Neurodegenerative diseases represent a growing public health challenge. Current medications treat symptoms, but none halt or retard neurodegeneration. The recent advent of pluripotent cell biology has opened new avenues for neurodegenerative disease research. The greatest potential for induced pluripotent cells derived from affected individuals is likely to be their utility for modeling and understanding the mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative processes, and for searching for new treatments, including cell replacement therapies. However, much work remains to be done before pluripotent cells can be used for preclinical and clinical applications. Here we discuss the challenges of generating specific neural cell subtypes from pluripotent stem cells, the use of pluripotent stem cells to model both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of neurodegeneration, whether adult-onset neurodegeneration can be emulated in short-term cultures and the hurdles of cell replacement therapy. Progress in these four areas will substantially accelerate effective application of pluripotent stem cells.
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"When iPS cells are derived from patients with a known mutation, they can be used to derive neurons for fundamental studies of the phenotype conferred by the mutation, and for translational studies such as screening drugs for efficacy in correcting the disease phenotype.85,86 A pioneering study involved the derivation of iPS cells, and subsequently of motor neurons, from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.87 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The development of the technology for derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human patients and animal models has opened up new pathways to the better understanding of many human diseases, and has created new opportunities for therapeutic approaches. Here, we consider one important neurological disease, Parkinson's, the development of relevant neural cell lines for studying this disease, and the animal models that are available for testing the survival and function of the cells, following transplantation into the central nervous system. Rapid progress has been made recently in the application of protocols for neuroectoderm differentiation and neural patterning of pluripotent stem cells. These developments have resulted in the ability to produce large numbers of dopaminergic neurons with midbrain characteristics for further study. These cells have been shown to be functional in both rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of Parkinson's disease. Patient-specific iPS cells and derived dopaminergic neurons have been developed, in particular from patients with genetic causes of Parkinson's disease. For complete modeling of the disease, it is proposed that the introduction of genetic changes into NHP iPS cells, followed by studying the phenotype of the genetic change in cells transplanted into the NHP as host animal, will yield new insights into disease processes not possible with rodent models alone.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
"Human iPSCs offer an advantage over hESCs in enabling study of patient specific lines including disease-causing mutations from routine manipulation of readily available patient material [81,116]. The promise of stem cells as tools for understanding the mechanisms of neurological disease has been realized more so than their promise for neurological repair. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating neurodegenerative disorder of the brain and spinal cord that causes significant disability in young adults. Although the precise aetiopathogenesis of MS remains unresolved, its pathological hallmarks include inflammation, demyelination, axonal injury (acute and chronic), astrogliosis and variable remyelination. Despite major recent advances in therapeutics for the early stage of the disease there are currently no disease modifying treatments for the progressive stage of disease, whose pathological substrate is axonal degeneration. This represents the great and unmet clinical need in MS. Against this background, human stem cells offer promise both to improve understanding of disease mechanism(s) through in-vitro modeling as well as potentially direct use to supplement and promote remyelination, an endogenous reparative process where entire myelin sheaths are restored to demyelinated axons. Conceptually, stem cells can act directly to myelinate axons or indirectly through different mechanisms to promote endogenous repair; importantly these two mechanisms of action are not mutually exclusive. We propose that discovery of novel methods to invoke or enhance remyelination in MS may be the most effective therapeutic strategy to limit axonal damage and instigate restoration of structure and function in this debilitating condition. Human stem cell derived neurons and glia, including patient specific cells derived through reprogramming, provide an unprecedented experimental system to model MS “in a dish” as well as enable high-throughput drug discovery. Finally, we speculate upon the potential role for stem cell based therapies in MS.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
"More strikingly, numerous candidate drugs with promise in animal model screening have failed when translated to human clinical trials. The failure of translation to the clinic centers on the complexity of the human brain and the difficulty to model disease specific phenotypes in nonhuman systems . This situation indicates that an advancement towards more human relevant models is definitely needed to accurately study neurogenetic disorders. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Remarkable advances in cellular reprogramming have made it possible to generate pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells, such as fibroblasts obtained from human skin biopsies. As a result, human diseases can now be investigated in relevant cell populations derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of patients. The rapid growth of iPSC technology has turned these cells into multipurpose basic and clinical research tools. In this paper, we highlight the roles of iPSC technology that are helping us to understand and potentially treat neurological diseases. Recent studies using iPSCs to model various neurogenetic disorders are summarized, and we discuss the therapeutic implications of iPSCs, including drug screening and cell therapy for neurogenetic disorders. Although iPSCs have been used in animal models with promising results to treat neurogenetic disorders, there are still many issues associated with reprogramming that must be addressed before iPSC technology can be fully exploited with translation to the clinic.