions that indicate the difference in leadership type between the genders and this again is based on the gender egalitarian society. ...
Thesis
Through globalization and cultural awareness, more focus has been set on gender-related issues and the treatment of women throughout the world. Particular research attention has focused on the achievements and setbacks of female leaders as a major aspect of global organizations’ success. The purpose of this qualitative comparative phenomenological study was to analyze the relationship between culture and gender in leadership, specifically with female leaders in Germany and Iran. The study aimed to get insights into the cultural challenges and opportunities women face in gaining access to leadership positions in these two countries. Cultural aspects and the symbiotic acceptance of gender-specific traits were analyzed in relation to effective leadership in order to describe and document the perceptions of female leaders in Germany and Iran. Female leaders from Germany and Iran were interviewed to share their experiences regarding challenges, opportunities, cultural perceptions of their roles, and, finally, their best practices of how to overcome the barriers. By clustering the participants’ responses into themes and sub-themes and with the application of thematic coding, the research obtained a reflection of female leaders’ experiences in Germany and Iran. Study participants agreed that leadership is difficult and had challenges for all women, even more for women in Iran where structural barriers are more apparent. Agreement was achieved regarding male dominance in both cultures and the support men receive in management positions. Women often have to work harder and are missing the feeling of belonging. Participants agreed that women who are naturally competitive may have fewer challenges in leadership positions. Women seek mentorship; however, while this exists in Germany, the concept is missing in Iran. German women incorporate their organization’s mission statement and ethical values into their own work, and Iranian women consider themselves more ethical. While legal and corporate structures in Germany are working toward incorporating women into the workforce, these structures do not exist in Iran. Germany prefers the sustainable leadership style in combination with transformational leadership. Iranian leaders are drawn toward servant leadership. The result of the study demonstrates that culture is related to the challenges women face in leadership positions. While opportunities have a cultural correlation, they differ based on the societal expectations of females. Last but not least, women in both countries are able to develop their best practices with different leadership styles. Keywords: gender, gender diversity, culture, cultural diversity, cultures, leadership, Iran, Germany, servant leadership, Sustainable leadership, virtual leadership, transformational leadership, female leaders
... However, what factors give rise to such a division is still under discussion. The internal factors of "I-C" dichotomy, which is argued by Hofstede et al. (2005) as well as Pitlik and Rode (2017), may be inherent cultural traits and beliefs that lead to differences in policy acceptance (Otto et al., 2020;Atalay and Solmazer, 2021;Lyu et al., 2022). Apart from internal factors, trust has been found to play a siginificant role in many behavioral outcomes Dai et al., 2022). ...
... The dichotomy of individualism vs. collectivism has been cited as an explanation for people's acceptance of interventionist policies before and during the pandemic (Chen et al., 2015;Travaglino and Moon, 2021). Specifically, according to Hofstede et al. (2005), "collectivism" is described as a kind of cultural value that integrates people into "strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families that continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty and oppose other in-groups. " In addition, studies emphasized the core principle of collectivism (e.g., the set of cultural values that make people value group interests more than individual interests; Wang, 2021;Lyu et al., 2022). ...
... As for individualism, it refers to a society that is bound with loose interpersonal ties in which every member is expected to fend for oneself and his/her immediate family (Hofstede et al., 2005). The origin of this idea dates back to the Age of Enlightenment, during which the concept of individualism in philosophy involved the maximization of individual welfare and freedom (Lukes, 1971). ...
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This study seeks to explain the wide acceptance of the stringent zero-COVID policy in two Chinese societies—Mainland China (n = 2,184) and Taiwan (n = 1,128)—from perspectives of cultural values and trust. By employing the efficacy mechanism, this study identifies significant indirect effects of trust in government and key opinion leaders (KOL) on people’s policy acceptance in both societies. Namely, people who interpret the pandemic as a collectivist issue and who trust in government will be more accepting of the zero-COVID policy, whereas those who framed the pandemic as an individual issue tend to refuse the policy. Trust in government and KOLs foster these direct relationships, but trust in government functions as a more important mediator in both societies. The different contexts of the two Chinese societies make the difference when shaping these relationships. These findings provide practical considerations for governmental agencies and public institutions that promote the acceptance of the zero-COVID policy during the pandemic.
... Hofstede's cultural dimensions offer an additional lens through which to analyze the 'comparative' features of Thai culture. According to Hofstede et al. (2005), the main features of Thai culture include high power distance, collectivism, and femininity, and uncertainty avoidance. ...
... Thailand is also a highly collectivist and feminist culture. Honoring tradition, maintaining harmony, and avoiding conflicts are essential in a collective society (Hofstede et al., 2005 ...
... This explains why, despite their low pay, Thai teachers are often motivated to work longer hours for disadvantaged students in the absence of any financial gains. Similarly, a strong need to cultivate personal relationships offers insight into why Thai principals normally spend extended hours for off-school responsibilities such as attending communal rituals and ceremonies (e.g., births, deaths, holiday ceremonies, temple ritual) which have nothing directly to do with their 'in-school roles'.Lastly, based onHofstede et al. (2005), Thai people are generally risk averse. Moral purpose must be communicated and understood by the group before any change is initiated. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we seek to understand the definition and practices of successful school principalship in Thailand by reviewing selected literature extracted from the Thai-Journal Citation Index database. After completion of the search and screening process, 32 articles were included in the review. The articles were coded using qualitative analysis software and the results synthesized in terms of definition of successful school principalship and associated leadership practices. The findings revealed that successful school principalship in Thailand is defined as general excellence in school management processes, professional recognition, or attainment of highly regarded professional rank. This contrasts with Western nations where demonstrated impact on school effectiveness is often identified as a criterion for successful principalship. The difference is explained by Thai cultural norms where norms of collectivism and power distance norms give precedence to process over performance. While the review was able to identify principal practices that are perceived as “successful” in the Thai literature, the validity of this exercise was hindered by the often-ambiguous basis on which conclusions were drawn by scholars. Finally, the review elaborates how political and societal factors in the Thai context shape principals' values, practices, and decision-making processes.
... Furthermore, the perceived psychological safety in learning (Edmondson, 1999) and the national culture background (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005) of the participants in this study may related to the insignificant result of this study. In this study, all participants are coming from Indonesian culture. ...
... In this study, all participants are coming from Indonesian culture. As studied by Hofstede (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005), Indonesia has a high power distance and collectivistic national culture. With high power distance national culture, Indonesian acknowledges unequal power which occurs from the hierarchical system including in leaders-employees relation. ...
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The current study investigates the moderating effect of employee growth climate on the relationship between work engagement and job outcomes among plantation workers in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Three individual-level job outcomes are investigated, namely, intra-role behavior, employee learning, and innovative work behavior. Six hundred and seven Indonesian plantation workers from one of the biggest palm oil plantations in Indonesia participated. Work engagement and employee growth climate were positively related to the three types of job outcomes, as expected. Furthermore, the relationship between work engagement-intra-role behavior and work engagement-innovative work behavior was moderated by employee growth climate. However, no moderating effect of employee growth climate was observed for the relationship between work engagement-employee learning. Thus, organizations may create programs to foster employee growth climate and aware of their employees’ learning behaviors.
... "Embedded" cultures operate against the disruption of traditional order and value obedience and conformity over creativity and independence. A similar dichotomy is captured by the well-known "individualism vs. collectivism" scale [27]. The first two panels in Fig 4 show that a higher prevalence of witchcraft beliefs is associated with lower degrees of autonomy and individualism. ...
... The first two panels in Fig 4 show that a higher prevalence of witchcraft beliefs is associated with lower degrees of autonomy and individualism. In addition, as illustrated in the next two panels, countries with more widespread witchcraft beliefs score higher on the "uncertainty avoidance" scale and lower on the "indulgence vs. restraint" scale reflecting reliance on rigid social norms, conservative values, and suppression of the basic human drive to enjoy life [27]. Consistent with these results, witchcraft beliefs are also negatively correlated with the cultural looseness index [28] capturing homogeneity of people's values, norms, and behaviors in society. ...
Article
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This paper presents a new global dataset on contemporary witchcraft beliefs and investigates their correlates. Witchcraft beliefs cut across socio-demographic groups but are less widespread among the more educated and economically secure. Country-level variation in the prevalence of witchcraft beliefs is systematically linked to a number of cultural, institutional, psychological, and socioeconomic characteristics. Consistent with their hypothesized function of maintaining order and cohesion in the absence of effective governance mechanisms, witchcraft beliefs are more widespread in countries with weak institutions and correlate positively with conformist culture and in-group bias. Among the documented potential costs of witchcraft beliefs are disrupted social relations, high levels of anxiety, pessimistic worldview, lack of entrepreneurial culture and innovative activity.
... In our opinion (and this is the main hypothesis of the study), the main problem of integration of Ukrainian refugees into the European labor market is the need to overcome certain discrepancies between the values, norms, and behavior patterns inherent in the organizational culture that accompanied the professional activities of migrants in Ukrainian companies on the one hand, and their European patterns, on the other. Therefore, we consider it expedient to go out in our study according to the concept of G. Hofstede (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010), who developed his own concept of national cultures and proposed six dimensions of it, which are: ...
... In our opinion, we should also note that an important factor for the development of effective strategies and solutions for providing refugees with jobs is the following value-cultural levelelements of organizational culture common to Ukrainian migrants and common to European companies, which contribute to the efficiency of the labor process. Using the various cultural dimensions presented in Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov (2010), as well as our improved methodology for researching organizational cultures of international companies (Bannikova & Mykhailova, 2019), organizations need to check the suitability of job applicants with the values of the organizational culture and thus determine and understand whether the recruiting of employees will have a positive effect on the functioning of the company. ...
Article
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The study aims to identify the main aspects of the influence of the socio-demographic and cultural characteristics of migrants from Ukraine on their integration into the labor market in Europe. The methodology of the research is based on the methods of systematic approach and structural-functional analysis with the use of general scientific methods of SWOT-analysis, description, analysis and synthesis, comparison, and generalization. The use of these methods allowed for an analysis of the totality of statistical data and the results of sociological research on migrants, the peculiarities of national culture in Ukraine as a general environment of professional activity of migrants from Ukraine, their system of values in comparison with similar characteristics of Europeans. As a result, the conclusion is that most Ukrainian refugees will face a mismatch with the needs of the European labor market due to the difference in their usual prevailing type of organizational culture and value system, which causes the need for an adaptation policy. It is shown that the risks of mismatch should be identified, controlled, and avoided by means of developed public policies, including special communication campaigns.
... Attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and the relationship between behavioral intention and actual behavior may differ across cultural contexts, resulting in inconsistent relationships across study variables. Hofstede [35] proposed the uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)as one of the significant evaluation indexes for defining national culture. The degree to which a society tolerates uncertainty and ambiguity is defined as uncertainty avoidance. ...
... On the other hand, cultures with a high degree of uncertainty avoidance are less tolerant of change and tend to decrease dread of the unknown by using strong norms, regulations, and laws as control mechanisms. According to Hofstede [35], Uncertainty avoidance is intimately tied to formalization. Thus, consuming sustainable food is a way for people in nations with high uncertainty avoidance to regulate their health and reduce uncertainty. ...
Article
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Interest in sustainable food consumption has gradually increased over the previous third decades. Despite substantial studies addressing various topics connected to sustainable food consumption, little research systematically evaluates which factors influence consumers’ purchase of sustainable food. We aim to integrate preliminary findings, compare four original and extended models of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the context of sustainable food consumption, and identify measurement and situational moderators using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach. The results show that attitude (ATT), subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were most strongly positively correlated with a purchase intention (PI) of sustainable food. Furthermore, the analysis of the moderating effects revealed significant differences in the relationship between PBC and purchase behavior (PB) and between SN and PI in developing and developed countries. In addition, by comparing four original and extended TPB models, this study proposes a theoretical framework to affect customers’ PI of sustainable food. The findings of this study can be used as a foundation for company marketing and government environmental protection promotion.
... Power distance is the degree to which organizational or society members agree that power is stratified or concentrated at higher level of an organization [43] . Past literature also suggests that Japanese society is based on a hierarchical structure where senior people are entitled to respect and loyalty [44,45] . On the other hand, Huselid (1995) and Nadler (1989) point instead to Japanese systems of reducing power distance, such as decentralized decision making, learning, corrective actions, and kanban system [46,47] . ...
Article
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This study explores the implications of the difference between Japanese and Anglo-American cultures when Japanese organizations try to absorb business knowledge generated in Anglo-American culture. It relies on Todorova & Durisin’s model of Absorptive Capacity (2007) which allows for multi-level, individual, group, and organizational levels of absorption in the process of incorporating external knowledge. It compares four cases of Japanese organizations, who sought to absorb business knowledge that could change conventional Japanese management style by introducing one of two alternative Anglo-American developmental learning methods. The study identifies some specific cultural impediments and enablers for Japanese people trying to absorbing Anglo-American business knowledge, and suggests how the impediments can be overcome, by making structural and leadership changes during the introduction of the learning activities. The research explores whether and how 43 participants who experienced one or the other learning method transformed from a mind-set dominated by Japanese cultural norms and values to one that can both recognise the benefits of Anglo-American management thinking and translate it into changed practice. Whilst Todorova and Durisin’s model does not capture the way cultural difference affects the absorbing process, the results show that the differences between Japanese and Anglo-American cultural values, in terms of collectivism vs individualism, high-context vs low-context cultures, and power relationships affect progress through the phases of absorption. Thus, the study discusses the gradual process how Japanese individuals and organizations absorbed the Anglo-American knowledge by overcoming cultural differences.
... Fathers are regarded as being tougher and more distant than mothers in Asian nations (Lee et al., 2017), and fathers' role was more influential in children (Hong & Cui, 2020;Jung et al., 2019). On the other hand, Turkey is positioned in the middle of the individualistic and collectivistic cultural spectrums (Hofstede et al., 2010). In Turkish culture, mothers have a significant role in raising children. ...
Article
Helicopter parenting (HP) has become a common concept in families with young adults. A growing body of literature revealed negative consequences of perceived HP among young adults as its developmentally inappropriate parenting. However, there is still a limitation of an empirical study on the impact of HP on young adults’ technology addiction. Accordingly, this study investigated possible relationships between HP, self-control, self-efficacy, and multi-screen addiction (MSA) among Turkish emerging adults. 556 college students (Mage=21.02) from two major universities in Turkey participated in the study. The results showed that mother helicopter parenting (MHP) and father helicopter parenting (FHP) related to MSA and a low level of self-control but not self-esteem. In addition, the results from a mediation analysis indicated that MHP had an indirect effect on MSA through a low level of self-control. The results of the study confirmed the importance of parenting in MSA among young adults.
... Culture is as old as the oldest civilization known to mankind. It is generally referred to as the fabric of common standards, such as beliefs, values, knowledge, norms, habits, and ideologies, shared among community members (Hofstede, 1991;Offorma, 2016;Spiro, 1994). The inherent attributes of culture consciously and unconsciously shape and can be shaped by the attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors of its members (Chen, 2019). ...
... An important aspect, particular to Asian cultures, is the preservation of 'face' as Asians consider 'face' as "a person's social and professional position, reputation and self-image" (Go & Mok, 1995). Losing face inflicts extremely serious personal damage (Hofstede, 2003). Therefore, they try to avoid the loss of face at all costs (Ferraro, 1994). ...
Chapter
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This article applies Casual Layered Analysis (CLA) (Inayatullah, 2004) as a framework to examine factors that affect applying a student-centered learning approach in Vietnam. The Four layers of CLA help disclose weaknesses in the current traditional learning approach, causes that create the problems and hidden beliefs that keep traditional perceptions about learning permanent. The results reveal that changing the stu-dents' present learning approach to student-centeredness does not need a new collection of principles to be imposed on learners. Rather, there need to be changes in both school infrastructures and people's perceptions. Further studies need to be conducted to determine how to implement these changes so that the new approach can be implanted successfully in the local context.
... In the interpretation of the results, it is necessary to take into account the sociocultural context. Structural differences (including failure to confirm the initial dimensionality of tools) are evident when implementing a tool outside English-speaking countries (Bråten & Strømsø, 2005;Ordoñez et al., 2009), in which case Hofstede's (1991) cultural dimensions theory can be used as a starting point for potential explanations of discrepancies in the field of epistemic beliefs. In a study of 15 countries with a minimum sample of 400 students of primary school teacher training in each country, Felbrich et al. (2012) concluded that individualistically oriented societies (United States, Germany, Switzerland, etc.) showed a higher tendency to perceive mathematical knowledge as a product of social processes open to discussion (mathematics as a dynamic process), compared to collectivist societies (Russia, Thailand), which perceived mathematical knowledge more as the acquisition of fixed sets of concepts and procedures (mathematics as a static science). ...
Article
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The presented empirical study deals with the issue of the epistemic beliefs of primary school and kindergarten student teachers in the science domain. In relation to science education, epistemic beliefs are closely connected with the concept of nature of science (NOS). The aim of the study was to find and analyze the factor structure of the translated self- report questionnaire “Epistemic Beliefs About Science” (EBS) in the Czech sociocultural environment. The EBS was translated as recommended for cross-cultural research and then piloted in March 2021. The main data collection was conducted online via Google Forms in May 2021 through convenience sampling (N = 427) at six universities in the Czech Republic. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis to verify the model. Fit indices reached acceptable or good values for acceptance of the generated model (CFI = .955, TLI = .945, RMSEA = .060, SRMR = .052). Correlations between individual dimensions are also presented. The reliability for both the original form of the instrument and for the resulting model was higher than 0.75 for all subscales. The results are discussed in the context of foreign empirical studies. It can be stated that the modified version of the EBS is applicable in the Czech sociocultural environment for the research sample.
... International students living abroad, specifically from Southeast Asian countries, tend to become close and form a primary network among their conational friends due to having a mono-national bond. This is interconnected to international students' socialization in a collectivist culture of their home country, in which the company of their conational friends is of an extended family of theirs (Hofstede, 1991). Ngow (2013) expressed a student's friendship group is usually defined by their nationality, stating most students tend to become closer with other individuals who share a similar background and prefer not to socialize with other students who do not share a similar experience. ...
Article
This article unveils the voices of the international students of the Universiti Sains Malaysia by exploring their belongingness and community well‐being in Malaysia. This study was conducted with 14 international students (seven males and seven females) studying at the Universiti Sains Malaysia for at least a year. A qualitative approach was employed using in‐depth case interviews to examine the socio‐cultural challenges they experienced while studying abroad. The specific challenges reported among the international students are their well‐being in distinct aspects such as physical, mental, and emotional. This study seeks to explore the international students' reliability on conational communities for social support. When achieving belongingness with their conational friends, international students can flourish well in their current community in Malaysia, thus achieving social community well‐being although they are far away. Besides maintaining established close friendships, the international students develop a sense of comfort and familiarity by forming new friendships with conational and other international students. Sharing similar backgrounds and nationalities, as well as experiences and struggles, are significant for international students in maintaining close friendships and situational harmony. This study highlighted the meaning behind physical and emotional distance, as well as the situation of “being temporarily abroad” and its relations to intimacy practices and belongingness in close friendships. The results presented in this article contribute to an increasing understanding of international students' challenges and the future of social harmony and community well‐being while temporarily living in Malaysia. Correspondingly, as a result of this study, students will be more deferential of cultural differences and cross‐cultural sensitivity, which will also help to decrease prejudice and discrimination.
... However, while the above studies make significant progress in advancing entrepreneurship study, they come with a serious drawback since they neglect culture as one of the most key features distinguishing members of one group of people from others (cf. Hofstede et al., 2010). Culture is typically seen as "the collective programming of the mind" (Hofstede et al., 2010, p. 6) and hence is particularly suited to investigate differences in entrepreneurial propensity among migrant groups. ...
Article
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Migrant entrepreneurship is seen as an important way to foster economic prosperity as migrants often come with greater entrepreneurial potential than their native counter parts. However, migrant populations are to a wide extent heterogenous and there are signifcant diferences across migrant groups in terms of their entrepreneurial activity. This study is guided by the question of how culture and more precisely cultural distance afects the entrepreneurial activity of migrants. To understand the implications of cultural distance for migrant entrepreneurial activity we use Ardichvili et al.’s model of opportunity identifcation and development and hypothesize a negative relationship between cultural distance and entrepreneurial activity. To empirically investigate our hypotheses, we analyse cultural distance and self-employment rates of 39 migrant groups in Germany, a country that hosts the second-largest migrant stock in the world. We combine individual-level census data from the German Federal Statistical Ofce with country-level data on national culture from the GLOBE study and the World Values Survey and run multivariate regressions analyses. We fnd that cultural distance has a signifcant and negative efect on migrant’s self-employment. This efect is however positively moderated by the prevalence of human capital across migrant groups. Our fndings highlight the importance of education-based migration and entrepreneurship policies targeted towards migrant groups with high cultural distance. We derive implications for research and policy.
... Two of these dimensions, indulgence and long-term orientation, are relevant to debates on spending and debt. A high indulgence score captures a culture that values the free expression of impulses, while a low score captures the cultural value of restraint and of duty and personal control (Hofstede et al., 2005). The long-term orientation score is higher in cultures that value thrift and saving for the future, and lower in cultures that place a high value on immediate gratification. ...
Article
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Popular media and politicians have often blamed the high public debt of some EU countries on cultural differences. These claims are most apparent in the discourse contrasting ostensibly prudent Northern Europeans with spendthrift Southern Europeans. Despite the prominence of these and similar narratives and evidence that culture plays a nontrivial role in other economic outcomes, there is no systematic evidence that culture influences attitudes towards sovereign debt in the EU. We provide the first empirical test of this claim using over 233,000 responses to a Eurobarometer question about the salience of national debt. Our analysis reveals that national and sub-national differences explain very little of the variance in debt preferences. Further, the differences that do emerge do not fit existing cultural narratives. Additional analysis reveals that established measures of national culture or religious observance, at the national and regional levels, do not correlate with debt attitudes as cultural arguments would predict.
... First, I began with the largest model, as shown in Figure 6, which simply maps the territory or the discursive space where RT communications take place (represented by a radar screen), expanding from Linguistic, Sociolinguistic, and Pragmatic Competencies (which are part of the existing notion of communicative competence) to include Intercultural Competence, adding Byram's (1997) five savoirs: intercultural attitudes, knowledge, skills of interpreting and relating, skills of discovery and interaction, and critical cultural awareness. (2019) The second model (see Figure 7) shows the interaction of several layers of culture (HOFSTEDE, 1991), represented by an individual's cultural frames of reference and his/her own expectations, values and interpretations, with the dialogic and co-constructed nature of the utterances (BAKHTIN, 1986), in an interaction between two individuals using AE as a lingua franca and governed by the rules of the air traffic control system. As Kesckes (2014) highlights, culture has a priori elements, i.e., ethnic or cultural marking in communicative behavior (see blue rectangles in the model, portrayed in Figure 7) and emergent features, co-constructed in the moment of interaction (see utterances A1, A2, A3 and their responsive reactions in B1, B2 and B3), which should be combined to approach culture in a dialectical and dynamic way. ...
... Later the dimensions of long-term orientation and indulgence, vs. restraint were added to values surveys. (Hofstede et al., 2010;Minkov & Hofstede, 2012;) Theories on cultural differences include studies about the content and structure of values (Schwartz & Bilsky, 1990) and value orientations (Smith et al., 1996;Schwartz, 2000;Inglehart-Baker, 2000;House et al., 2004). ...
Article
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In the present study, we examine the question of whether the cultural characteristics of the country of the parent company are related to the posting practices of the parent company. According to our hypothesis, the management culture of the sending (parent) company influences the employment of foreign expats in local subsidiaries. In this research we use interviews and multivariate statistical analysis of survey data from five CEE countries, an important but relatively less examined region for global HR mobility. We found a significant relationship between cultural differences and expatriate assignment practices of MNCs. However, based on the strength of the relationship, we can conclude that in addition to management culture, other influencing factors typically influence posting decisions. Our results support Hofstede’s suggestion about the cultural dependence of management methods from a specific, management of expatriates, perspective.
... The research focused on the Portuguese context, which, culturally, is part of the Latin cluster (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2010). Institutionally, Portugal has been classifiedby authors who show good understanding of socioeconomics but not much of geography -as a Mediterranean country (Amable, 2003). ...
Article
Background: Nowadays, studying small and medium-sized companies, particularly with regard to the management of human resources that takes place in them, is particularly relevant. Effectively, knowing that about 99.8% of companies are small and medium-sized, contributing very significantly to high levels of employability, it is extremely important to understand the role that people management assumes in these organizations, as well as which are the factors, both internal and external, that exert the greatest influence on them. Purpose: In this paper we investigate internal and external factors of small business likely to correlate with a more formal and structured human resource management. Study design/methodology/approach A conceptual model was defined through the literature on human resource management and its consistency was tested through three methodological steps (exploratory interviews; readjustment of variables with the Delphi method; multivariate statistical tests). From a survey of 186 smaller firms in Portugal, we tested conceptual model by structural equation modelling. Findings/conclusions: The analysis reveals that dimensions such as organizational structure, management and communication style, career management, organizational flexibility, organizational strategy and national culture are positively related to more formal and structured human resource management practices and policies. Limitations/future research: Due to its complexity, both at the level of the conceptual analysis and the empirical level, this study presents some limitations, namely, and among others, the complexity of the number of dimensions and variables under analysis, and the complexity of the model being tested. A broader line of research could include collecting data from employee. This analysis would allow for a different perspective of the company's procedures and would broaden some issues that are less detailed in this study.
... Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3775453 capital expenditures divided by book value of total assets; Kaplan and Zingales's (1997) index; the natural logarithm of the firm's age, property, plant, and equipment divided by book value of total assets; an indicator for the firm that employs the same peer group for both compensation benchmarking and relative performance evaluation; and tolerance for failure, which was measured using the first principal component of Hofstede's (1980Hofstede's ( , 1991Hofstede's ( , 2001) uncertainty avoidance index for CEO, executives, and outside directors (Pan, Siegel, and Wang, 2017). For brevity, the tabulated results for the robustness tests are not presented in this paper but are available from the author upon request. ...
Article
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When companies select and use compensation peers to determine chief executive officer (CEO) compensation, they create unintended peer effects on corporate innovation due to the similarities between these companies and their compensation peers in terms of product markets, CEO characteristics, and compensation schemes. After controlling for industry and geography peer groups, the findings confirm that the average innovation activity of compensation peers is a significant and distinct predictor of corporate innovation. Further analysis showed that (1) the peer effect is stronger in firms and compensation peers that pay their CEOs using long-term compensation, in firms with stronger labor market competition and board monitoring, and in peer companies that experience higher innovation competition and are closer to the median peer company in the peer group; (2) the obtained results are likely not attributable to the knowledge spillover mechanism and are more consistent with the peer pressure mechanism; and (3) the Securities and Exchange Commission's 2006 executive compensation disclosure rules may have generated peer effects.
... First, I began with the largest model, as shown in Figure 6, which simply maps the territory or the discursive space where RT communications take place (represented by a radar screen), expanding from Linguistic, Sociolinguistic, and Pragmatic Competencies (which are part of the existing notion of communicative competence) to include Intercultural Competence, adding Byram's (1997) five savoirs: intercultural attitudes, knowledge, skills of interpreting and relating, skills of discovery and interaction, and critical cultural awareness. (2019) The second model (see Figure 7) shows the interaction of several layers of culture (HOFSTEDE, 1991), represented by an individual's cultural frames of reference and his/her own expectations, values and interpretations, with the dialogic and co-constructed nature of the utterances (BAKHTIN, 1986), in an interaction between two individuals using AE as a lingua franca and governed by the rules of the air traffic control system. As Kesckes (2014) highlights, culture has a priori elements, i.e., ethnic or cultural marking in communicative behavior (see blue rectangles in the model, portrayed in Figure 7) and emergent features, co-constructed in the moment of interaction (see utterances A1, A2, A3 and their responsive reactions in B1, B2 and B3), which should be combined to approach culture in a dialectical and dynamic way. ...
Chapter
This e-book brings together 13 chapters written by aviation English researchers and practitioners settled in six different countries, representing institutions and universities from around the globe. The idea of having this publication was conceived during the 8th GEIA Seminar, an event held online, in November 2021, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the next lines, we introduce GEIA research group, based in Brazil, followed by a brief explanation of the topics addressed in each chapter. GEIA1 is the “Aeronautical English Research Group”, accredited by Brazil’s National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq2 ) and maintained by ICEA3 , the Airspace Control Institute: a military organization of the Brazilian Air Force. It gathers researchers from different aviation authorities in Brazil, such as the Department of Airspace Control (DECEA)4 , ICEA and the National Civil Aviation Agency (ANAC5 ), and from prestigious universities spread throughout different parts of our country. This group aggregates research studies whose objective is to investigate different aspects of aeronautical English in the Brazilian context, divided into three areas of investigation: aviation language description and analysis; aeronautical English teaching and learning; aeronautical English testing and assessment. The group aims at studying topics such as: • the description of the language used in pilot-ATCO radiotelephony communications that go beyond standard phraseology in non-routine and emergency situations, as well as the analysis of the impacts of this communication as a safety component in accidents and incidents, concerning human factors; • the analysis of the content, syllabus, instructional material, and other elements of English courses/training offered to pilots and ATCOs, as well as of aviation English teacher training courses; • the description and analysis of assessment tools used to evaluate pilots’ and air traffic controllers’ language proficiency for their jobs, test development and delivery, washback effect and rater’s training; • other related topics in the interface of aviation English, such English teaching for other aviation professionals, compilation of glossaries and 1 GEIA stands for Grupo de Estudos em Inglês Aeronáutico, an acronym in Portuguese. Available at: ICEA - Subdiretoria de Ensino - GEIA - Grupo de Estudos em Inglês Aeronáutico (decea.mil. br) 2 CNPq stands for Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, an acronym in Portuguese. 3 ICEA stands for Instituto de Controle do Espaço Aéreo, an acronym in Portuguese. 4 DECEA stands for Departamento de Controle do Espaço Aéreo, an acronym in Portuguese. 5 ANAC stands for Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil, an acronym in Portuguese. INTRODUCTION other terminology tools, translation, contrastive analysis with other languages, etc. It is important to emphasize that, for us, aviation English is an umbrella term that refers to the use of the English language by any aviation-related professionals, including not only pilots and ATCOs, but also mechanics, meteorologists, flight attendants, and others. Aeronautical English, by its turn, is the language used solely by air traffic controllers and pilots while controlling international traffic, and the object of the language proficiency requirements addressed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) on Doc 98356 (2010). Other researchers from the international community have adopted this distinction in order to avoid misunderstanding7 . This is why sometimes we use the term aviation English, to refer to research about aircrafct mechanicals or meteorology, for example; and sometimes we prefer the term aeronautical English to emphasize pilot-ATC communications. The results from those studies have highlighted the development and improvement of English language teaching, learning, and assessment resources targeted at Brazilian air traffic control professionals, so as to ensure they are able to use English as a tool for safety in operations. Aviation English reflections in the pandemic Since its inception, in 2013, every year GEIA promotes seminars in which group members discuss and share research results. These events are addressed to pilots, air traffic controllers, teachers, examiners, and all the community interested in teaching, learning and assessing aviation and aeronautical English. Over the past couple years, humanity has faced a huge challenge. The COVID-19 pandemic scenario, which imposed lockdowns and social isolation, forcing people all over the world to change their ways of living, studying, working and connecting to others. It has dramatically affected aviation and, as a consequence, its training and testing devices worldwide. On-site courses and exams were canceled, postponed or adapted to the online format. New ways of training and testing had to be developed, using the tools and resources available, which have also been constantly improved too, to meet these new demands. Likewise, research groups have held their meetings online, and even events had to be adapted to rely on technology to survive. This pandemic context has affected GEIA and its seminars too. In 2020, for the first time in six years we offered the seminar as a virtual event, 6 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION/ICAO. 2010. Doc. 9835 AN/453: Manual on the implementation of ICAO language proficiency requirements. 2. ed. Montreal. 7 Fore more information about it, see Tosqui-Lucks, P., & Silva, A. L. B. de C. e. (2020). Aeronautical English: Investigating the nature of this specific language in search of new heights. The ESPecialist, 41(3). https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i3a2 the 7th GEIA Seminar8 . On one hand, we had to get used to recording and watching videos and interacting asynchronously by written messages instead of attending on site presentations. On the other hand, space, time and money were no longer constraints. So, we decided to extend the enrollment, completely free of charge, to the international community. This change came in handy for some GEIA members who were living, working and studying overseas. Besides that, some of us are also members of the International Civil Aviation English Association (ICAEA)9 , which enabled other researchers to take part in our project involving the seminar itself and the publication of an Aviation English edition of a journal. The 7th GEIA Seminar focused on the launching of a special edition of the ESPecialist, a very important scientific journal in Brazil in the ESP (English for Specific Purposes) field. That special edition comprised 18 papers written by GEIA members and guest researchers, organized in two volumes (TOSQUI-LUCKS & PRADO, 202010). The authors from ten different countries recorded videos about their papers for the 7th GEIA seminar, which had 242 attendees from 26 countries. We were delighted with the opportunity of gathering so many international participants who offered us valuable contributions, which would have been impossible otherwise. In 2021, building on the success of the 7th GEIA Seminar, we decided to promote the 8th GEIA Seminar11 completely online. The event brought together 18 lectures and presentations conducted by 25 speakers from eight different countries, as well as 404 attendees from 32 countries. That was such an accomplishment! Besides consolidating the audience we already had we were able to attract more people from other countries. After all, in spite of all its horrible outcomes, the COVID-19 pandemic hasn’t stopped us; on the contrary, it has strengthened our group, by motivating us to go beyond our borders and innovating the way we had been used to carrying out our events. This e-book is an offshoot of the 8th GEIA Seminar, that counts on the collaboration of GEIA and ICAEA researchers, as well as guest speakers. It brings together thirteen chapters focused on aviation language description, teaching, and assessment, written by practitioners from several institutions around the globe. One of our guests and a keynote speaker, Prof. Eric Friginal, added the excellent contribution of his graduate students from Georgia State University, in the USA, and kindly wrote the Preface. Regarding its content, this e-book has been divided into three parts, according to GEIA’s areas of research: language description and analysis; aeornautical English teaching; and assessment practices. In fact, this distinction is not to be taken in absolute terms, for most of the chapters address teaching and/or testing to some extent. It is meant to help the reader find the 8 Available at: VII Seminário do GEIA (decea.mil.br) 9 ICAEA – Supporting the use of English for aviation safety 10 Tosqui-Lucks, P., & Prado, M. C. de A. 2020. New routes in the study of Aviation and Aeronautical English. The ESPecialist, 41(3); 41(4). https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i3a1 11 Avialable at: VIII Seminário do GEIA (decea.mil.br) topics that would be of their most interest, but we can assure that all chapters present high quality insights, are pleasant to read and thought provoking. The first part of the book “Aviation English Language Description and Analysis” is composed of four chapters. The first one, “Replacing phraseology and plain language with technical vocabulary to inform language training in aviation”, by Jennifer Drayton, examines the Tower Aviation Radiotelephony Technical Vocabulary List (TARTVL) which provides a technical vocabulary lens for lexical analysis of radiotelephony transmissions. The analysis shows that standard phraseology and plain language are situational constructs. A matrix of language used in radiotelephony communication is presented and identifies standard, non-standard and relational language. Both: the matrix and the TARTVL are useful for language training to reduce variation in language use, especially in multilingual workplaces. Such training relies on the skills and knowledge of content and language instructors to provide practices that help reduce miscommunication in the workplace, therefore, contributing to safety in aviation. The second chapter, called “Terminology of Aeronautical Meteorology Codes: a systematization by using corpus”, by Rafaela Rigaud Peixoto, offers a contribution to avoid misunderstandings regarding the criticality level of meteorological situations being communicated during air traffic operations. Her work is based on terminology and corpora theoretical foundations, and it aims at discussing definitions and translation to Portuguese of expressions and terms contained in Table 4678, concerning the main meteorology codes, as prescribed by the World Meteorological Organization (2011). The study by Aline Pacheco, “Reported speech in Aviation English: an analysis through two specific corpora”, addresses the use of Reported Speech in aeronautical communications by analyzing the occurrences of this structure in two specialized corpora – CORPAC, the Corpus of Pilot and ATC Communications and RTPEC, the Radiotelephony and Plain English Corpus. The main findings reveal the most used reporting verbs and suggest that around 50% of the indirect reported clauses in aviation maintain the original tense. It seems to be evidence that pilots and ATCOs choose to report no changes in the scenario, when relaying information in a similar proportion to choosing to backshift. Such findings are quite important for aeronautical English teaching and learning, especially when developing resources and materials that depict real communication features and work-related activities. Malila Prado and Adriana Mendes Porcellato’s chapter, entitled “When I land - if I ever land”: exploring if-clauses in Aeronautical English”, closes the first part of the book. The authors investigate if-clauses in a corpus of radio communications in abnormal situations in order to identify the functions they perform in plain aviation English and how they can affect aeronautical English teaching and assessment. A corpus-based analysis revealed that 60% of if occurrences in the corpus were employed in requests and orders, 22% in indirect questions, and only 18% expressed conditionality such as “When I touch down / if I ever touch down / do I just kill the throttle or what?” For each of these three functions, they examined the structures in which if was used and compared them with traditionally taught conditional structures, without losing sight of aeronautical English pedagogical materials and resources from a real language use perspective. The second part of the book presents four chapters with more empahasis on “Aviation English Teaching”. The study called “A corpus-driven approach to Aviation English in pilot flight training”, by Andrew Schneider, covers 53 hours of transcribed audio and video recordings of one-on-one, instructional communication in Aviation English between flight instructors and student pilots. Authentic linguistic data were collected in three key contexts of flight training operations: oral instructional activities, Flight Training Devices, and in-air flight. This paper shares the results of a quantitative, exploratory multi-dimensional analysis (MDA) comparing preliminary Corpus of Flight Training (CFT) data to other spoken and written registers of English. Preliminary findings suggest a strong overlap of flight training activities with the English registers related to involved persuasion and information interaction. These results can help improve target language usage for Aviation English assessments and inform curricula for ab initio pilots. The second chapter, by Neil Bullock – “From the microphone to the classroom - ensuring that real-life communication is an integral part of teaching English to pilots and air traffic controllers” - highlights the need for teachers to carefully consider and identify students’ real-life communicative needs when teaching English to pilots and ATCOs. It advocates for a more inclusive approach to understanding and using the broad range of communicative skills that both sets of students need for effective and efficient communication. This research offers tips and guidance to teachers by integrating real-life and scripted examples of communication in the classroom based on that used in real-life operational communication. The author concludes that a greater critical awareness of students’ real-life professional communication can actually help in curriculum planning, material development and classroom practice. The following chapter, “Games, corpus and medals – challenging and innovating experiences in Aeronautical English hybrid learning”, by Patrícia Tosqui-Lucks, Juliana Santana and Patrícia Palhares Tupinambá de Sá, presents and describes an innovative training program developed during the COVID-19 pandemic, combining the hybrid mode and gamification. The authors discuss the conception, elaboration and implementation processes of five trainings, designed for Brazilian Air Traffic Controllers, and based on the ICAO Rating Scale (Pronunciation; Structure; Vocabulary; Comprehension; Fluency-and-Interaction). The synchronous part of the training was developed to offer a better understanding of the rating scale descriptors, whereas the elaboration of the game-like activities for the second part was data-driven. The data were composed of frequent mistakes compiled in corpora with authentic oral productions. The gamification of aeronautical English for Specific Purposes has shown to be an engaging and more appealing environment for proficiency level elevation. In the last chapter of the second part – “Microlearning on the fly: Aviation English via Instagram”, the authors - the language expert Natalia Guerreiro and the air traffic controllers Stephanie Faria, Thalita Diniz and Thiago Silva - go over the creation of an aeronautical English online learning initiative called ‘An eye on you’, regularly displayed on the Instagram profile @ an.eye.on.you. The Brazilian Air Force organization responsible for approach and tower controls in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro has increased the use of online education modes during the COVID-19 pandemic context to explore aeronautical English microlearning opportunities. The lessons learned from the experience of making Instagram posts and managing continuous online learning are thoroughly presented. The third part of the book gathers five chapters more focused on “Aviation English Testing”. The First one, entitled “Test preparation issues in the aeronautical context in Brazil”, by Ana Lígia Barbosa de Carvalho e Silva and Natalia de Andrade Raymundo aims at discussing the potential positive and negative aspects of Aeronautical English test preparation for ATCOs and civil pilots on both teachers and students, in the Brazilian scenario. The discussion is based on the premise that test preparation can play a positive role if learning-oriented and leading to meaningful test scores. The study pointed out that safety is the main aim of aeronautical English Training rather than simply passing a test. The chapter called “Creating a rubric for placement tests for Aviation English programs”, by Ashleigh Cox and Mehrnoush Karimi addresses the need for assessment tools that are designed to be placement tests for programs training English learners who are not yet at operational level 4. In order to do so, a speaking placement test rubric was developed using qualitative case study data. Recordings of four aviation students learning English as a second language were analyzed. Their ability to carry out pilot-ATCO dialogues, as well as their mistakes and miscommunication repairs were observed in light of communicative ability, aviation safety, and the ICAO proficiency descriptors. Based on these observations, the authors present some exploratory findings, implications for pedagogy and assessment, and some directions for placing aviation students into different levels of ESL classes. The study by Angela Garcia, entitled “The listening construct: theories and implications to the assessment of pilots and ATCOs”, discusses the main theories that have informed the definition of the listening construct in language testing, as well as some implications for the testing of pilots’ listening comprehension, as required by the ICAO policy. Some characteristics of the listening construct on a theoretical level and features of the language used by pilots and ATCOs that are useful for listening test developers are also presented. “The assessment of English in aeronautical radiotelephony communications: a mixed methods study”, written by Ana Lúcia Tavares Monteiro, reports on a multiphase mixed methods study that investigated the proficiency construct (awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes) in pilot-ATCO intercultural RT, following Fulcher and Davidson’s (2007) test development framework. The communicative demands of intercultural RT communications and how they are specified within a construct framework and operationalized as test tasks were explored. The author’s findings emphasize the importance of a broader view of professional communicative competence for intercultural RT communication and for the test development process. The last chapter of the book, “The ICAO scale and language testing for ab initio cadets: is there a fit?”, by Maria Treadway, proposes a language assessment aligned with the ICAO rating scale and contextualized to the specific needs of NNES ab initio pilots entering English-medium flight training. The methods used to investigate the reliability of the ICAO scale within a training context and for a diagnostic testing purpose are examined, as well as the procedures undertaken to articulate and define threshold levels of performance within the target languase use domain. Findings suggest that the ICAO scale is not enough to distinguish levels of linguistic readiness among ab initio pilots, nor does it adequately reflect the knowledge, skills and abilities valued by subject matter experts (SMEs) within this domain, suggesting that a specific scale may be needed. Last but not least, in the end of the book we reproduce an interview given by the GEIA Leader, Prof Patricia Tosqui-Lucks, to Natalia Guerreiro, responsible for the Aeronautical English Section of the Regional Center of Airspace Control Southeast (CRCEA-SE), in Sao Paulo. The interview was broadcast live for the Instagram site An Eye On You12, in November 2021, right after the 8th GEIA Seminar. The studies collected in this e-book offer us enriching and enlightening discussions that support and promote a better understanding of some key features underlying aviation English language, teaching and assessment practices. We are very pleased to make part of this work. It goes without saying the importance of this e-book for the aviation English field and community. This international publication, besides collecting the studies and work experiences of renowned researches, has also contributed to strengthen the enriching partnership between GEIA members and other researchers. The fact of having been published as an e-book will certainly benefit its circulation and the spreading awareness of aviation English challenges, updates and findings. One of our goals is to spread the news, by making this ESP e-book free for download by as many people and institutions as possible worldwide. Those who place great weight on aeronautical English teaching and assessment practices are aware of the interwoven relation among operational issues, communication and safety. That’s why we believe 12 See more about it in the chapter “Microlearning on the fly: Aviation English via Instagram”. the discussions and analysis carried out throughout this book are so relevant and should reach international communities and organizations in all parts of the globe. Enjoy your reading! Patrícia Tosqui-Lucks Juliana de Castro Santana
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Electronic commerce is often touted as a global phenomenon that has known its growth especially in the developed countries. However, developing countries in general and Tunisia in particular have fallen far below expectations. The noticed statistics don't overtake a simple regulation of bills. The research in hand tends to put the accent on variables that are expected to explain the e-commerce adoption. Using dimensions of national culture and attitude as theoretical bases, this research investigates the weight of culture in the explanation of individual's behavior concerning shopping from the site. Results indicate at first glance that both Tunisian and French samples present relatively the same rate of cultural importance in their attitude towards shopping from the site (28.3% vs. 20.7%). Secondly, similar to literature, the attitude is the predictor of the intention to shop from the site and the intention succeeds to be the intermediary variable between attitude and behavior especially for the Tunisian sample. As a consequence, when the attitude is positive, it will be transformed in an intention which in turn will be translated into a behavior.
Thesis
Culture, social media and knowledge sharing have been established to promote competitive advantages for organisations and employees. This thesis hence aimed to examine the impact of national and organisational culture on Community of Practice (CoP) knowledge-sharing behaviours through social media in enhancing organisational learning. It also investigated the role of organisational cultures (collaborative, competitive, creative and controlling) on CoP knowledge sharing in enhancing organisational learning with social media as a mediating variable. The study also assessed the role of national culture on organisational learning using social media and the impact of CoP knowledge-sharing behaviours on the relationship between social media and organisational learning in Ghanaian organisations. A sample of 415 employees from three sectors in Accra, Ghana was used. Collected data were then analysed using a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Partial Least Squares technique. National and organisational culture, CoP knowledge sharing behaviour, social media and organisational learning were all found to be positively related to each other. The results also showed that social media positively mediated the relationship between creative and competitive organisational cultures and CoP knowledge sharing but negatively affected controlling and collaborative organisational culture and CoP knowledge-sharing behaviours. The findings of the study showed that different cultural types can co-exist in one organisation with one being dominant and more supportive of knowledge sharing of community of practice through social media than others. Ethnicity might have impacted the findings as data was gathered from a multicultural region in Ghana. Collectivist culture had a negative impact on community of practice knowledge sharing through social media in enhancing organisational learning, which is not supported by the extant literature. Also, competitive organisational culture was positively related to community of practice knowledge sharing and social media which was equally unsupported. These findings can inform organisational managers and policymakers who are looking to promote performance, innovativeness, job satisfaction and competitiveness by establishing strategies that harness the human capital of their organisations through technologies, promoting social networks and cultural harmony. They should also facilitate flexibility, collaboration, trust, and freedom for them to freely engage with other community members to encourage knowledge sharing. Employees should be encouraged to use social media platforms more and get trained on information technologies for easy usage. Keywords: Culture, social media. Community of practice, knowledge sharing, organisational learning
Thesis
Les grandes entreprises évoluent dans un environnement social, climatique, économique et désormais sanitaire, complexe et incertain qui remet en cause le déterminisme mécanique et la logique cartésienne. A cela, s’ajoute une 4ème révolution industrielle. Pour survivre, elles doivent donc évoluer et accroitre leur capacité d’innovation. La majorité des études existantes se sont alors concentrées sur l’innovation technologique, négligeant la dimension non technologique de l’innovation, couramment nommée : « innovation organisationnelle ». Pourtant, cette dernière permet aux grandes entreprises de prendre en compte un ensemble de facteurs qui favorisent leur capacité d’innovation et l’ancre dans leurs routines. L’objectif est alors, grâce à une approche systémique et transdisciplinaire, d’identifier ces facteurs, que nous nommons « capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle ». Elles regroupent les capacités dynamiques de l’entreprise ainsi que les antécédents de l’innovation organisationnelle. En effet, bien souvent l’innovation non technologique est perçue comme un concept flou et hétéroclite. Il apparait donc nécessaire de doter les entreprises de modèles, méthodes et d’outils qui permettent de rendre le concept concret et opérationnel. Néanmoins, de nos jours, la modélisation d’entreprise présente des limites pour d’une part, la représentation d’une grande entreprise que nous assimilons à un système« Organique » sociotechnique complexe et ouvert et d’autre part pour la représentation et pilotage des capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle. Ainsi, dans le cadre d’une convention CIFRE avec l’entreprise SNCF Réseau, le laboratoire IMS de l’Université de Bordeaux et le laboratoire Icube de l’Université de Strasbourg, nous proposons un cadre conceptuel de la grande entreprise, de l’innovation organisationnelle ainsi qu’une démarche d’analyse et de préconisation des capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle, basée sur notre propre modèle de l’innovation organisationnelle pour une grande entreprise.Ce travail de thèse a donc abouti à l’élaboration d’un méta-modèle qui permet à la grande entreprise d’avoir une vision systémique d’elle-même dans le but d’améliorer sa capacité d’innovation. Le modèle se compose de trois systèmes « Organisation-Territoire- Réseau d’acteurs, » et permet de mettre en évidence les capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle au sein des systèmes dans une logique de caractérisation et de pilotage de celles-ci notamment grâce à l’évaluation de leurs impacts et de leurs priorités. Notre démarche repose sur une étude de cas basée sur une méthodologie quantitative multicritères.Au final, cette thèse est à l’origine de plusieurs contributions. Tout d’abord, le décloisonnement des sciences nous permet d’étudier les antécédents de l’innovation organisationnelle liées au territoire, et aux réseaux d’acteurs, au-delà des approches classiques qui privilégient en général les antécédents internes à l’organisation. Ensuite, nous concédons une place centrale aux dimensions humaines et sociales qui s’avèrent essentielles tout comme l’est une meilleure compréhension de leurs interactions à la fois formelles et informelles (ex : culture d’entreprise, climat social, connaissances, leadership…). Enfin, l’étude de l’impact des capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle que nous proposons n’a jamais été réalisée auparavant pour une grande entreprise (des travaux sur les PME existent). Ainsi, la capacité d’innovation d’une grande entreprise est dépendante des interactions entre le territoire, les systèmes qui le composent, ses réseaux d’acteurs et les systèmes socio technique de l’organisation. Ces résultats débouchent sur des recommandations pour un meilleur pilotage des capacités d’Innovation Organisationnelle favorisant la capacité d’Innovation qui s’ancre dans la culture de l’entreprise.
Thesis
Despite efforts over the last 30 years to make tampons more appealing to Chinese consumers, Procter & Gamble and Johnson & Johnson only reach 2.5% of eligible users compared with 70% of consumers in the USA. Besides China, in Italy, most of Eastern Europe and South America, where tampons usage share is also very low. This discrepancy is due, in main, to cultural barriers. Drawing on Behavioural Reasoning Theory and an emic approach, taking the case of tampons in China as example, this study explores the reasons against consuming a specific product category, the cognitive process of reasons, and cultural antecedents underlying these reasons, leading to a ‘reason against’ model, to accomplish the central aim of this research which is to better understand the under-researched national level phenomenon of anti-consumption towards a specific product category which finally categorized as ‘cultural sensitive product’ in this research. This research utilizing semi-structured interview qualitative research method to achieve the research aim and answer the research questions. Randomly sampled 37 Chinese females who are tampons eligible users, 10 in the UK and 27 in China. Of those, 5 of 10 in the UK did follow-up interviews 6-to-9 months after their first interview. Interviewers’ age ranged from 21-50, 21-30 years represented 59% of the samples. 95% is Han Chinese, the main ethnic group in China which accounts for more than 90% of the population and constitutes the world’s single largest racial cultural group. The included native geographic places covered 77% provinces of Han Chinese habitation in mainland of China. Out of 37 participants, just one regularly consumed tampons (2.7%), which is very close the average usage in China at 2.5%. 37 semi-structured interviews result in three key findings: three ‘reasons against’, a set of emic cultural values and a model of ‘reasons against’ which together provide a more accurate insight into antecedents of anti-consumption. The first key finding, three ‘reasons against’ are risk aversion, undesired ‘Ren’ in relationships and situations, the lack of emic cultural recognised symbolic value added on tampons. These reasons are cohesively related to emic culture which confirms the main premise of Behavioural Reasoning Theory. These reasons are important linkages between cultural values and behaviours. The second key finding, a set of emic cultural values suggest that Chinese culture is oriented around ‘Personalism’, ‘personal physical health’ and ‘relational and situational Ren’. This supports the views of Chinese indigenous researchers which counters Western scholars’ view of Chinese collectivism culture. From a total of twenty-five identified emic values, fourteen have not been captured in the literature which updates the list of Chinese cultural values and offers an invaluable resource for future (anti)consumption research. The third key finding, the model of ‘reasons against’ offers a cognitive processing model base to explore and evaluate the relationships of cultural values, product features and categories, along with product (de)benefits and ‘reasons against and for’ (anti)consumption of a specific product category, which theoretically guides further researchers on the intentional and meaningful rejection of the consumption of a specific product category in a specific cultural context. The findings fill the gap with insufficient non-individual level antecedent/predictors, and the national level phenomenon of anti-consumption, to explore anti consumption from multiple perspectives, taking a more comprehensive approach to the various phenomena of consumption. The findings challenge marketing activities of tampons which overlook emic culture elements and are mainly concerned with providing the functional benefits or utilitarian values of tampons to consumers. Instead, the findings suggest emic cultural values-based symbolic added value interventions. This suggestion also serves as a proposal for other culturally sensitive products’ marketing strategy.
Article
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Physical, psychological, and socio-cultural traits may vary, globalization has increased the range of differentiation through mass movements, developments in communication technology, and the recent penetration of the values of subcultures in dominant cultures, leading to the concept of multi-cultural societies. Comparative studies are becoming increasingly significant in sociological research, as in this study which investigates the differences in children’s social competence within contemporary communities. To understand social competence, researchers must consider its social context. Analysis of the national context of children’s behavior must be developed to understand the culture of the children of a country, particularly, in a world where the phenomena of globalization and convergence are a reality. The present study aims to identify the differences in the levels of social competence of children from Iraq and the United Arab Emirates by administering a social competence questionnaire to 300 children. The results reveal a significant difference.
Article
Marketing programs that evoke high satisfaction and marketing success in one culture often fail in others, but the understanding of those cultural differences is insufficient. The question of how culture is linked to consumer satisfaction is still not answered satisfactorily. One promising paradigm for exploring such questions comes from progress in cross-cultural personality psychology. Thus, we examine the influence of individual-level cultural orientations on personality, and the role of personality and affect in satisfaction formation across cultures. Based on experimental data, we show that a high individualism orientation triggers higher levels of extraversion; a high uncertainty-avoidance orientation triggers higher levels of neuroticism. Based on field data from Japan, Spain, and the United States, we identify equivalent relationships amongst personality-related antecedent processes shaping satisfaction indicating universality across these cultures. The findings demonstrate the usefulness of cross-cultural personality psychology theory and methods for understanding and predicting consumer responses to marketing actions across cultures.
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Bu araştırmada, özel öğretim kurumlarında kurumsallaşmaya ilişkin okul müdürlerinin görüşleri incelenmiştir. Yöntem: Araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden olgubilim deseni kullanılmıştır. Amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden kolayda örnekleme deseni ile belirlenen çalışma grubu, İstanbul ilindeki özel öğretim kurumlarında görev yapan 15 okul müdüründen oluşmuştur. Çalışmanın verileri, yüz yüze görüşme yoluyla ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılarak elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada toplanan veriler, içerik analizi ile çözümlenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre katılımcıların kurumsallaşmayı; kişilerden bağımsız, prosedürlerin, prensiplerin, kuralların ve sınırların belirlenmiş olduğu bir yapı olarak tanımladığı görülmektedir. Katılımcıların çoğunluğu; kurumsallaşmanın sistemliliği, standartlaşmayı ve sürdürülebilirliği amaçladığını belirtmiştir. Ayrıca katılımcılar, kurumsallaşmış bir eğitim kurumunda belli bir duruşun olduğunu, belirsizliğin olmadığı ve gelişime önem verildiğini ifade etmiştir. Katılımcılar kurumsallaşma için belirlenen yol haritasında; hedeflerin ortaya koyulması, ekiplerin oluşturulması ve iş planının yapılmasının altını çizmektedir. Kurumsallaşmanın; devamlılığı sağlaması ve yasal hakların yerine getirilmesi açısından olumlu, esnek olmayan ve mekanik bir yapı oluşturması açısından olumsuz yönleri katılımcılar tarafından ortaya koyulmuştur. Katılımcılar, kurumsallaşmak isteyen eğitim kurumlarına uygun ekiplerin oluşturulmasına önem vermelerini ve danışmanlık hizmeti almalarını önermektedir. Literatür incelendiğinde kurumsallaşma konusunda özellikle işletme alanında yerli ve yabancı birçok çalışmanın yapıldığı görülmektedir. Bununla birlikte yurt içinde yapılan çalışmalarda eğitim alanındaki araştırmaların azlığı dikkat çekmektedir. Bu çalışmalarda daha çok eğitimin yükseköğretim kademesi üzerinde durulduğu ve okulu genel olarak ele alan çalışmaların ise sınırlı olduğu söylenebilir. Bu bağlamda özel öğretim kurumlarında kurumsallaşma ile ilgili sorunlara değinen ve bu konuda öneriler sunan bu çalışmanın okullarda kurumsallaşma sürecinin anlaşılması açısından alana katkı sunacağı düşünülmektedir.
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This meta‐analysis addresses the association between perceived employability (PE) and employee strain (k = 34). Consistent with expectations, PE was negatively related to strain (ρ = −.12, 95% CI = −.16 to −.08). Moderator analysis showed that this relationship was stronger post‐2008 (ρ = −.20, 84% CI = −.23 to −.17) versus pre‐2008 (ρ = −.06, 84% CI = −.08 to −.05) and in high (ρ = −.17, 84% CI = −.21 to −.14) versus low (ρ = −.07, 84% CI = −.09 to −.06) uncertainty avoidant cultures. Our results suggest that career competency development interventions can be effective for reducing employee strain and that national uncertainty avoidance need be incorporated into models of boundaryless careers, especially as it relates to employee health and well‐being.
Article
Organizational culture is the common values, beliefs and norms that employees share in the organization. Organizational culture guides employees to have the right attitudes and behaviors. Organizational culture leads to solidarity, belonging and integration for employees. Creating a strong organizational culture with this dimension can increase personnel motivation. Personnel motivation is the process of taking the desired behavior and encouraging the individual in line with the goals of the organization. In terms of the effectiveness and efficiency of the organizations, the motivation of the employees should be kept alive. In this context, it is thought that the creation of a strong organizational culture by the managers would positively affect the motivation of the personnel. The aim of the study is to comparatively examine the relationship between organizational culture and personnel motivation in public institutions in Turkey and Afghanistan, and to analyze whether the organizational culture perceptions of the employees' organizations affect their motivation. As a result, it is understood that organizational culture is effective on the level of motivation. On the other hand, it is determined that there is no significant difference between countries in terms of organizational culture and motivation level.
Chapter
The defense industry export of Korea has been consistently increased since the Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) was established in 2006; it has positive impacts on the domestic economy. Nevertheless, as competition between countries has gradually intensified in the global defense industry market, efforts to occupy the market for defense exports also have been constantly demanded. Therefore, this thesis proposes the necessity of considering the cultural factors of the countries listed to export in order to establish a defense export marketing strategy effectively. To support the proposal, the defense export marketing strategies and purchasing models of the other counties, that are not clearly established at present, was proposed and partially verified in this thesis by conducting statistical analysis using data related to defense, national, and military size of each country in the world. Through this study, it was confirmed that cultural factors are related to indirect influences on defense exports. Therefore, further discussion is needed to consider cultural factors in developing future defense export marketing strategies.
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Online shopping has gained much popularity over the past decade. Indeed, in a post-COVID world, online shopping is the only medium of shopping for many. A great deal of research effort has been devoted to understanding the factors that positively or negatively influence online shopping behavior of consumers. However, most of these influence relationships have been studied individually, and not how such factors interrelate with each other and thus the underlying complex driving and dependence relationships among those factors are unknown. Moreover, these underlying driving and dependence relationships among online shopping behavior factors can be highly dependent on the cultural context of the consumers. In this research we identify the key factors that have been shown to have influence on online shopping behavior from a rigorous review of literature. We then apply an Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) technique to find the underlying complex hierarchical relations of factors related to Australian and Chinese culture. We apply MICMAC analysis to find the driving and dependence power of these factors in context of these two cultures. We finally explain the differences and similarities found for Australian and Chinese culture with reference to Hofstede’s Cross Culture theory. Prominent findings include timeliness of delivery and order accuracy is considered having high dependence and driving power in the Australian context but has low driving and dependence power in Chinese context. Our findings will be beneficial for including better cultural context factors into future online shopping platform design.KeywordsOnline shopping behaviorISM-MICMAC methodHofstede’s cross-cultural theory
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Politeness research is interested in the gap between the individual and the social dimension (e.g. culture) because the concrete data of speakers in interaction show such a variation that the influence of social and cultural models is called into question. For the researcher, this poses the question of how a community can become recognisable as such and how this impacts on politeness practices.
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Data collection in politeness research tries not only to capture data on behaviour or language production, but also tries to explore the reason why interlocutors speak in a certain way. As we will see in this chapter, questionnaires are essentially tools for asking people questions, hence they are useful for investigating the reactions or the opinions of informants. In politeness studies, the questionnaire is frequently used, especially in combination with other techniques. It is a typical tool for triangulation, data completion and mixed methodologies.
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The notion that “music is a universal language” is common, but its meaning is deeper than we often realize. Tone, pitch, intensity, inflection, pauses and other aspects of the spoken voice are musical components of language that convey meaning. Meaning varies depending upon culture, environment, language and other factors, all of which influence voice. Similarly, voice influences the development and transitions of cultures.KeywordsVoiceUniversality of voiceVoice and languageCulture and voice disordersDysphonia
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