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The aim of this study was to evaluate the body composition and physiological effects in young sedentary overweight women after an indoor cycle training period. Fourteen subjects (22.6+/-2.1 yrs; 25-29.9 BMI) were trained for 12 weeks in a specific indoor cycling protocol (ICP) consisting of three sessions/week carried out in a fitness room. Body composition and physiological parameters were taken before the beginning of the study and after 12, 24 and 36 sessions. We observed a reduction of 2.6% and 3.2% in body weight and of 4.3% and 5% in fat mass after 24 and 36 sessions respectively (P<0.05). Lean mass increased by 2.3% and 2.6% respectively after 24 and 36 sessions. Body circumferences diminished in response to ICP. Resting heart rate decreased by 6.5% and 9% respectively after 24 and 36 sessions. After the tenth week, we found a reduction of 11 beats.min-1 in average training heart rate, an increase of 0.5 mL/kg-1.min-1 in average training oxygen uptake and an increase of 8.6 Watts in average power output. Moreover, an increase in cardio-respiratory fitness was observed (37.1+/-4.3 vs. 40.2+/-4.6 mL/kg-1.min-1) after 36 sessions. The decrease in body weight, without any restriction on food consumption, and the improvement in cardio-respiratory fitness suggests that ICP may be efficient for losing weight and preventing the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in young overweight women. Indoor cycling can be performed by young sedentary overweight women; however, it is fundamental to formulate training protocols which are intensity and length specific to the fitness level of the participants.
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J SPORTS MED PHYS FITNESS 2010;50:159-65
The effects of indoor cycling training in sedentary
overweight women
Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the body composi-
tion and physiological effects in young sedentary overweight
women after an indoor cycle training period.
Methods. Fourteen subjects (22.6±2.1 yrs; 25-29.9 BMI) were
trained for 12 weeks in a specific indoor cycling protocol (ICP)
consisting of three sessions/week carried out in a fitness room.
Body composition and physiological parameters were taken
before the beginning of the study and after 12, 24 and 36 sessions.
Results. We observed a reduction of 2.6% and 3.2% in body
weight and of 4.3% and 5% in fat mass after 24 and 36 sessions
respectively (P<0.05). Lean mass increased by 2.3% and 2.6%
respectively after 24 and 36 sessions. Body circumferences
diminished in response to ICP. Resting heart rate decreased
by 6.5% and 9% respectively after 24 and 36 sessions. After the
tenth week, we found a reduction of 11 beats·min-1 in average
training heart rate, an increase of 0.5 mL/kg-1·min-1 in average
training oxygen uptake and an increase of 8.6 Watts in average
power output. Moreover, an increase in cardio-respiratory fit-
ness was observed (37.1±4.3 vs. 40.2±4.6 mL/kg-1·min-1) after
36 sessions.
Conclusion.The decrease in body weight, without any restric-
tion on food consumption, and the improvement in cardio-res-
piratory fitness suggests that ICP may be efficient for losing
weight and preventing the increased risk of cardiovascular
disease in young overweight women. Indoor cycling can be
performed by young sedentary overweight women; however, it
is fundamental to formulate training protocols which are inten-
sity and length specific to the fitness level of the participants.
K
EY WORDS
:Indoor cycling - Overweight - Exercise.
I
ndoor cycling lessons are normally undertaken in a
fitness room where participants cycle together on
modified stationary bikes and follow the music rhythm
and the instructions of an indoor cycling trainer. Indoor
cycling (IC), also known as spinning®, is a fitness
activity characterized by steps of workout with variable
intensity and a high/moderate involvement of the car-
diovascular system as well as the skeletal muscles.1-3
Several authors classified IC as a physical activity
requiring considerable effort, essentially anaerobic,
and therefore not suitable for everyone.1, 3 According
to other authors IC is a very versatile fitness activity;
indeed involvement of the energetic and cardiovascu-
lar systems can vary according to the music (cadence
rhythm), instructions of the instructor, and technique
and strength applied to the flywheel.4-6 Therefore, IC
can be a predominantly aerobic, anaerobic or mixed
activity. Despite the worldwide popularity of IC,
incomplete and mostly non-scientific studies exist
which are aimed at assessing its effects on metabolic
and cardiovascular functions. It is known that tradi-
tional cycling training can be used for losing weight and
increasing aerobic performance.7, 8 However, the IC fit-
1Department of Sports Science (DISMOT)
University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
2School of Sports Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
3“E. Luna” Human Anatomy Section
Department of Experimental Medicine
University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
4Human Physiology Section, Department of Anatomy and Physiology
University of Padova, Padua, Italy
5Scuola dello Sport Sicilia, CONI, Ragusa, Italy
Acknowledgements.—The authors wish to thank the participants to the
study, Dr. Amalia Pilano, Dr. Esamuela Mancuso, Mr. Salvatore Di Noto,
Mr. Gabriele Morana and MD Caterina Mammina.
Received on September 25, 2009.
Accepted for publication on June 3, 2010.
Corresponding author: A. Bianco, PhD,Assistant Professor, Department
of Sports Science (DISMOT), School of Sports Science, University of
Palermo, via Maggiore Toselli 87b, 90143 Palermo, Italy.
E-mail: antoninobianco@unipa.it
A. BIANCO 1, 2, M. BELLAFIORE1, 2, G. BATTAGLIA2,
A. PAOLI4, G. CARAMAZZA 2, 5, F. FARINA2, 33, A. PALMA1, 2, 5
Vol. 50 - No. 2 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS 159
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BIANCO EFFECTS OF INDOOR CYCLING ON OVERWEIGHT WOMEN
160 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS June 2010
ness activity presents completely different features
compared with outdoor cycling, because it is per-
formed with music, the aim of an instructor and the bio-
mechanics of pedaling. Therefore, the training meth-
ods of outdoor cycling cannot be applied to IC lessons.
Indicators of training intensity such as heart rate (HR)
and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) can allow
participants to gauge their efforts and check their per-
formance within safe ranges, to avoid overexertion
and to maximize the benefits of their training time and
effort.7A study carried out by Kang et al.9on 15 sub-
jects showed that there were no differences in average
V
.O2, HR, and RPE during exercise when doing a spin-
ning protocol of variable intensity and an exercise
regime performed at constant intensity. However, V
.O2
measured after a spinning protocol of variable inten-
sity was higher than postexercise V
.O2from a constant
intensity protocol.
The authors suggested that this increase could play
a role in mediating post exercise energy expenditure.9
The main motivation for many sedentary, often over-
weight or obese people who begin a fitness physical
activity program is weight control rather than the
improvement in their cardiovascular fitness.4, 7, 10
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the
effects of a specific IC protocol (ICP) on several anthro-
pometric (body weight, lean mass, fat mass and cir-
cumferences) and cardio-respiratory (oxygen uptake
and HR) parameters in sedentary overweight women.
Materials and methods
Study design
We formulated a universal and easily learned indoor
cycling protocol following the guidelines of the
Schwinn®Fitness Academy. Our protocol was mainly
aerobic and characterized by a progressive increase in
the exercise intensity varying the resistance applied to
the bikes’flywheels. IC positions, music beats/min and
leg revolution/min remained unchanged for each music
track for the whole of the training protocols. These
variables were selected according to the anthropomet-
ric features and the cardio-respiratory fitness of the par-
ticipants. For the study only young overweight seden-
tary women were selected, because this population is the
most inclined to attend the fitness area of IC. Our study
utilized a pre- post-design in which the subjects were
used as their own controls. Indeed, our purpose was to
analyze the effects of our IC protocol on body compo-
sition and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) in over-
weight women before and after the training period.
Subjects
In order to select the participants, 76 young females
filled in anamnesis and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF)
schedules.11 Fourteen young healthy sedentary over-
weight women (22.6±2.1 years; 25-29.9 Body Mass
Index), who had not performed any physical activity
in the past, were recruited for the experimentation.
With the aid of medical questionnaires and a specific
software (WinFood2.0, Medimatica s.r.l., Colonnella,
Teramo, Italy) the theoretic 1560±170 Kcal daily food
intake was calculated. During the study, participants
followed a Mediterranean diet including breakfast,
lunch, snack and dinner without any specific limit on
food consumption. All the subjects gave their informed
consent prior to participation in this study, which was
approved by the local institutional Ethics Committee.
The data including body composition, resting heart
rate and resting systolic and diastolic arterial pressure
were acquired before the beginning of the study and
after 12, 24 and 36 sessions of ICP. Basal metabolic
rate, fat and lean mass percentage were evaluated by
multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis (InBody320,
Biospace, Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, CA, USA)
between 7.00 am and 09.40 am. Arm, chest, abdomen,
thigh and leg circumferences were measured accord-
ing to the anthropometric standardization reference
manual by Lohman et al.12 Resting HR and arterial
pressure were recorded between 9.00 am and 10.20
am by a digital blood pressure machine (Mx3 plus,
Omron, Germany). The studies were performed dur-
ing the post-menstrual period (6-11 days after the end
of the menstrual cycle). During the first and tenth
weeks, training HR (HRtr), V
.O2(V
.O2tr) and power
output (Watttr) were recorded by HR monitors (S810i,
Polar, Oulu, Finland), ergospirometer system (K4 b2,
Cosmed srl, Rome, Italy) and U5x upright cycle sta-
tionary bike (Matrix, Cottage Grove, OR, USA),
respectively. For this evaluation we substituted one
IC Schwinn bike with one U5x upright bike to measure
the Watttr parameter.
Procedures
The participants were trained for 12 weeks in a spe-
cific ICP that followed the guidelines of the Schwinn®
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EFFECTS OF INDOOR CYCLING ON OVERWEIGHT WOMEN BIANCO
Cycling Official Program. The training period con-
sisted of three sessions/week carried out from 7.00 to
8.00 pm in the fitness room at the University Campus
of Palermo (CUS Palermo). Each session has lasted for
53’3’. The protocol was performed on stationary bikes
(Spin Bike ICX Elite, Schwinn®, Givisiez,
Switzerland). Position, length, music rhythm cadence
(Bpm) and revolution per minute (Rpm) are shown in
Table I. The hand positions adopted in the ICP were
“narrow” or “position one”, “wide” or “position two”,
and “standing” or “position three”. An incremental
test created by Mac Dougall et al.13 was used to mea-
sure V
.O2max,HR
max and Wattmax at the beginning of
the experimentation and after 36 ICP sessions. In par-
ticular, the initial power output was 25 Watts with an
increase of 25 Watts every minute (Table II). This test
was performed by all the subjects in the fitness room
at the University Campus between 4 pm and 9.30 pm
using U5x upright cycle stationary bike. The U5x bike
was specifically chosen to collect data on Watts.
Statistical analysis
Data are expressed as means±SD. Repeated analy-
sis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni’s multiple
comparison and linear trend test among the continuous
variables and single values were performed by
Statistica 8.0 Software (Tulsa, OK, USA). Intraclass
correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated by
Statistica 8.0, before experimentation and after 12, 24
and 36 IC-sessions for the following measurements:
body weight, fat and lean mass, BMR, circumferences
of calf, thigh, abdominal, chest and arm, resting HR,
diastolic and systolic AP. Values were considered sig-
nificantly different at P<0.05.
Results
Analysis of body composition and circumferences
ICCs showed a high internal consistency of the base-
line and post-IC session measurements. ICCs for the
measurements obtained before experimentation ranged
TABLE I.—Indoor cycling protocol
Positions Time Bpm Rpm
Warm up
Seated flat 3’00’’ 95 9 5
Seated flat 3’28’’ 100 10 0
Seated flat 2’12’’ 102 10 2
Standing flat 30’’ 102 10 2
Seated flat 2’ 102 1 02
Standing flat 30’’ 102 10 2
Seated flat 1’39’’ 100 1 00
Standing flat 20’’ 100 10 0
Seated flat 30’’ 100 10 0
Standing flat 20’’ 100 10 0
Seated flat 30’’ 100 10 0
Standing flat 20’’ 100 10 0
Training period
Seated flat 1’08’’ 100 1 00
Rolling terrain 10’’ 100 10 0
Seated flat 10’’ 100 10 0
Rolling terrain 10’’ 100 10 0
Seated flat 10’’ 100 10 0
Rolling terrain 10’’ 100 10 0
Seated flat 1’10’’ 100 1 00
Seated climb 2’43’’ 128 6 4
Combo hill 1’ 128 6 4
Seated climb 2’ 128 64
Standing climb 1’ 128 64
Seated climb 3’17’’ 130 65
Combo hill 1’ 130 65
Combo hill (Increasing pyramid) 2’ 130 65
Standing climb 1’30’’ 130 6 5
Seated climb 30’ 130 6 5
Seated flat 5’43’’ 92 9 2
Seated flat 1’12’’ 100 1 00
Standing flat 15’’ 100 10 0
Seated flat 30’’ 100 10 0
Standing flat 15’’ 100 10 0
Seated flat 1’30’’ 100 1 00
Cool down
Seated flat 1’54’’ 95 9 5
Standing flat 5’ 95 9 5
Seated flat 25’’ 95 95
Standing flat 5’ 95 9 5
Seated flat 25’’ 95 95
Seated flat 2’47’’ 92 9 2
Stretching on the floor 6’
Bpm: music beats per minute; Rpm: revolutions per minute.
TABLE II.—Initial power output.
Minutes Watts R p m
0-1 25 60-70
1-2 50 60-70
2-3 75 60-70
3-4 100 60-70
4-5 125 60-70
5-6 150 60-70
6-7 175 60-70
7-8 200 60-70
8-9 225 60-70
9-10 250 60-70
Modified MacDougall’s test.
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162 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS June 2010
from 0.96 (body weight, fat mass, lean mass and BMR)
to 0.99 (calf, thigh, abdominal, chest and arm cir-
cumferences). For post IC sessions data, ICCs ranged
between the following values: body weight, fat mass,
lean mass, BMR, 0.95 to 0.98; calf, thigh, abdominal,
chest and arm circumferences, 0.98 to 0.99. No sig-
nificant differences were found between the IC-ses-
sions. The initial body weight (70.8±8.8 kg) showed a
reduction of 2.6% and 3.2% respectively after 24 and
36 indoor cycling sessions (ICS). Moreover, we
observed a significant decrease of 4.3% and 5% in fat
mass respectively after 24 and 36 ICS (P<0.05). In
contrast, lean mass significantly increased by 2.3%
and 2.6% respectively after 24 and 36 ICS. All cir-
cumference measurements significantly diminished
in response to ICP. In particular, calf circumference
decreased by 2.4% and 2.8% after 24 and 36 ICS,
respectively. We observed a reduction of 1% and 1.3%
in thigh circumference respectively after 24 and 36
ICS. Abdominal circumference decreased by 1.7%
and 2.1% respectively after 24 and 36 ICS. Chest cir-
cumference decreased by 1.8% and 2.3% respective-
ly after 24 and 36 ICS. Finally, arm circumference
decreased by 7.3% and 7.7% respectively after 24 and
36 ICS. During the experimentation, these parame-
ters showed a significant linear trend. In addition, the
basal metabolism rate did not undergo any significant
modification in response to the training protocol (1
434±102 vs. 1495±92 Kcal Day-1). These data are
shown in Table III.
Physiological parameters
ICCs showed a remarkable internal consistency at
baseline and post-IC sessions. ICCs for the measure-
ments of diastolic and systolic AP and resting HR
ranged from 0.96 to 0.98 both before experimentation
and after the IC-sessions, without any significant dif-
ference between sessions. Resting HR decreased by
6.5% and 9% respectively after 24 and 36 ICS.
However, we did not observe any significant differ-
ence in the systolic or diastolic pressure after 36 ICS as
we expected. These data are shown in Table IV. In our
study, the aerobic performance was quantified by
TABLE III.—Evaluation of BMR, body weight, composition and circumferences in response to ICP.
Before After 12 After 24 After 36 P-value Linear
Experimentation IC-sessions IC-sessions IC-sessions trend
Subjects (N.=14) Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD 0-36 0-36
Body weight (kg) 70.8 8.8 69.9 9.3 69.0* 9.2 68.6 9.2 0.0001 0.0001
Fat mass (%) 34.9 5.5 34.2 5.4 33.4* 5.2 33.2 5.3 0.0001 0.0001
Lean mass (%) 65.1 5.5 65.8 5.4 66.6* 5.2 66.8 5.3 0.0001 0.0001
BMR (kcal/day-1) 1434 102 1461 94 1457 96 1495 92 0.23000.2350
Calf circumference (cm) 36.9 1.5 36.2 1.7 36.0* 1.4 35.9 1.4 0.0001 0.0001
Thigh circumference (cm) 61.8 4.4 61.4 4.0 61.1* 3.9 61.0 3.9 0.0130 0.0016
Abdominal circumference (cm) 82.1 7.8 81.2 7.6 80.7* 7.7 80.4 7.4 0.0001 0.0001
Chest circumference (cm) 96.6 7.0 95.6 7.2 94.9* 7.1 94.4 7.2 0.0001 0.0001
Arm circumference (cm) 28.6 2.5 26.9 2.4 26.5* 2.3 26.4 2.2 0.0001 0.0001
*(P<0.05) before the experimentation vs. after 24 IC-sessions.
TABLE IV.—Assessment of resting HR and resting arterial pressure in response to ICP.
Before After 12 After 24 After 36 P-value Linear
Experimentation IC-sessions IC-sessions IC-sessions trend
Subjects (N.=14) Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Resting HR [beats ×min-1] 70.2 10.1 68.1 7.0 65.6* 5.1 63.9 3.9 0.001 0.0001
Systolic AP [mmHg] 125.5 11.2 123.6 11.4 124.0*7.2 121.4 8.0 0.531 0.1840
Diastolic AP [mmHg] 73.7 5.7 71.4 4.0 73.6*3.5 72.6 5.8 0.560 0.8490
*(P<0.05) before the experimentation vs. after 24 IC-sessions.
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EFFECTS OF INDOOR CYCLING ON OVERWEIGHT WOMEN BIANCO
V
.O2max measured during the incremental test performed
before and after the training protocol. We found a sig-
nificant (P=0.0001) increase in V
.O2max (37.1±4.3 vs.
40.2±4.6 mL·kg-1·min-1) after 36 ICS. This improve-
ment was associated with a significant reduction in
HRmax (189.9±4.3 vs. 185.7±6.5 beats·min-1; P=0.0106)
and increase in Wattmax (213.0±24.7 vs. 238.0±25.7
Watt; P=0.0001). The training heart rate (HRtr), train-
ing oxygen uptake (V
.O2tr) and power output (Watt)
were recorded during the first and the tenth weeks of
training in three of the fourteen subjects. These data are
illustrated in Figures 1, 2. As expected, the profile of
V
.O2tr,HR
tr and Watt was the same because all these
parameters were modified according to the phases of
the training session (warm up, training period and cool
down), selected technique, hand position and music
tracks. The profiles of HRtr,V
.O2tr and Watts in the tenth
week were similar to the first week. However, a reduc-
tion of 11 beats·min-1 in the average HRtr (152.6±23.1
beats·min-1), an increase of 0.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 in the
average V
.O2tr (23.4±7.3 mL·kg-1·min-1) and an increase
of 8.6 Watts in the average power output (51±20.5
Watt) were observed in the tenth week of ICP.
Discussion
The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether
indoor cycling (Spinning®) is a fitness activity suit-
able for losing weight and improving the CRF of young
sedentary overweight women. There are conflicting
opinions in current studies about the energetic sys-
tems mainly involved in this activity.1-6 This confu-
sion is due to the fact that IC is an extremely versatile
fitness activity 4, 6 and its intensity depends on various
variables (positions, time, bpm and rpm). Therefore, the
first step of our work was to formulate a specific ICP
that considered the anthropometric features, the CRF
of the subjects and followed the American College of
Sport Medicine (ACSM) guidelines. Since the begin-
ning, the indoor cyclists followed the guidelines of
the Madd Dogs Athletics Incorporation®and Schwinn®
Cycling to program their training sessions. In partic-
ular, they followed guidelines regarding the target
heart rate to be achieved during the different steps of
a training session (warm up, training period and cool
down) in accordance with the ACSM guidelines.14
However, at present, only incomplete and mostly non-
220
0
Tracks
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Watt 25±9
6’28’’
Warm up Training period Cool down
38±5
5’12’’
44±12
3’39’’
51±9
3’08’’
69±15
6’43’’
81±17
8’17’’
159
5’43’’
72±24
3’42’’
43±11
2’54’’
21±10
2’47’’
0
6’
Indoor cycling protocol 1st week
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Figure 1.Representation of HR and V
.O2values measured during the first week of ICP. The values are indicated as means ± standard deviations. The
X-axis shows power output (Watt), music tracks and session phases. The left Y-axis and the right Y-axis illustrate () heart rate and () oxygen
uptake, respectively.
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BIANCO EFFECTS OF INDOOR CYCLING ON OVERWEIGHT WOMEN
164 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS June 2010
scientific studies aimed at assessing the impact of IC
(Spinning®) on metabolic and cardiovascular func-
tions exist.4-6 Spinning®has been suggested as a phys-
ical activity program for losing weight;4-6, 15 however,
these studies have never been published in peer-
reviewed scientific journals. In our study, the signifi-
cant decrease in body weight without any dietary
restriction suggests that our training protocol is efficient
for weight loss in young sedentary overweight women.
It is known that regular exercise can markedly reduce
body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric
restriction in overweight individuals.7, 16 An increase
in total energy expenditure appears to be the most
important determinant of successful exercise induced
weight loss.7, 17 In addition, we found a significant
variation in fat and lean mass in specific body regions
as shown by bioimpedence and circumference values
indicating that ICP affects both upper and lower body
composition. In agreement with HR and V
.O2values
recorded during training sessions and ACSM,14 ICP can
be defined as an aerobic activity at mid-high intensi-
ty with brief phases during training periods (1-3 min)
of anaerobic activity. Caria et al.1(2007) evaluated
mean power output, HR and V
.O2during spinning ses-
sions in spinning instructors of both sexes. The authors
concluded that the intensity of spinning sessions, rang-
ing from moderate-to-heavy to very heavy, induced a
high impact on cardiovascular functions they sug-
gested that spinning was not suitable for unfit or seden-
tary individuals, especially the middle aged or the
elderly. Previously, the same conclusions on spinning
activity were also elaborated by Francis et al.3(1999).
In a study by Battista et al.2(2008), although the aver-
age intensity during simulated indoor cycling classes
was moderate, frequently there were exercise bouts
with values of V
.O2exceeding V
.O2max and intensity
greater than ventilator threshold. López-MiÀarro and
Rodrìguez (2009) concluded that IC must be consid-
ered a high-intensity exercise mode for novice sub-
jects of both sexes.17 Unlike these studies, our ICP
was formulated for young sedentary overweight
women and the training intensity resulted as signifi-
cantly lower as shown by HRtr and V
.O2tr values com-
pared to the intensity of spinning sessions in Caria et
al. (2007), Battista et al. (2008) and López-MiÀarro
and Rodrìguez (2009) studies. Consequently, our pro-
220
0
Tracks
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Watt 25±9
6’28’’
Warm up Training period Cool down
43±7
5’12’’
51±8
3’39’’
59±5
3’08’’
77±16
6’43’’
94±21
8’17’’
74±18
5’43’’
79±14
3’42’’
52±9
2’54’’
32±12
2’47’’
0
6’
Indoor cycling protocol 10 th week
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Figure 2.—Representation of HR and V
.O2values measured during the tenth week of ICP. The values are indicated as means ± standard deviations.
The X-axis shows power output (Watt), music tracks and session phases. The left Y-axis and the right Y-axis illustrate () heart rate and () oxygen
uptake, respectively.
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EFFECTS OF INDOOR CYCLING ON OVERWEIGHT WOMEN BIANCO
tocol determined a lower cardiovascular engagement
than training sessions in previous studies.1, 2 In agree-
ment with Caria et al., we found that the intensity of
IC activity is strongly associated with changes in posi-
tion, music rhythm cadence and revolution per minute
as shown by HRtr and V
.O2tr profiles. Therefore, the
indoor cycling trainers can select the intensity of a
training session depending on the fitness level of the
participants. In this way, it is the instructor who decides
and monitors the workload of the IC session and it is
not the IC activity which has a high impact on the car-
diovascular system. In addition, while Francis et al.3,
Kang et al.9,Caria et al.1 and Battista et al.2, measured
metabolic and cardiovascular effects in the laborato-
ry, ourprotocol to our knowledge was, for the first
time, carried out in the fitness room duplicating atyp-
ical indoor cycling class. In addition, ICP induced an
increase in the aerobic metabolism and improvement
in muscle functions as shown by the increase in V
.O2tr
and Watts. The intensity of the ICP training period
was variable like the variable intensity trial proposed
by Kang et al. who suggested that the more frequent-
ly the exercise intensity fluctuates, the greater is the dis-
turbance to homeostasis and therefore the greater the
postexercise energy expenditure.9It is known that reg-
ular and prolonged aerobic training induces specific
adaptations to the cardiovascular system.14, 18, 19 In our
study, the significant decrease in resting HR after 24
ICP sessions indicates the presence of heart adapta-
tions. This data associated with the results of the incre-
mental test suggests that our protocol induces an
improvement in the CRF and, therefore, might be used
to prevent cardiovascular diseases.20, 21 In addition, it
is important to underline that the profiles of HR and
V
.O2recorded in the first and tenth weeks are similar
suggesting the applicability of this method to young
sedentary overweight women in this age category.
Conclusions
In conclusion, according to the present study an IC
lesson can be adapted to almost all fitness levels
because each performance depends on the individual
physical fitness, the specific training, subject’s moti-
vation and interpretation of the session. The perfor-
mance of our ICP was easy to learn and allowed to
improve physical health. Our ICP can be performed by
both sedentary and lightly trained people who have
low levels of CRF and want to lose body weight with-
out any restriction on food consumption. Moreover, it
is essential to have scientific references which can be
applied in the fitness field and we sustain the impor-
tance of formulating specific ICPs.
References
1. Caria MA, Tangianu F, Concu A, Crisafulli A, Mameli O.
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... The feasibility and effectiveness of applying IC programs in women of different ages, based on the optimization of physical activity and the selection of special exercises depending on the parameters of their functional state and the presence of diseases, have also been investigated [15,16]. The positive impact of IC training on cardiorespiratory fitness was revealed [17,18]. However, research into the effectiveness of IC classes in improving the physical fitness of young women is ignored by specialists. ...
... Coordination was developed by Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2019, 26(3), [14][15][16][17][18][19] implementing riding in a standing position without the hands supported on the handlebars, alternating sitting and standing, and alternating standing and standing uphill. ...
... At the end of the study, the increase in jump height was already 11.13%, the average difference Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2019, 26(3), [14][15][16][17][18][19] between the values being 2.76 cm (F1,28 = 50.349, p < 0.0001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. Indoor cycling training programs at fitness clubs offer the possibility of optimizing the structure and amount of physical activity, which reduces the risk of disrupting the adaptive abilities of women’s bodies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the effect of an indoor cycling program on the body composition and physical fitness of young women. Material and methods. Twenty-nine women (age = 29.31 ± 3.40 years, body weight = 70.71 ± 6.15 kg, and height = 169.83 ± 3.17 cm) took part in the study, participating in three classes per week for 16 weeks. Each class included three periods: the preparatory, main, and supporting periods. Body composition (waist circumference and body mass index), cardiorespiratory fitness (VО2max), motor fitness (balance), and musculoskeletal fitness (upper and lower body muscle strength and muscular endurance) were compared before the beginning of the study and after 10 and 16 weeks of training. Changes recorded in each variable over time were analyzed statistically using repeated measures methods. Results. Significant improvements in physical fitness were identified in the values of the body mass index (7.81%; ES: 0.95, p = 0.0001) and VО2max (12.51%; ES: 1.02, p = 0.0001). Moderate improvements were found in lower body muscle strength (11.13%; ES: 0.66, p = 0.0001) and waist circumference (6.05%, ES: 0.65, p = 0.0001). There was an increase in the strength of the muscles of the upper body (5.27%; ES: 0.41, p = 0.0001), muscular endurance (8.20%; ES: 0.32, p = 0.0001), and balance (10.68%; ES: 0.29, p = 0.003). Conclusion. Indoor cycling in a fitness club is an effective form of exercise for young women; it has targeted training effects on the body’s functional systems, adaptive abilities, and physical fitness.
... [7] Physical activities including lifting weights and group fitness aerobic exercises as well as exercise education encourage a healthy lifestyle. [8][9][10] In adults, limitations of functional mobility that are determined using gait testing are associated with low QoL, chronic pain, and premature mortality. [11] High BMI changes the structure and composition of joint cartilage by causing abnormal load increase in joints. ...
... It is known that physical activity and exercise encourage a healthy lifestyle and in adults, limitations of functional mobility are associated with low QoL, chronic pain, and premature mortality. [8][9][10][11] Our results indicated that the main problem preventing physical activity was high BMI values. We think that physical activity will be increased with weight loss after bariatric surgery and supporting increased physical activity with regular exercise programs may maintain healthy weight and improve health problems associated with obesity and low physical activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate physical activity, sleep, depression, quality of life, and musculoskeletal problems pre- and postoperatively in morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery and analyze the factors that are strongly associated with physical activity. Patients and methods: This prospective study conducted between January 2016 and May 2017 included 27 patients (4 males, 23 females; mean age 37.1±10.4 years; range, 18 to 52 years) who underwent bariatric surgery and 20 healthy controls (3 males, 17 females; mean age 32.0±5.7 years; range, 26 to 46 years). All patients were evaluated by using the short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and short form 36 (SF-36). Patients were evaluated for regional musculoskeletal pain including back, waist, hip, knee, ankle, heel, and metatarsal pain using Visual Analog Scale. Presence of pes planus was recorded. The examinations and tests performed in the preoperative period were repeated at postoperative six months and the results were compared with the control group. Results: The body mass index was 46.2±5.2 kg/m2 preoperatively and 33.8±5.0 kg/m2 postoperatively (p<0.001). The total IPAQ was 345.4±172.8 metabolic equivalent (MET)-min/week preoperatively and 672.8±227.8 MET-min/week postoperatively (p<0.001). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was 7.6±3.0 preoperatively and 3.5±2.4 postoperatively, whereas BDI was 20.2±8.5 preoperatively and 9.9±7.4 postoperatively. The results were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). A statistically significant improvement was found in all subsections of the SF-36. Pre- and postoperative results of the 27 patients were compared with those of the control group. Conclusion: Obesity is significantly associated with joint pain, physical function impairment, depression, and sleep disorders. Significant weight loss after bariatric surgery improves functional recovery and patient's psychology in a short time.
... Scientific reports confirm the effective impact of indoor cycling training on cardiovascular and respiratory efficiency, reduction of adipose tissue and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in people without cardiovascular diseases [12][13][14][15][16][17]. The research conducted so far indicates the validity of undertaking research aimed at assessing the use of indoor cycling training as an alternative form to traditional endurance training in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Standard endurance training used from the second stage of cardiac rehabilitation has many common features with indoor cycling training which is used in fitness clubs. In the study, an attempt was made to evaluate the usefulness of this form of training in a 24-day rehabilitation program for patients after myocardial infarction. The study examined a group of 64 patients (51.34 ± 8.02 years) who were divided into two groups: the IC group (32 patients aged 53.40 ± 4.31 years) with indoor cycling training instead of standard endurance training; and the ST group (32 patients aged 55.31 ± 6.45 years) performing standard training. The level of exercise tolerance (cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill—Bruce’s protocol), hemodynamic indicators of the left ventricle (echocardiography) and blood lipid profile (laboratory test) were assessed. Results In the IC group there was a significant increase in the test duration (9.21 ± 2.02 vs 11.24 ± 1.26 min; p < 0.001), the MET value (9.16 ± 1.30 vs 10.73 ± 1.23; p = 0.006) and VO 2 max (37.27 ± 3.23 vs 39.10 ± 3.17 ml/kg/min; p < 0.001). Parallel changes were observed in the ST group, where the following parameters improved: the test duration (9.41 ± 0.39 vs 10.91 ± 2.22; p < 0.001), MET value (8.65 ± 0.25 vs 9.86 ± 1.12; p = 0.002) and VO 2 max (36.89 ± 6.22 vs 38.76 ± 3.44; p < 0.001). No statistically significant changes were found in the hemodynamic indices of the left ventricle and the lipid profile. Also, the intergroup analysis did not show any statistical significance. Conclusion Based on the research results, it was found that indoor cycling training in the second phase of cardiac rehabilitation is a safe form of therapy and therefore may be an interesting alternative method to the classic bicycle ergometer exercise in the stage of early cardiac rehabilitation.
... Previous studies have emphasized the effect of different exercise protocols on women's fitness. Bianco et al. (4) revealed that Indoor Cycling Protocol may be efficient for losing weight and preventing the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in young overweight women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tanıtım: Tabata antrenman programları, yüksek yoğunluklu interval antrenman olarak nitelendirilir. uyumluluğuBu egzersiz programının futsal özellikleri taşıyan futsal oyuncularında yarattığı fizyolojik yük halen tartışılmaktadır. Bu çalışmakadın futsal oyuncularında Tabata antrenmanının kalp hızı ve kan laktat birikimi üzerindeki akut etkisini araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır.Malzemeler ve yöntemler: Çalışmaya toplam 12 kadın sporcu (yaş: 20,33±0,89 yıl) katılmıştır. Denekler 2 set gerçekleştirdiHer biri 20 saniyelik 4 farklı hareketten oluşan ve 10 saniyelik toparlanma aralıklarıyla oluşan Tabata egzersizlerinin (segmentleri). buSporcuların kalp atış hızı (HR) ve kan laktat (BLa) seviyeleri her bir Tabata antrenmanı seti öncesi (öncesi) ve sonrasında (sonrası) ölçüldü.HR yanıtlarındaki ve BLa birikimindeki farkı, setlerin öncesi ve sonrası arasındaki farkı karşılaştırmak için eşleştirilmiş örnek t testi kullanıldı.Tabata egzersizi. Anlamlı düzey p ≤0,05 olarak tanımlandı.Sonuçlar: Her iki setten önce ve sonra ortalama HR arasında anlamlı bir fark bulundu (P<0.01). Katılımcıların egzersiz öncesitest kalp hızı değerleri, HRmax%'nin yaklaşık %60'ından %95'ine yükseldi. BLa'da (13,36±3,70) anlamlı bir fark vardı.16,64±3,04 mmol.l-1; t=5.27; P<0.01) 2. sette ortalama ancak 1. sette değil (5,76±2,90; 7,51±4,42 mmol.l)-1; t:-1.18; P>0.05). OBLa'daki artış (5,76±2,90; 16,64±3,04 mmol.l) gözlendi.-1) 2. set son test değerlerinin yaklaşık üç tanesi arttı1. set ön test ile karşılaştırıldığında.Çözüm: Sporcu üzerinde oluşturduğu metabolik yük seviyesi, bu antrenman yönteminin anaerobik aktiviteyi arttırmak için kullanılabileceğini göstermektedir.dayanıklılık ve kapasite.Anahtar Kelimeler: Kadın, anaerobik, dayanıklılık, yüksek yoğunluklu, interval an (PDF) TABATA ANTRENMANININ KADIN FUTSAL OYUNCULARININ KALP HIZI VE KAN LAKTAT TOPLANMASI ÜZERİNE AKUT ETKİSİ. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354903182_ACUTE_EFFECT_OF_TABATA_WORKOUT_ON_HEART_RATE_AND_BLOOD_LACTATE_ACCUMULATION_OF_FEMALE_FUTSAL_PLAYERS [accessed May 11 2022].
... outro lado, Maharaj e Nuhu 17 observaram diminuição significativa no IMC de diabéticos, após 9 semanas de prática de exercícios físicos em mini trampolim, como no Aero Jump, realizado três vezes na semana. Bianco et al.18 ...
Article
Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar os efeitos de 12 semanas de treinamento de Aero Jump e Ciclismo Indoor sobre a composição corporal de mulheres sedentárias. Foram avaliadas 20 mulheres de 20 a 38 anos de idade. Os procedimentos utilizados para avaliação da composição corporal foram: verificação da massa corporal, estatura e dobras cutâneas incluindo 7 dobras (tricipital, subescapular, peitoral, axilar média, supra ilíaca, abdominal vertical e coxa medial). As variáveis utilizadas foram o percentual de gordura, o somatório de dobras cutâneas e o índice de massa corporal. O pré-teste foi realizado antes da primeira semana de atividades e o pós-teste ao final de 12 semanas do treinamento. Para análise foi utilizada estatística descritiva, teste de Wilcoxon comparando os dados pré e pós-treinamento e Kruskal-Wallis para comparar os resultados entre os grupos, adotando-se um nível de significância de 5%. Como resultados, observa-se que no grupo que realizou o treinamento com Aero Jump houve diminuição na média do somatório de dobras cutâneas de 161,7±47,85 para 155,4±42,53 e no grupo que realizou o treino com Ciclismo Indoor as três variáveis sofreram diminuição, principalmente o percentual de gordura, diminuindo de 31,8±6,54% para 29,7±5,09%, porém estas alterações não foram estatisticamente diferentes. Concluiu-se que um período de 12 semanas de treinamento, tanto de Aero Jump como de Ciclismo Indoor, não foi suficiente para produzir alterações estatisticamente significativas sobre as variáveis estudadas, apesar de ter se observado uma diminuição. Talvez o período de treino de 12 semanas não tenha sido suficiente para produzir resultados significativos, sugerindo-se um tempo maior do que 12 semanas.
... Scienti c reports con rm the effective impact of indoor cycling training on cardiovascular and respiratory e ciency, reduction of adipose tissue and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in people without cardiovascular diseases [12,13,14,15,16,17]. The research conducted so far indicates the validity of undertaking research aimed at assessing the use of indoor cycling training as an alternative form to traditional endurance training in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Standard endurance training used from the second stage of cardiac rehabilitation has many common features with indoor cycling training which is used in fitness clubs. In the study, an attempt was made to evaluate the usefulness of this form of training in a 24-day rehabilitation program for patients after myocardial infarction. The study examined a group of 64 patients (51.34 ± 8.02 years) who were divided into two groups: the IC group (32 patients aged 53.40 ± 4.31 years) with indoor cycling training instead of standard endurance training; and the ST group (32 patients aged 55.31 ± 6.45 years) performing standard training. The level of exercise tolerance (cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill – Bruce's protocol), hemodynamic indicators of the left ventricle (echocardiography) and blood lipid profile (laboratory test) were assessed. Results In the IC group there was a significant increase in the test duration (9.21 ± 2.02 vs 11.24 ± 1.26 min; p < 0.001), the MET value (9.16 ± 1.30 vs 10.73 ± 1.23; p = 0.006) and VO2max (37.27 ± 3.23 vs 39.10 ± 3.17 ml/kg/min; p < 0.001). Parallel changes were observed in the ST group, where the following parameters improved: the test duration (9.41 ± 0.39 vs 10.91 ± 2.22; p < 0.001), MET value (8.65 ± 0.25 vs 9.86 ± 1.12; p = 0.002) and VO2max (36.89 ± 6.22 vs 38.76 ± 3.44; p < 0.001). No statistically significant changes were found in the hemodynamic indices of the left ventricle and the lipid profile. Also, the intergroup analysis did not show any statistical significance. Conclusion Based on the research results, it was found that indoor cycling training in the second phase of cardiac rehabilitation is a safe form of therapy and therefore may be an interesting alternative method to the classic bicycle ergometer exercise in the stage of early cardiac rehabilitation.
... This can potentially help athletes coaches and team staff to better manage the balance between stress and recovery, that has been linked by previous investigations with injury prevention, athletes' health, and performance optimization [2][3][4][5][6]9,10,22]. The various benefits of physical activities such as cycling, as opposed to physical inactivity, have been widely demonstrated in different age groups, including adolescents and young athletes [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. However, considering the additional stressors to which these particular age groups are exposed, training load monitoring and management may represent important aspects. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-level young athletes need to face a wide spectrum of stressors on their journey to élite categories. The aims of the present study are (i) to evaluate session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) at different training impulse (TRIMP) categories and the correlations between these two variables and, (ii) evaluate the correlations between sRPE, fluid loss, and carbohydrate consumption during exercise. Data on Edward’s TRIMP, sRPE, body mass loss pre- and post- exercise (∆), and carbohydrate consumption (CHO/h) during exercise have been acquired from eight male junior cyclists during a competitive season. One-way ANOVA and correlation analysis with linear regression have been performed on acquired data. sRPE resulted in a significant difference in the three TRIMP categories (p < 0.001). sRPE resulted in being very largely positively associated with TRIMP values (p < 0.001; R = 0.71). ∆ as well as CHO/h was largely negatively related with sRPE in all TRIMP categories (p < 0.001). The results confirmed the role of fluid balance and carbohydrate consumption on the perception of fatigue and fatigue accumulation dynamics independently from the training load. Young athletes’ training load monitoring and nutritional-hydration support represent important aspects in athlete’s exercise-induced fatigue management. View Full-Text Keywords: fatigue; young athletes; cycling performance; sport nutrition; hydration
... A small literature indicates that IC is an effective intervention in improving aerobic capacity [12] as well as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism [9,13]. However, little is known about the optimal combination of exercise intensity and volume for adaptations of IC training in a clinical setting. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aimed to provide evidence on the impact of indoor cycling (IC) in reducing cardiometabolic risk factors. The study compares the effects of a 3 month IC program involving three 55 min sessions per week on women aged 40–60 years, with obesity (OW, n = 18) vs. women with normal body weight (NW, n = 8). At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric parameters, oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), and serum parameters: glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), insulin, human anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibody (OLAb), total blood antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid accumulation product (LAP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA IR) were determined. Before the intervention, VO2 peak and HDL-C levels were significantly lower and levels of TG, LAP, insulin, HOMA-IR, and CRP were significantly higher in the OW group compared to those in the NW group. After the intervention, only the OW group saw a decrease in body mass, total cholesterol, OLAb, TBARS, and CRP concentration and an increase in total body skeletal muscle mass and HDL-C concentration. In response to the IC training, measured indicators in the OW group were seen to approach the recommended values, but all between-group differences remained significant. Our results demonstrate that IC shows promise for reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, especially dyslipidemia. After 12 weeks of regular IC, the metabolic function of the OW group adapted in many aspects to be more like that of the NW group.
... In order to reduce sedentary lifestyle and to counteract overweight and obesity, research is recently focusing on the effectiveness of different short-term and high-intensity training protocols, that could represent a useful strategy for the management of body composition and the reduction of waist circumference [7]. In this context, MICTs are traditionally the most suitable protocols used for achieving these goals also in absence of food restriction in overweight subjects, and only recently, RT training has been included [8][9][10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to compare the effects of a personalized short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs standard moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, BMI and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in overweight volunteers. Twenty overweight sedentary volunteers (24.9 ± 2.9y; BMI: 26.1 ± 1kgm−2) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, HIIT or MICT. HIIT trained 6 weeks (3-days/week), 40-min sessions as follows: 6-min warm-up, 20-min resistance training (RT) at 70% 1-RM, 8-min HIIT up to 90% of the predicted Maximal Heart Rate (HRmax), 6-min cool-down. MICT trained 6 weeks (3-days/week) 60-min sessions as follows: 6-min warm-up, 20-min RT at 70% 1-RM, 30-min MICT at 60–70% of the predicted HRmax, 4-min cool-down. Two-way ANOVA was performed in order to compare the efficacy of HIIT and MICT protocols, and no significant interaction between training x time was evidenced (p > 0.05), indicating similar effects of both protocols on all parameters analyzed. Interestingly, the comparison of Δ mean percentage revealed an improvement in VO2max (p = 0.05) together with a positive trend in the reduction of fat mass percentage (p = 0.06) in HIIT compared to MICT protocol. In conclusion, 6 weeks of personalized HIIT, with reduced training time (40 vs 60 min)/session and volume of training/week, improved VO2max and reduced fat mass percentage more effectively compared to MICT. These positive results encourage us to test this training in a larger population.
Article
Objectives To assess the effect of ankle, knee, and hip kinematics on patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint reaction forces (JRF) during bicycling. Secondarily, to assess if sex, horizontal saddle position, or crank arm length were related to JRFs, after accounting for kinematics. Design Experimental cross-sectional study. Methods Forty healthy adults (mean (SD); 28.6 (7.2) years, 24.2 (2.6) kg/m², 17 women) bicycled under 18 bicycling positions. One position used commercial guidelines and 17 randomly deviated from commercial. Resultant patellofemoral as well as compressive and shear tibiofemoral JRFs were calculated. Linear mixed-effects models with a random intercept of leg-nested-in-participant were used. Results Patellofemoral resultant forces were most sensitive to all joint kinematics (i.e., sensitivity was defined as the slope of single predictor models); all JRFs were least sensitive to minimum knee flexion. Tibiofemoral compression was predicted by minimum hip flexion and maximum ankle dorsiflexion (R² = 0.90). Tibiofemoral shear (R² = 0.86) and the resultant patellofemoral JRF (R² = 0.90) were predicted by minimum hip flexion, maximum ankle dorsiflexion, minimum knee flexion, and the interaction between minimum hip flexion and minimum knee flexion. Adding sex as a factor improved fit of all models. This sex-effect was driven by differences in cycling intensity, reflected by the tangential crank arm force. Horizontal saddle position and crank arm length were not related to JRFs. Conclusions Optimizing joint kinematics should be the primary goal of bicycle-fit. JRFs were least sensitive to the current gold standard for assessing bicycle-fit, minimum knee flexion. Bicycle-fit is of particular importance for those working at high intensities.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to review the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on blood lipids and assess dose-response relationships and diet interactions. We reviewed papers published over the past three decades pertaining to intervention trials on the effects of > or = 12 wk of AET on blood lipids and lipoprotein outcomes in adult men and women. Included were studies with simultaneous dietary and AET interventions, if they had appropriate comparison groups. Studies were classified by the participants' relative weights expressed as mean BMIs. Information was extracted on baseline characteristics of study subjects, including age, sex, and relative baseline cholesterol levels; details on the training programs; and the responses to training of body weight, VO(2max), and blood total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG). We identified 51 studies, 28 of which were randomized controlled trials. AET was generally performed at a moderate to hard intensity, with weekly energy expenditures ranging from 2,090 to >20,000 kJ. A marked inconsistency was observed in responsiveness of blood lipids. The most commonly observed change was an increase in HDL-C (with reductions in TC, LDL-C, and TG less frequently observed). Insufficient data are available to establish dose-response relationships between exercise intensity and volume with lipid changes. The increase in HDL-C with AET was inversely associated with its baseline level (r = -0.462), but no significant associations were found with age, sex, weekly volume of exercise, or with exercise-induced changes in body weight or VO(2max). Moderate- to hard-intensity AET inconsistently results in an improvement in the blood lipid profile, with the data insufficient to establish dose-response relationships.
Article
Objectives. - Spinning (R) cycle indoor has become a popular cardiovascular activity for group exercise classes. The purposes of this study were to measure the heart rate (HR) response of novice subjects performing 45-min Spinning (R) cycle indoor, and to determine the criterion-related validity of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) as measure of exercise intensity in novice subjects. Methods. - Fifty-nine subjects ranging from 18 to 38 years (mean +/- SD, age: 32.1 +/- 10.2 years), were recruited from a private fitness club. HR and overall RPE were measured during the session. The Spinning (R) session comprised a warm-up (10 min), and a 25-min trial (cardiovascular phase) of flat, run, seated climb, and standing climb activities followed by a cool down (10 min). Results. - The mean values of the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) and overall RPE in cardiovascular phase were 71.1 +/- 13.7% and 14.2 +/- 1.8 points, respectively. The correlation value between overall RPE and %HRR was moderate to weak, but significant (r=0.41, p < 0.05). Conclusions. - The intensity during indoor cycling class in novice adults ranged from moderate-to-hard values. These data suggest that indoor cycling must be considered a high-intensity exercise mode for novice subjects. The reduced validity obtained for the overall RPE suggests that more studies must be performed before using this scale to regulate exercise intensity in novice adults during indoor cycling class.
Book
The purpose of physiological testing (J.D. MacDougall and H.A. Wenger) what do tests measure? (H.J. Green) testing strength and power (D.G. Sale) testing aerobic power (J.S. Thoden) testing anaerobic power and capacity (C. Bouchard, Albert W. Taylor, Jean-Aime Simoneau, and Serge Dulac) Kknanthropometry (WD. Ross and M.J. Marfell-Jones) testing flexibility (C.L. Hubley-Kozey) evaluating the health status of the athlete (R. Backus and D.C. Reid) modelling elite athletic performance (E.W. Banister).
Chapter
Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45–60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80–90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in collaboration with communities, families, schools, work sites, health care professionals, media and policymakers.
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Previous studies have suggested that higher levels of regular physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. We investigated the independent associations of physical activity during leisure time and maximal oxygen uptake (a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness) with the risk of acute myocardial infarction. During the period 1984 to 1989, we performed base-line examinations in 1453 men 42 to 60 years old who did not report having cardiovascular disease or cancer. Physical activity was assessed quantitatively with a detailed questionnaire, and maximal oxygen uptake was measured directly by exercise testing. During an average follow-up of 4.9 years, 42 of the 1166 men with normal electrocardiograms at base line had a first acute myocardial infarction. After adjustment for age and the year of examination, the relative hazard (risk) of myocardial infarction in the third of subjects with the highest level of physical activity (> 2.2 hours per week) was 0.31 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.85; P = 0.02), as compared with the third with the lowest level (P = 0.04 for linear trend over all three groups). The relative hazard in the third with the highest maximal oxygen uptake (> 2.7 liters per minute) was 0.26 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.68; P = 0.006) (P = 0.006 for linear trend), after adjustment for age, the year and season when the examination was performed, weight, height, and the type of respiratory-gas analyzer used. After up to 17 confounding variables were controlled for, the relative hazards for the third of subjects with the highest level of physical activity (0.34; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.94; P = 0.04) and maximal oxygen uptake (0.35; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.92; P = 0.03), as compared with the values in the lowest third, were significantly (P < 0.05) less than 1.0. Higher levels of both leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness had a strong, graded, inverse association with the risk of acute myocardial infarction, supporting the idea that lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease.
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The determinants of physical activity in adults were explored in this study. Explanatory variables included perceived benefits of and perceived barriers to physical activity, and perceived self efficacy for physical activity. Inactive participants were asked to identify barriers to activity, and active participants cited cues prompting them to adopt a physically active lifestyle. Data were collected from 137 adults obtained from work sites, an evening college program, and church groups. Overall, participants were physically active. Self efficacy was the only variable to predict physical activity. Race (i.e., being White) and body mass index (i.e., being overweight) explained perceived barriers to activity. The primary reason for inactivity was lack of time, and the most frequently cited cues to activity were dissatisfaction with one's weight or appearance. Few nursing studies have attempted to increase participants' levels of self efficacy. However, the occupational health nurse is in a unique position to increase workers' perceived self efficacy for activity and, in turn, their activity levels.