Article

The association between commuter cycling and sickness absence

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Abstract

To study the association between commuter cycling and all-cause sickness absence, and the possible dose-response relationship between absenteeism and the distance, frequency and speed of commuter cycling. Cross-sectional data about cycling in 1236 Dutch employees were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Company absenteeism records were checked over a one-year period (May 2007-April 2008). Propensity scores were used to make groups comparable and to adjust for confounders. Zero-inflated Poisson models were used to assess differences in absenteeism between cyclists and non-cyclists. The mean total duration of absenteeism over the study year was more than 1 day shorter in cyclists than in non-cyclists. This can be explained by the higher proportion of people with no absenteeism in the cycling group. A dose-response relationship was observed between the speed and distance of cycling and absenteeism. Compared to people who cycle a short distance (<or=5 km) three times a week, people who cycle more often and longer distances are absent for fewer days on average. Cycling to work is associated with less sickness absence. The more often people cycle to work and the longer the distance travelled, the less they report sick.

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... Research on the associations between active travel and health has focused on physical health outcomes (Amlani and Munir, 2010) including major diseases and mortality (Jarrett et al., 2012;Laverty et al., 2013) and overall well-being (Martin et al., 2014). Specifically, cycling as a means of active travel is associated with reduced absence at work due to any form of sickness (Hendriksen et al., 2010). The more often people cycle to work and the longer the distance traveled, the lower the absenteeism. ...
... The more often people cycle to work and the longer the distance traveled, the lower the absenteeism. In other words, cycling to work not only contributes to employee health, it may also result in a financial benefit for the employer (Hendriksen et al., 2010). ...
... Employees who changed their behavior and undertook an active commute reported more positive affect and more productive organizational behavior compared with employees who continued with a passive commute, and this was attributable to their behavior change from a passive to active travel mode (as indicated by the pre-and midintervention comparisons). Indeed, these results, which concur with previous research that compares active travel using a conventional bike with car travel (Hendriksen et al., 2010;Martin et al., 2014;Mytton et al., 2016;Petrunoff et al., 2016a,b), suggest that there are multiple co-benefits of an active commute beyond those associated with improved physical health and carbon reduction. Further, these findings concur with previous researchers who have explored the impact of workplace health programs (e.g., Jarman et al., 2015) but additionally, they suggest that encouraging active commuting is a viable way to get employees to be more physically active with associated benefits for employees and their employing organization. ...
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Objective: This paper describes a behavior change intervention that encourages active commuting using electrically assisted bikes (e-bikes) for health promotion in the workplace. This paper presents the preliminary findings of the intervention’s impact on improving employee well-being and organizational behavior, as an indicator of potential business success. Method: Employees of a UK-based organization participated in a workplace travel behavior change intervention and used e-bikes as an active commuting mode; this was a change to their usual passive commuting behavior. The purpose of the intervention was to develop employee well-being and organizational behavior for improved business success. We explored the personal benefits and organizational co-benefits of active commuting and compared these to a travel-as-usual group of employees who did not change their behavior and continued taking non-active commutes. Results: Employees who changed their behavior to active commuting reported more positive affect, better physical health and more productive organizational behavior outcomes compared with passive commuters. In addition, there was an interactive effect of commuting mode and commuting distance: a more frequent active commute was positively associated with more productive organizational behavior and stronger overall positive employee well-being whereas a longer passive commute was associated with poorer well-being, although there was no impact on organizational behavior. Conclusion: This research provides emerging evidence of the value of an innovative workplace health promotion initiative focused on active commuting in protecting and improving employee well-being and organizational behavior for stronger business performance. It considers the significant opportunities for organizations pursuing improved workforce well-being, both in terms of employee health, and for improved organizational behavior and business success.
... It also decreases the risk of coronary heart disease and improves health-related quality of life for untrained healthy adults (de Geus et al. 2008). Moreover, cycling to work is associated with a reduction in absence at work due to sickness (Hendriksen et al. 2010). However, cycling on a conventional bicycle faces its own challenges, which include the topography of certain urban environments, roads that are not adapted for cyclists and increasing distances from living to working places. ...
... In a longitudinal study between 1991 and 2008, in which 17,985 adults were followed, significant associations were observed between overall psychological well-being and active travel as well as public transport when compared to car travel (Martin et al. 2014). In addition, cycling for transport on a conventional bicycle is associated with a reduced absence at work due to any form of sickness (Hendriksen et al. 2010). The more often people cycle to work and the longer the distance travelled, the lower the absenteeism. ...
... The more often people cycle to work and the longer the distance travelled, the lower the absenteeism. In other words, cycling to work not only contributes to employee health; it may also result in a financial benefit for the employer (Hendriksen et al. 2010). ...
... Research on the associations between active travel and health has focused on major diseases and mortality (Jarrett et al., 2012;Laverty et al., 2013;Saunders et al., 2013). In contrast relatively little work has explored the associations between active travel and other measures such as sickness absence (Hendriksen et al., 2010) and wellbeing, (Gómez et al., 2013;Humphreys et al., 2013;Martin et al., 2014;Mutrie, 2002) despite the existence of positive associations between overall physical activity and these outcomes (Amlani and Munir, 2014;Bize et al., 2007;Ferrie et al., 2005;Hendriksen et al., 2010;Laaksonen et al., 2009;Lahti et al., 2012;Proper et al., 2006). ...
... Research on the associations between active travel and health has focused on major diseases and mortality (Jarrett et al., 2012;Laverty et al., 2013;Saunders et al., 2013). In contrast relatively little work has explored the associations between active travel and other measures such as sickness absence (Hendriksen et al., 2010) and wellbeing, (Gómez et al., 2013;Humphreys et al., 2013;Martin et al., 2014;Mutrie, 2002) despite the existence of positive associations between overall physical activity and these outcomes (Amlani and Munir, 2014;Bize et al., 2007;Ferrie et al., 2005;Hendriksen et al., 2010;Laaksonen et al., 2009;Lahti et al., 2012;Proper et al., 2006). ...
... Research in this area has also frequently been limited to crosssectional studies (Gómez et al., 2013;Hendriksen et al., 2010;Humphreys et al., 2013) which provide a weak basis for inferring causation. Some studies present conflicting findings, particularly concerning the association between active travel and mental well-being (Gómez et al., 2013;Humphreys et al., 2013;Martin et al., 2014;Mutrie, 2002). ...
Article
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Objective: Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. Method: We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n=801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10 to 2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. Conclusions: This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees.
... Based on the previous assertion, a survey of 1236 workers (age = 43 ± 9.8 years) found that there was a significant difference (p = 0.03) in the mean number of days of separation between cyclists (7.4 days) and non-cyclists (8.7 days). This result therefore not only contributes to employee health, but reducing absenteeism can also result in a financial benefit to the employer (9) . ...
... Hendrisken et al. (9) , in a study of 1236 workers aged 40 to 50 years, showed that cycling workers had a lower frequency of work leave when compared to those who did not practice cycling, revealing a mean duration of days of cyclists (7.4 days) and non-cyclists (8.7 days). Another important information is that it does not only contribute to employee health but to reduce absenteeism resulting in financial benefit to the employer. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Although Brazil has complete legislation that establishes guidelines and recommendations for companies regarding Occupational Health and Safety, according to data from the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, indices of absenteeism and absences from work functions increase with each year. Objective: To identify the association of the level of physical activity on absenteeism by diseases in workers, through a systematic review. Methods: Four databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline via Pubmed and Cochrane Library) were consulted from November 10 to 23, 2017. Results: The selection process of the articles were included after screening 25 articles: (08) articles did not mention workers, only school children, (05) articles were systematically reviewed, and (12) articles had randomized clinical trials. The systematic relationship included a bias analysis, data extraction and important discussions of the characteristics of the articles selected so that we had breadth of knowledge produced in this theme. Conclusion: We evidenced the need for more research in the area of physical activity and less number of absenteeism due to diseases in workers.
... Using the cross-sectional data from London, Liepmann [16] found that there was no evidence supporting the commute-absence effect, while Kluger [17] revealed that there was a positive relationship between the commuting and absence in terms of the passive commuting. Hendriksen, Simons, Garre and Hildebrandt [18] further pointed out that the commuting had a negative effect on being absent among employees who cycled to work. An elaborate study conducted by Van and Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau [3] suggested that a longer commuting might increase the likelihood of illness-related absence, but Künn-Nelen [13] did not draw the same conclusion by applying British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) data. ...
... Besides, there are some studies demonstrating that health effects of the commuting might be heterogeneous across transportation modes [13,18], which may have an important impact on sickness absence. In Model (10), the variables of the modes of transportation were added to control its possible impact on the results. ...
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Background: Most of employees in urban China have experienced a heavy commuting burden ,which has become an urgent issue that should be solved in the process of promoting the new urbanization strategy. However, not only has the exploration of relationship between commuting and sickness absence been still scant in China, but also there is no discussion made to analyze the mechanism linking the commuting time and sickness absence. To address these gaps, this study firstly investigates the commuting-absence effect as well as the potential transmission channel between them. Methods: Using a unique dataset of 2013 Matched Employer-Employee Survey (CMEES) in China, we apply the zero-inflated negative binomial model to explore the nexus between the commuting and sickness absence. To discuss the potential mechanism linking commuting and sickness absence in the context of China, the estimations of the impact of the commuting on health-related outcomes and work efforts are performed to confirm transmission channels of commute-absence effect by the OLS and Logit regression model. Results: The empirical results reveal that a longer commute has a positive effect on sickness absences, while it is still robust against several specifications. More importantly, the commuting-absence effect is mainly transmitted through health-related outcomes of employees, whereas we cannot find evidence that the effect is transmitted through shirking behavior s. Additionally, the heterogeneous effects of commuting-absence are differentiated across Hukou status, gender, pattern of commuter travel, scale of cities and types of enterprises . Conclusion: The long commute induces to lower productivities through the sickness absence, that is, the longer journey from home to work is positively related with the increasing sickness absence, which keeps in consistency with previous studies. And the potential effect of commute-sickness absence is mainly transmitted through their health-related outcomes.
... Based on the previous assertion, a survey of 1236 workers (age = 43 ± 9.8 years) found that there was a significant difference (p = 0.03) in the mean number of days of separation between cyclists (7.4 days) and non-cyclists (8.7 days). This result therefore not only contributes to employee health, but reducing absenteeism can also result in a financial benefit to the employer (9) . ...
... Hendrisken et al. (9) , in a study of 1236 workers aged 40 to 50 years, showed that cycling workers had a lower frequency of work leave when compared to those who did not practice cycling, revealing a mean duration of days of cyclists (7.4 days) and non-cyclists (8.7 days). Another important information is that it does not only contribute to employee health but to reduce absenteeism resulting in financial benefit to the employer. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Although Brazil has complete legislation that establishes guidelines and recommendations for companies regarding Occupational Health and Safety, according to data from the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, indices of absenteeism and absences from work functions increase with each year. Objective: To identify the association of the level of physical activity on absenteeism by diseases in workers, through a systematic review. Methods: Four databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline via Pubmed and Cochrane Library) were consulted from November 10 to 23, 2017. Results: The selection process of the articles were included after screening 25 articles: (08) articles did not mention workers, only school children, (05) articles were systematically reviewed, and (12) articles had randomized clinical trials. The systematic relationship included a bias analysis, data extraction and important discussions of the characteristics of the articles selected so that we had breadth of knowledge produced in this theme. Conclusion: We evidenced the need for more research in the area of physical activity and less number of absenteeism due to diseases in workers.
... STADLER et al. 2000;STUTZER u. FREY 2008;HENDRIKSEN et al. 2010;FLINT et al. 2014). Dabei verglichen die Forscher meist ÖPNV, MIV und ein oder zwei aktive Verkehrsmittel hinsichtlich verschiede- ner Kriterien wie Stress, Wohlbefinden, BMI, Körperfettanteil oder Krank- heitstage miteinander. ...
... Die Gesundheit ist ein gesellschaftliches Konstrukt, welches in der vorliegen- den Arbeit durch Krankheitstage, den Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und das Well- Being Berufstätiger operationalisiert wird (vgl. HENDRIKSEN et al. 2010;FLINT et al. 2014;ST-LOUIS et al. 2014). Es liegt nach Kenntnissen der Autorin keine andere Arbeit vor, in welcher der Einfluss der Wahl des Verkehrsmittels auf diese drei Gesundheitsindikatoren gemeinsam untersucht wird. ...
Book
Juliane Kemen stellt den internationalen Forschungsstand zur Schnittstelle berufsbedingter Mobilität und der Arbeitnehmergesundheit vor. Darauf aufbauend entwickelte sie eine Studie, im Rahmen derer sie 2.351 Arbeitnehmer in Deutschland zur Verkehrsmittelnutzung auf dem Arbeitsweg und mehreren Gesundheitsindikatoren befragte. Die Autorin stellte Zusammenhänge zwischen der Verkehrsmittelnutzung und Krankheitstagen, BMI und dem Wohlbefinden fest. Ein Großteil der berufstätigen Bevölkerung legt zweimal täglich einen Arbeitsweg zurück und hat durch die Verkehrsmittelwahl einen großen Einfluss auf das Stadtbild, die Umwelt und die eigene Gesundheit. Daher sind die entwickelten Handlungsempfehlungen auch für viele Unternehmen oder politisch Tätige interessant. Der Inhalt • Theoretischer Hintergrund, Verkehr in Deutschland • Die Schnittstelle von Mobilität und Gesundheit • Ergebnisse, Diskussion der Krankheitstage, des Body-Mass-Indexes und des Well-Being • Handlungsempfehlungen Die Zielgruppen • Dozierende und Studierende der Geographie, des Gesundheitsmanagements, der Verkehrs- und Umweltwissenschaften sowie der Mobilitätsforschung • Praktiker im betrieblichen Gesundheits-, Mobilitäts- und Personalmanagement Die Autorin Juliane Kemen ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin in der AG Mobilitätsforschung der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main.
... We calculated that 575 individuals were required to achieve 80% power to detect a difference of 0.5 days of sickness absence (SD 3.03) during the 90 days period, based on previous data. [16] The significance level (alpha) of the test was set at P<0.05. Accounting for a 20% lost to follow-up, we set target enrolment at 720 individuals for each intervention group and the control group. ...
... Cycling to work was therefore associated with less sickness absence. [16] The more often people cycled to work and the longer the distance travelled, the less they reported sick. This is consistent with the findings of Nieman et al. who have shown in several studies that there is an inverse relationship between physical activity or fitness level and the rates of upper respiratory tract infection. ...
Article
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of a routine (hot-to-) cold shower on sickness, quality of life and work productivity. Methods: Between January and March 2015, 3018 participants between 18 and 65 years without severe comorbidity and no routine experience of cold showering were randomized (1:1:1:1) to a (hot-to-) cold shower for 30, 60, 90 seconds or a control group during 30 consecutive days followed by 60 days of showering cold at their own discretion for the intervention groups. The primary outcome was illness days and related sickness absence from work. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, work productivity, anxiety, thermal sensation and adverse reactions. Results: 79% of participants in the interventions groups completed the 30 consecutive days protocol. A negative binomial regression model showed a 29% reduction in sickness absence for (hot-to-) cold shower regimen compared to the control group (incident rate ratio: 0.71, P = 0.003). For illness days there was no significant group effect. No related serious advents events were reported. Conclusion: A routine (hot-to-) cold shower resulted in a statistical reduction of self-reported sickness absence but not illness days in adults without severe comorbidity. Trial registration: Netherlands National Trial Register NTR5183.
... Die Gesundheit ist ein gesellschaftliches Konstrukt, welches in der vorliegenden Arbeit durch Krankheitstage, den Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und das WellBeing Berufstätiger operationalisiert wird (vgl. HENDRIKSEN et al. 2010;FLINT et al. 2014;ST-LOUIS et al. 2014). Es liegt nach Kenntnissen der Autorin keine andere Arbeit vor, in welcher der Einfluss der Wahl des Verkehrsmittels auf diese drei Gesundheitsindikatoren gemeinsam untersucht wird. ...
... ).Für die abhängigen Variablen Krankheitstage, Well-Being und BMI wurden jeweils Regressionsmodelle angepasst. Andere Variablen, die einen signifi- kanten (p < 0,1) Einfluss auf die abhängigen Variablen hatten, wurden als un- abhängige Variablen in die Modelle aufgenommen(HENDRIKSEN et al. 2010).Wenn eine oder mehrere Voraussetzungen der linearen Regression verletzt sind, kann man das klassische lineare Modell durch ein generalisiertes lineares Modell ersetzen (in SPSS über Analysieren -Verallgemeinerte lineare Mo- delle). Bei einem linearen Modell erlauben R 2 bzw. ...
Chapter
Im folgenden Kapitel werden der theoretische Hintergrung sowie der Forschungsstand dargestellt.
... Sabe-se que trabalhadores que frequentemente participam de atividades físicas vigorosas, como esportes competitivos, têm menos probabilidade de ficar longe do trabalho devido à falta de saúde do que outros funcionários. Aqueles que utilizam a bicicleta como meio de transporte também tiram menos licenças médicas em comparação com aqueles trabalhadores que utilizam meios de transporte motorizado, e esse efeito é particularmente acentuado entre as pessoas que pedalam distâncias relativamente longas (mais de 5 km) mais de 3 dias por semana (HENDRIKSEN et al., 2010). Se o ciclismo e a caminhada aumentassem em quantidades modestas no Reino Unido (em média, 3 e 1 km extras por dia, respectivamente), estimava-se que o Serviço Nacional de Saúde economizaria cerca de 17 bilhões em 20 anos, principalmente através da redução de o número de pessoas com diabetes tipo 2 (JARRETT et al., 2012). ...
... For example, Rojas-Rueda et al. (2011) andde Hartog et al. (2010) found that the health gains from a higher level of cycling far outweigh potential negative impacts such as the increased exposure to local air pollutants. Hendrikson et al. (2010) found that commuters who cycled to and from their places of work had one day less of absenteeism than non-cyclists. Mulley et al. (2013) estimates health economic savings at $1.12 (Australian Dollars) per km of cycling. ...
Preprint
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A change in the network of public facilities that require personal presence like schools is likely to affect travel choices, in particular route and mode choice. Traveling to school is not only a major contributor to public transport demand at peak periods, but is in many instances also the trip purpose where young people are engaged in bicycling. However, in contrast to public transport, an active travel mode like cycling needs own physical activity as input into the 'production' of a trip. The objective of this paper is to improve our understanding of the substitution between cycling and public transport in school travel focusing on a highly underrated determinant in the literature-the personal energy input of students in terms of kcal when traveling by bike. It is shown that a local government aiming at maximizing social welfare when making decisions on the density of public school facilities would be well advised to take this cross effect into account. We then use a large unique dataset of travel to school mode choice in the city of Dresden (Germany) which we have additionally linked with geodata in order to capture energy intensities of all bike related school trips within the dataset. We estimate nested logit models and derive the cross elasticity of public transport demand with respect to the physical energy intensity of cycling. Results suggest that higher energy intensity of bicycling may cause a significant mode shift towards public transport. Elasticities are found to be sensitive to distance from home to school and to a student's grade.
... This physical activity brings potential benefits such as lower odds of being overweight or obese (Wen and Rissel, 2008), higher levels of cardiovascular fitness ( Larouche et al., 2016), decreased risk of type 2 diabetes ( Rasmussen et al., 2016) and breast and colon cancer (Celis-Morales et al., 2017) and an overall reduction in cardiovascular risk (Hamer and Chida, 2008). Cycling for transportation is also associated with less sickness https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2018.09.005 absence ( Hendriksen et al., 2010;Mytton et al., 2016). Associations between cycling for transportation and physical and mental wellbeing are less clear. ...
Article
This study examines which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with cycling in the Brussels Capital Region (BCR) and whether these associations differ between those who never cycle for transport purposes (Non-cyclists) and those who used the bicycle at least once a week in the previous 6 months (Cyclists). Adults (18–65 year; N=503; 47% women) living and/or working in the BCR completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, general transport, psychosocial and environmental variables. Psychosocial factors were significantly different (p < 0.001) between Cyclists and Non-cyclists, with Cyclists having a higher score for Modelling, Social support and perceiving more Benefits. The physical environmental factors were not significantly different between the Cyclists and Non-cyclists. Cyclists indicate more often that cycling is unpleasant because of the exhaust fumes and pressure from motorized traffic. The likelihood of a woman being a Cyclist is 1.61 times smaller compared to a man being a Cyclist. The influence of individual and social factors seems to be more predictive in distinguishing between Cyclists and Non-cyclists.
... A further 27 involved the encouragement of employees to cycle to and from work, echoing the emphasis on cycling throughout the study. The encouragement of cycling is unlikely to be truly altruistic; there is a concerted government campaign to encourage employers to promote cycling as an option for employees (BusinessCycle, n.d.; Department for Transport, 2009), while many studies have demonstrated the benefits to employers of having a workforce that cycles to work, not least in reducing absenteeism (Hendriksen et al., 2010). The final sub-stream in "Personnel engagement" features employees being involved in sports organisations or events. ...
Article
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Purpose – Under growing public scrutiny of their behaviour, the vast majority of multinational enterprises (MNEs) have been undertaking significant investments through corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to close legitimacy gaps. The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the nature and scope of MNEs’ CSR programmes that have sport at their core. More specifically, the present study addresses the following questions. First, how do Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSE) 100 firms utilise sport as part of their CSR agendas? Second, how do different industries have different approaches to CSR through sport? And third, can the types of CSR through sport be classified? Design/methodology/approach – Centred on legitimacy theory and exploratory in nature, the study employed a content analysis method, and examined three types of document from each of the FTSE100 firms, namely, annual reports, annual reviews and CSR reports over the ten-year period from 2003 to 2012. In total, 1,473 documents were content analysed, thereby offering a sound representation of CSR disclosure of the FTSE100. Findings – From the analysis, three main streams emerged: “Philanthropy”, “Sponsorships” and “Personnel engagement” with the first showing the smallest growth compared with the other main streams. Findings show the general rise in CSR through sport, thereby demonstrating that the corporate world has practically acknowledged that the sporting context is a powerful vehicle for the employment of CSR. Originality/value – Previous empirical studies have sought to investigate CSR through sport, yet they have generally suffered from sampling limitations which have, in turn, rendered the drawing of reliable conclusions problematic. Particularly, the lack of an explicit focus on longitudinality is a typical limitation, meaning that no conclusions can be made regarding the trend. The study outlined in this paper offers the most comprehensive longitudinal study of CSR through sport to date, and thus contributes to the increasing volume of literature that examines the application of CSR in relation to the sport sector.
... Physical activity related to bicycle use contributes to preventing numerous serious chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteopathy and some forms of cancer. Moreover, a recent British study showed that bicycle commuters from home to work have a lower mortality risk from heart disease (−52%) and cancer (−40%) [16]. At the same time, active mobility reduces absenteeism from work by increasing the average productivity of employees who cycle to work regularly by 1.3 fewer sick-day absences per year. ...
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This paper aims to describe the design strategy adopted in Rome to support and enhance sustainable mobility. It is a strategy aimed at promoting new green infrastructures for urban accessibility, daily sports practice and social inclusion in a historic city, stratified and not very inclined to change. Therefore, the dissemination of this experience is useful for planning a sustainable future for heritage cities that ensures an appropriate and equitable balance between conservation and development. Sustainable mobility is now considered one of the most important challenges for metropolitan areas and large conurbations. In these terms, Rome is a weak city. The city’s great bicycle ring route (GRAB), an integral part of the Extraordinary Tourism Mobility Plan 2017–22, is a key infrastructure for increasing more sustainable and healthier modes of travel, even on a local scale. The GRAB project, whose complex infrastructure provides multiple services, differs from a simple cycle path network. Its complexity refers to an ability to attract different types of users in different types of urban contexts—historical settings, monuments, newer neighborhoods and areas of contemporary urbanization. The project results can be measured first in relation to its progress (already funded, in the executive planning phase, with the approval of the first construction sites expected by 2022). A second important result is the participation of institutional bodies and citizens’ associations, which will oversee the construction and maintenance work as well as infuse into the project a constant vitality, in a true civic ecology perspective. Third, the results are important for enhancing metropolitan area accessibility and the environmental and social re-activation of the areas crossed, achieved directly and through the project’s realization. The GRAB strategy belongs to the new generation of landscape projects that have radically changed the priorities and hierarchies of intervention in the contexts of contemporary urbanization. These projects are based on the ecological analysis of the context but are located close to the fluctuating dynamics of contemporary metropolises and the problems of exclusion and marginality—both spatial and social—linked to the very rapid ecological, economic and demographic transformations.
... In order to reduce the effect of these confounding variables on the analyses, propensity score matching (PSM) [124] was used to make the groups comparable. PSM is recommended to reduce bias in natural experiments [125], and it has been used in public health research investigations of outdoor physical exercise [126][127][128]. For both samples, propensity scores were estimated by using logistic regression, with group walk participation as the outcome variable; predictors included variables known to affect both participation in a nature-based walking program, and the mental health indicators (i.e., age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, area deprivation, education, health condition, existing medical conditions, disability, past physical activity, and past stressful life events) [129][130][131]. ...
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Nature-based activities have been used as therapeutic interventions for those experiencing stress and mental ill health. This study investigates whether group walks could be a nature-based intervention to foster resilience, by buffering the effects of recent stressful life events on mental health. An observational research design with propensity score-matched samples compared the mental health of individuals who did (Nature Group Walkers, n = 1081) or did not (Non-Group Walkers, n = 435) attend nature group walks. A sub-sample of Frequent Nature Group Walkers (at least once per week, n = 631) was also investigated. Data were analyzed using multiple regression with an interaction term. All analyses were controlled for age, gender, and recent physical activity. Results showed that neither nature group walking, nor doing this frequently, moderated the effects of stressful life events on mental health. Using a main effects model, the positive associations of group walks in nature were at a greater magnitude than the negative associations of stressful life events on depression, positive affect, and mental well-being, suggesting an 'undoing' effect of nature group walks. Group walking schemes in natural environments may be an important public health promotion intervention for mental health.
... Cyclists benefit from the fact that cycling is a healthy, affordable and reliable form of transport, which in urban areas is often also faster than alternative transport modes. At the societal level, cycling contributes to a sustainable environment, due to the absence of CO2, particle and noise emissions, and to public health by reducing morbidity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases (De Hartog et al., 2010;Hamer and Chida, 2008;Hendriksen et al., 2010;Oja et al., 2011). Moreover, cycling infrastructure is typically cheaper and subject to lower space requirements than the infrastructure required by competing transport modes (Heinen et al., 2010). ...
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This paper investigates the determinants of cycling in a rather unique setting: the relocation of one of the largest Austrian universities from the North to the East of Vienna (a distance of approximately 5 km). We analyze the students’ cycling behavior before and after the university relocation based on a large-scale (retrospective) online survey. Unlike earlier studies on cycling determinants, which often suffer from endogeneity, we can exploit the fact that the university relocation causes commute-related variables to change exogenously, whereas socio-economic and attitudinal characteristics as well as the trip purpose remain constant. We find a large positive correlation in the propensity to cycle to the old and the new university location at the person level as well as substantial heterogeneity in cycling inclination across students, which can only partially be explained by socio-economic and attitudinal variables. Moreover, we find evidence that past cycling times form a reference point for future mode choice decisions.
... Public bikesharing has been widely recognized as a healthy and environmentally friendly transportation mode, which is intensively investigated almost all over the world [1][2][3][4][5][6]. ...
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Public bikesharing is an environmentally friendly transportation mode that can remedy the urban “last mile” problem to some extents. Prior studies have investigated many predictors of the public bikesharing usage. For example, researchers find that gender, age, and physical conditions are significantly related to the public bikesharing usage. However, few studies have tested the characteristics of each ride and no integrative theoretical framework has been provided to explain these findings. In the current study, based on the conservation of resource theory, we suggest that the reason why these factors can predict public bikesharing usage is people’s inner needs of resource conservation. Based on this theoretical framework, we propose that: first, gender, age, and season will have direct impacts on public bikesharing usage (i.e., distance and user type); second, gender, age, and season will interactively predict public bikesharing usage as well. A relatively large sample with 1,383,773 rides in 2018 from New York City is used to test our hypotheses. The results indicate that old females indeed use public bicycle less intensively in the winter than young males do in other seasons and thus support the three-way interaction effect. Implications for the emerging public transport systems and limitations of this study are also discussed.
... Results on the relationship between commuting and self-reported measures of physical health have not produced clear results. Lower frequency of sickness absence has been observed amongst employees in the Netherlands who cycled to work, particularly those cycling longer distances (Hendriksen, Simons, Garre, & Hildebrandt, 2010). A study of commuting in Cambridge (UK) found more time spent in active commuting associated with better physical wellbeing (Humphreys, Goodman, & Ogilvie, 2013), but changes over time in active commuting not associated with changes in physical wellbeing (Mytton, Panter, & Ogilvie, 2016). ...
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This review provides a critical overview of what has been learnt about commuting’s impact on subjective wellbeing (SWB). It is structured around a conceptual model which assumes commuting can affect SWB over three time horizons: (i) during the journey; (ii) immediately after the journey; and (iii) over the longer term. Our assessment of the evidence shows that mood is lower during the commute than other daily activities and stress can be induced by congestion, crowding and unpredictability. People who walk or cycle to work are generally more satisfied with their commute than those who travel by car and especially those who use public transport. Satisfaction decreases with duration of commute, regardless of mode used, and increases when travelling with company. After the journey, evidence shows that the commute experience ‘spills over’ into how people feel and perform at work and home. However, a consistent link between commuting and life satisfaction overall has not been established. The evidence suggests that commuters are generally successful in trading off the drawbacks of longer and more arduous commute journeys against the benefits they bring in relation to overall life satisfaction, but further research is required to understand the decision making involved. The evidence review points to six areas that warrant policy action and research: (i) enhancing the commute experience; (ii) increasing commute satisfaction; (iii) reducing the impacts of long duration commutes; (iv) meeting commuter preferences; (v) recognising flexibility and constraints in commuting routines and (vi) accounting for SWB impacts of commuting in policy making and appraisal.
... Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey reveal that physically inactive individuals have been shown to place a larger burden on the healthcare system spending on average 38% more time in the hospital (Sari, 2009). Also, a study of Dutch workers found that those who commuted by bicycle were significantly less likely to miss work due to sickness (Hendriksen et al., 2010). Another study found that connected street networks, which have been shown to increase walking and bicycling, are correlated with reduced rates of obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes ( Marshall et al., 2014). ...
Article
Active transportation has received attention for its environmental and health benefits. In this paper we use individual-level survey data from NHANES III to investigate the extent to which the number of minutes of bicycling and walking for transportation are associated with 10 health outcomes. We use instrumental variables to address the endogeneity caused by the complex relationship between exercise and health. We find mixed results indicating that active transportation is associated with improvements in some health outcomes such as weight and cholesterol, but not others such as systolic blood pressure and glycohemoglobin.
... Eine deutsche Studie in mehreren Unternehmen aus dem Jahr 2000 ergab, dass das Wohlbefinden vor Fahrtbeginn umso niedriger war, je länger der zu bewältigende Arbeitsweg dauerte (Stadler et al. 2000). Der Einfluss des Arbeitsweges auf weitere Gesundheitsparameter, wie Krankheitstage (Hendriksen et al. 2010) und Übergewicht (Wen et al. 2008), konnte in den folgenden Jahren belegt werden. Die positive Wirkung der aktiven Verkehrsmittel wird dabei hauptsächlich der zusätzlichen körperlichen Aktivität zugeschrieben. ...
Article
Nachrichten der ARL 1/2019 https://shop.arl-net.de/nachrichten-arl-1-2019.html
... Using a bicycle for commuting has been linked with a reduced number of sick days. The reduction is even larger for commuters that commute more frequently and for larger distances [31]. Commuting by bicycle has also been linked with increased work productivity [32]. ...
... Cycling is seen as a sustainable way of traveling and as a factor contributing to a more active and healthy lifestyle (Hendriksen et al. 2010, Humphreys et al. 2013, Martin et al. 2014, Mytton et al. 2016, Schneider 2016. In Germany, politicians aim to promote cycling in various contexts and have installed measures to do so. ...
... Commuter cycling has also been shown to have positive effects on job-related and welfare issues; as a relevant precedent, Oja et al. (1998) stated that physically active commuting may have a considerable potential as a health-enhancing element for the working-age population. Furthermore, Hendriksen et al. (2010) found that individuals using bicycles as a means of transport for daily commuting present a lower rate of sickness leaves than those using other modes of transport (typically cars and public service vehicles). Also, the longer and more regular the distance commonly traveled by bike, the fewer the days of absenteeism reported during a period of one year, also related to the fact that a constant and prolonged physical activity in everyday life is a relevant contributor for the reduction of cardiovascular mortality (Shephard, 2008). ...
Article
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Introduction As part of the transformation of urban transportation dynamics, commuter cycling has acquired a high relevance as an alternative mode of transport in different countries, and Latin America seems to be one of the main focus of this worldwide “revolution”. However, the high rates of crashes and injuries suffered by commuters have become a relevant issue in the field of road safety, especially in emerging regions with low cycling tradition, where social and infrastructural gaps may endanger the cyclists’ safety. Objectives This study had two objectives. First, to compare key safe cycling-related variables between cycling commuters and non-commuters; and second, to differentially asses the effect of individual and cycling-related variables on their self-reported crash rates. Method: For this cross-sectional research, the data provided by 577 Latin American urban cyclists from three countries (Argentina, Colombia and Mexico) with a mean age of 32.7 years was used. They answered a questionnaire on cycling habits, risk perception, rule knowledge, cycling behaviors and riding crashes. Results The outcomes of this study showed that, despite having a higher risk perception, cycling commuters perform deliberate risky cycling behaviors (traffic violations) more frequently, and they suffer more crashes; cycling commuters report higher rates of psychological distress, and a lower degree of rule knowledge and protective behaviors than non-commuters. Furthermore, structural similarities and differences in the explanation of cycling crashes were found across commuters and non-commuters. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that non-commuters, whose purposes for cycling are more aimed at leisure and occasional trips, perform less risky behaviors but suffer more cycling distractions, whereas commuters are comparatively more exposed to behavioral-based safety risks, and suffer more frequent crashes. Since recent evidence forecasts that urban cycling will keep growing in Latin American cities, it is necessary to implement policies and educational/training improvements that may enhance the safety and health of cyclists in these countries.
... Active commuting has been found to increase the levels of physical and mental wellbeing (Bize et al., 2007;Humphreys et al., 2013;Martin et al., 2014;Petrunoff et al., 2016), including reduction of cardiovascular risks (Celis-Morales et al., 2017;Hamer and Chida, 2008;Xu et al., 2013), body weight (Faulkner et al., 2009;Xu et al., 2013), perceived stress (Avila-Palencia et al., 2017), and risk of diabetes (Saunders et al., 2013). Furthermore, active commuting is associated with reduced sickness absence (Hendriksen et al., 2010;Mytton et al., 2016) and high self-reported wellbeing (Mytton et al., 2016). In agreement with these findings, bicycle commuting has been inversely associated with all-cause mortality (Andersen et al., 2000;Dinu et al., 2019) and seems to improve health-related quality of life in previously untrained healthy adults (de Geus et al., 2008). ...
Article
Introduction Company-bicycle leasing programs aim to promote employees' health via the advancement of cycling to work. To date, however, empirical evidence for the effects of participation in such programs is weak. This is also true for the German program. The present study aims to assess the relationship between the five perceived innovation characteristics proposed by the Diffusion of Innovations Theory and the company-leasing bicycle commuting behavior of German employees as well as their physical and mental wellbeing. Furthermore, the study aims to find out whether the innovation characteristics relate to changes in commuting behavior, and whether these changes have a positive effect on employees’ physical and mental wellbeing. Methods Perceived innovation characteristics, physical activity, and health levels of 462 employees from 62 companies were assessed in a two-wave longitudinal study. The second wave took place 40 days after the first wave. Path analyses were used for hypotheses testing. Results The results showed that compatibility (but not relative advantage, low complexity, trialability, and observability) measured in the first wave had a positive impact on cycling to work (in minutes cycled per day), which in turn increased physical and mental wellbeing (all three variables were self-reports that were measured in the second wave). There were no significant relationships using change scores for both the mediator and the health outcomes. Conclusions The findings indicate that the use of company leasing bicycles relates positively with physical and mental wellbeing. Compatibility is a significant determinant of active commuting, suggesting that company executives should endorse the perception that they share important values, lifestyles, and needs with employees. Changes in active commuting, however, did not increase health, most likely due to the short time scale under consideration. The findings help policy makers identify individual- and organization-level factors that relate to active commuting and health.
... For instance, cycling to work is associated with less sickness absence. The more often people cycle-commute, and the longer the distance traveled, J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f the less they report sick (Hendriksen et al., 2010). In the Netherlands (Fishman et al., 2015), people have a half-a-yearlonger life expectancy, and ~6500 deaths are prevented each year, because of cycling. ...
Article
A more sustainable post COVID-19 world requires urban transport policies aiming for resilience, social equity and decarbonisation. Instead of just focusing on the transport sector, the authors propose an integrated approach to housing and mobility. This approach acknowledges the challenges posed by inadequate housing and dependence on motorised transport during the COVID19 crisis. In contrast, adequate housing and cycling became paramount resources while confronting the pandemic. Using Santiago de Chile as a case study, this research examines how different relocation scenarios for its current housing deficit cannot only affect the ability to implement stay-at-home measures, but also the potential of cycling as a relevant commuting alternative. The current location of the families suffering this deficit is compared to three scenarios: compact, pericentral and extended. In light of the learnings from the COVID19 crisis, a housing-cycling policy becomes a tool for resilience; equity is achieved by enforcing the right to housing, by increasing job opportunities among the poor, and by reducing the dependence on expensive motorised transport; decarbonisation is achieved by promoting active transportation and reducing the dependence on motorisation.
... Actually, there is evidence that U.S. and Spanish students who cycled or walked to university had higher levels of physical activity than those students who used passive modes of commuting (Molina-Garcia et al., 2014; Sisson and Tudor-Locke, 2008). Active modes of commuting have been associated with several health benefits, such as healthy weight and improvements in risk factors for chronic diseases in youths and adults (Hendriksen et al., 2010; Oja et al., 2011Please cite this article as: Chillón, P, et al., What distance do university students walk and bike daily to class in Spain. Journal of Transport & Health (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2016.06.001i of AC to university in the Spanish population are quite low (35%) (Molina-Garcia et al., 2014) and further explorations of the determinants of AC among university students are required. ...
Article
Introduction: Physical activity levels are low in the general population and these levels decrease from childhood to adolescence, as well as from adolescence to adulthood. Active commuting (AC) is an opportunity to increase the physical activity levels. The distance between home and destinations is a main correlate of AC; however, the distance that university students walk or cycle to university is unknown. Methods: Participants self-reported their modes and time of commuting to and from university in a questionnaire, and the main mode of commuting was identified. Moreover, they reported their home address, and the Spanish version of Mapquest software was used to measure street-network distance (kilometers) from home to university. The 'threshold' distance for walking and cycling was calculated through the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Results: AC rates decreased with longer distances from home to university for walk (po 0.001) and bike (p¼ 0.002). The threshold distance that university students walked was 2.6 km and the threshold distance that they cycled was 5.1 km. Conclusion: Public health decisions at university should consider the distance that students actually walk and cycle. Locating university accommodation facilities within a walkable or cyclable distance from university might increase the AC rates among the university population.
... Während es für Bewegung im Allgemeinen gute Evidenz für weniger krankheitsbedingte Abwesenheiten gibt(Bhui et al. 2012), gibt es fürs zu Fuss Gehen und Velofahren nur vereinzelte Studien, beispielsweise aus Holland. Hier zeigt eine Untersuchung, dass regelmässige Velofahrerinnen und -fahrer im Durchschnitt einen Tag weniger pro Jahr krank sind als nicht velofahrende Kollegen(Hendriksen et al. 2010). Eine Schwierigkeit in der Interpretation solcher Ergebnisse besteht jedoch darin, dass es sich um eine Querschnittuntersuchung handelt, mit der es sich nicht klären lässt, ob das Velofahren selbst für die selteneren Abwesenheiten verantwortlich ist oder ob velofahrende Kolleginnen generell gesünder sind als nicht velofahrende. ...
... With the heterogeneous bias by the observed factors, the potential endogeneity might need to be commuting is related with better health status and less sickness absence [35][36][37]. The possible reason may be that cycling in China may induce to worse health-status, which is different from other developed countries. ...
Preprint
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Background Most of employees in urban China have experienced a heavy commuting burden,which has become an urgent issue that should be solved in the process of new urbanization strategy. However, not only has the exploration of relationship between the commuting and sickness absence been still scant in China, but also there is no discussion made to analyze the mechanism linking the commuting time and sickness absence. To address these gaps, this study firstly investigates the commuting-absence effect as well as the potential transmission channel between them. Methods Using a unique dataset of 2013 Matched Employer-Employee Survey (CMEES) in China, we apply the zero-inflated negative binomial model to explore the nexus between the commuting and sickness absence. To discuss the potential mechanism linking commuting and sickness absence in the context of China, the estimations of the commuting on health-related outcomes and work efforts are performed by the OLS and Logit regression to discuss the mechanism. Results The empirical results reveal that the commute has a positive effect on sickness absence, while it is still robust against several specifications. More importantly, the commuting-absence effect is mainly transmitted through health-related outcomes of employees, whereas we find no clear evidence supporting the shirking behaviors. Additionally, the heterogeneous effects of commuting-absence are differentiated across the Hukou status, gender, transportation modes, scale of cities and types of enterprises. Conclusion The longer commute induces to lower productivities through the sickness absence, that is, the longer journey from home to work is positively related with the increasing sickness absence, which keeps in consistency with previous studies. And the potential effect of commute-sickness absence is mainly transmitted through their health-related outcomes. Additionally, the impacts of commute time on sickness absence are differentiated across the Hukou status, gender, transportation modes, scale of cities and types of enterprise.
... Besides ensuring sustainability, active transport has been considered as a quintessential intervention in developing healthy city and in improving the quality of life (Pucher et al., 2010a, De Geus et al., 2008, Hart and Parkhurst, 2011. For example, Hendriksen et al. (2010) have practically gauged through a study of working people in Netherlands that those who are using cycle to work have less amount of sickness report compared to non-cyclists. Furthermore, increasing level of walking and cycling to work place is a kind of active living style. ...
Thesis
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Physical activity in any means is important for all, irrespective of age and gender, however, shift from the adolescence to adulthood is considered to be more susceptible to gain obesity and health risks. It is agreed that physical activity patterns, established in young adult life stage, are likely to endure for a long time. So, to promote active travel behavior and improve health condition of the future adults, young adult is an important life stage to intervene. The purpose of this study is to explore how individual, social, and environmental factors do influence the commuting behavior of emerging adults primarily. Grenoble city is selected as a case for the study. Two institutions (Institut d'Urbanisme de Grenoble (IUG) and Institut de géographie alpine (IGA)) of Université Grenoble Alpes and École nationale supérieure d'architecture de Grenoble (ENSAG) are selected to study the students aged 18 to 25. The association between different factors and active travel behavior of the students are analyzed using both spatial and statistical analysis techniques. For spatial analysis, a face to face interview is conducted through spatial mapping (geocoding) and three spatial attributes (land use, land use mix and public transport service area) are considered as the basis for the analysis. For statistical analysis, in addition with the face to face interview, an online questionnaire survey is conducted, focused on three types of factors (socio-demographic, travel, and environmental factors) associated with the active travel behavior of young adults. Both descriptive statistics and binary logit model are used for this purpose. The findings from these two analyses reveal that there are significant relationships exist between different socio-demographic, travel and environmental factors and students’ active travel behaviors. Besides, this study also explores the potentiality of different alternative strategies adopted in the city of Grenoble and gaps of these interventions from the perspective of students. Therefore, this research justifies the importance of young adult life stage for the promotion of active transportation and potentiality of their participation in research works.
... Both for the passive and active modes, commuting time have positive but no signi cant in uence on sickness absence. This nding is different against previous studies which con rmed that the active commuting is related with better health status and less sickness absence [35][36][37]. The possible reason may be that cycling in China may induce to worse health-status, which is different from other developed countries. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Most of employees in urban China have experienced a heavy commuting burden,which has become an urgent issue that should be solved in the process of new urbanization strategy. However, not only has the exploration of relationship between the commuting and sickness absence been still scant in China, but also there is no discussion made to analyze the mechanism linking the commuting time and sickness absence. To address these gaps, this study firstly investigates the commuting-absence linkage as well as the potential transmission channel between them. Methods: Using a unique dataset of 2013 Matched Employer-Employee Survey (CMEES) in China, current study apply the zero-inflated negative binomial model to explore the association. Results: Long commute is significantly related with increased sickness absence. A longer commuting is associated with poorer self-rated health status and a higher degree of psychological depression, and it also is highly related with an increase of their BMI index, annual medical expenses as well as the risk of obesity. However, the commuting is not correlated with the overtime length and probability of overtime. Conclusion: The longer commute induces to lower productivities through the increased sickness absence, and the potential linkage of commute-sickness absence is mainly transmitted through their health-related outcomes.
... For the active modes, commute duration has a positive but no significant influence on sickness absence. This finding is different from those of previous studies, which confirmed that active commuting is related with better health status and less sickness absence (32)(33)(34). The potential reason may be that cycling in China may induce worse health status, which is different from other developed countries because non-motor vehicle traffic plans and availability of public bicycle facilities are ignored by the local government (35). ...
Article
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Background: Most employees in urban China have experienced a heavy commuting burden, which has become an urgent issue that should be solved in the new urbanization strategy process. However, the exploration of the relationship between the commute duration and sickness absence remains scant in China, and no direct discussion has been done to analyze the mechanism linking commute duration and sickness absence. Methods: Using a unique dataset of the 2013 China Matched Employer–Employee Survey, the present study applies a two-level random-intercept Poisson model to explore this association. Results: A long commute is significantly related with increased sickness absence. A longer commute is associated with poorer self-rated health status and a higher degree of psychological depression, and it is also highly related with a decrease in sleeping time. Moreover, an increased commuting duration is associated with lower work effort (working hours). Conclusion: Longer commute duration induces lower productivity through increased sickness absence, and the potential link of commute duration and sickness absence is mainly transmitted through health-related outcomes and work effort.
... Additional evidence of a positive impact on the economy has also been found in the higher productivity levels and in the fewer sick days of those commuters who walk and cycle (Hendriksen, 2010). Furthermore, it has been observed that the higher the frequency and the longer the distance travelled, the lower the absenteeism (Davis, A.;Jones, M., 2007). ...
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The project carried out a review of the technologies involved in e-bikes, personal light electric vehicles and electrically powered mobility aids and has created a single source of reference on these technologies and the standards which are in operation or under development.
... Individuals who meet guidelines for PA have lower mortality and a lower risk of noncommunicable diseases compared to those who are inactive (Samitz et al., 2011;Wanner et al., 2014). Other benefits include reduced sick leave, improved well-being and increased quality of life (Bize et al., 2007;Hendriksen et al., 2010;Humphreys et al., 2013;Mytton et al., 2016). In recent years, electric bicycles (e-bikes) have become a popular alternative to other modes of transport for commuting. ...
Article
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Introduction: Increased physical activity (PA) is a major component in promoting public health, and active commuting could make an important contribution. Using an electric bicycle (e-bike) is reported to be of at least moderate intensity PA and is an alternative to other modes of transport for commuting. We aimed to explore the experience of commuting by e-bike in an intervention study. Methods: Focus group interviews with 21 previously inactive participants from three cities in Norway, who were given access to an e-bike for commuting for three (N = 2) or eight months (N = 19). Participants cycled for 226 days on average. The interviews were analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results: The use of e-bikes and active commuting stimulated some participants to take on additional PA in their leisure time. Others preferred active commuting to be their daily PA. Participants’ experiences of commuting by e-bike were characterized by a motivational shift from external reasons for e-biking, such as pressure to get fit, to feelings of well-being, enjoyment and recognition of the health benefits. Conclusion: Commuting by e-bike was convenient and promoted good health. Promoting e-bikes could lead to long term changes among inactive people because positive experiences stimulate autonomous reasons for active commuting.
... Most commuting cyclists can bike at a speed between 10.56 and 12.43 mph (Hendriksen et al. 2010). Bicycles, as an FM/LM connector, can easily reach places within a distance of 2 mi away from PT features (Hochmair 2015;Lee et al. 2016;Rietveld 2000;Zuo et al. 2018;Zuo and Wei 2019a, b). ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of three major components of future emerging sustainable mobility modes and services, namely, shared vehicle services, shared bicycle services, and first mile/last mile solutions to reinforce public transportation services. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of these components, their fundamental characteristics and functions, their associated engineering and planning factors or issues, and the impacts of automation technologies on the future of mobility services, as well as innovation strategies are the focus of the chapter.
Article
The main aim of this study was to examine how different physical activity domains are represented on the official social media sites of Spanish universities, through a content analysis of the photographs. Our results show that the representation of different physical activity domains is not balanced. While the analysed images do promote a message of gender equality in sedentary and leisure time physical activity behaviour, pictures illustrating active commuting and disabled groups were under-represented. We conclude that Internet-based physical activity promotion in university settings must to be guided by the principles of ‘health-promoting universities’ in the sense of promoting a comprehensive view on healthy behaviours in every action carried out with the university community, and in particular including diversity as a norm rather than the exception. Professionals should be aware of their responsibility in the design of the built online environment and their influence on the welfare of the university community.
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Cycling is increasingly recognised as a key tool in improving transport sustainability, promoting increased physical activity and improved public health and developing the tourism sector. While the provision of safe and attractive cycling routes is an important part of encouraging uptake of cycling, national and local government budgetary constraints demand that infrastructural investment must demonstrate return on investment. Greenways, fast becoming a feature of the landscape as traffic-free routes for walking and cycling, with an emphasis on recreation and tourism, are receiving significant investment. However, there is a lack of information on the economic impact of greenway investments internationally. This study of international greenway users (n = 1125) finds that the average spend per greenway user per day is €47, with accommodation and food & drink accounting for the largest proportions. Based on the estimation of a Travel Cost Model, the value of greenway recreation to cyclists is examined. The results indicate that the consumer surplus retained by greenway users is €77 or 83% of the total value. However, opposition to direct payment for greenway use illustrates users’ conceptualisation of greenways as a public recreational resource. Drawing on Irish experience, the paper discusses the importance of greenway planning to unlock their full benefits for the economy, environment and society.
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O objetivo deste estudo é identificar as questões mais valorizadas pelos potenciais usuários de bicicleta em viagens a trabalho e avaliar o impacto de medidas de estímulo ao uso da bicicleta. Para isto, foi realizado um estudo de caso com os funcionários da Companhia Riograndense de Saneamento (CORSAN), na cidade de Porto Alegre, por meio de um estudo de Preferência Declarada. Modelos logit ordenados foram utilizados para estimar a probabilidade de uso da bicicleta em diferentes cenários. Os resultados mostraram que a implantação de vestiários, bicicletários, empréstimo de bicicletas, treinamento para funcionários e a presença de ciclovias para o acesso à CORSAN, estimulam a utilização de bicicleta. A disponibilidade de vestiário mostrou-se a variável mais importante. A implantação conjunta de vestiário, bicicletário e bicicletas para empréstimo aumentaria a demanda em 65%. Os procedimentos adotados podem ser facilmente aplicados em outros contextos, expandindo pesquisas desta natureza.
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The multiple socio-economic benefits ascribed to cycling are increasingly recognised by politicians and policymakers on the island of Ireland. Although a network of greenways and long-distance cycle routes are under construction in many urban and rural areas, harnessing the numerous opportunities in the Irish border region remains under-developed. To progress the development of cycling infrastructure in the border region, it is asserted that local and national policy frameworks require strengthening and integration; that strategic coordination and master-planning processes should be initiated; and, innovative funding mechanisms are needed to enable on-the-ground delivery. Improved cross-border connectivity is considered a critical component in realising the promised ‘cycling revolution’ on the island.
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Substantial improvements in life expectancy over the past 100 years mean that people are living longer, healthier lives than ever before. However, England lags behind other countries on many key health outcomes, improvements in life expectancy have stalled and health inequalities are widening. To address this, we need to move away from a system just focused on diagnosing and treating illness towards one that is based on promoting wellbeing and preventing ill health. Population health is an approach that aims to improve physical and mental health outcomes, promote wellbeing and reduce health inequalities across an entire population. This report outlines The King’s Fund’s vision for population health, our reasoning for why such a vision is needed and the steps required to achieve it. Our vision is to reduce inequalities and achieve health outcomes on a par with the best in the world by focusing on population health locally, regionally and nationally. The report outlines a framework for population health centred on four pillars: the wider determinants of health; our health behaviours and lifestyles; the places and communities we live in; an integrated health and care system. We call for action at national, regional and local levels. This should include: ambitious and binding national goals to drive progress; a cross-government strategy for reducing health inequalities; stronger political and system leadership; greater clarity on the roles and accountability of national bodies and local organisations; and increased investment in prevention, public health and spending that supports population health. In recent years, The King’s Fund has played a key role in promoting integrated care and supporting place-based systems of care. This report marks the next stage in our journey and signals that population health will be a key focus of our work in future.
Article
Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the association between workplace facilities and policies with bicycle commuting, and to test interactions by gender, among a convenience sample of adult bicyclists from Austin, TX, and Birmingham, AL. Methods Adults aged 18-65 who rode a bicycle in the past year completed an internet-based survey designed to assess potential correlates of bicycling behavior. Participants who reported having ridden a bicycle for transportation in the past year for the purpose of commuting to/from work were categorized as a bicycle commuters. Workplace facilitators assessed included policies that supported biking to work, bicycle lockers, locked rooms/cage, clothes storage, bike racks, and showers. A summary score ordinal variable was derived by adding the total number of reported workplace facilitators per participant. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to identify the association between each of the workplace facility/policy variables and being a bicycle commuter. Results The final analytic sample was of 760 participants employed full- or part-time. All assessed facilitators were significantly directly associated with being categorized as a bicycle commuter in multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for covariates (p<0.05). As compared to no facilitators, 1 facilitator was associated with 2.06 times higher odds of being a bicycle commuter (95% CI:1.63-2.59), 2 facilitators was associated with 2.79 times higher odds of being a bicycle commuter (95% CI:2.00-3.88), 3 facilitators was associated with 4.16 times higher odds of being a bicycle commuter (95% CI:3.80-4.56), and 4 or more facilitators was associated with 7.55 times higher odds of being a bicycle commuter (95% CI:7.36-7.75). No significant interactions between each of the workplace facilitators and gender were observed. Conclusions: Companies that desire to encourage active transportation among their employees should consider how the workplace infrastructure and culture can be changed to support this behavior.
Article
Policy statements and planning documents of many North American municipalities recognize the benefits of increased cycling, however, rates of bicycling for transport remain low and programming interventions have been limited and rarely rigorously evaluated. We investigate the impact of four cycling mentorship interventions based in non-cycling partner organizations on: cycling behaviour, attitudes towards cycling, and willingness to spend on bicycles and accessories. Residents, mostly newcomers to Canada, participated in 12–16 week cycling mentorship programs, involving personal support from an experienced cyclist. They were provided with safety training, bicycles, locks and helmets and publicly committed to participate in the program. 146 of the 197 participants completed entry and exit surveys. At program exit each participant cycled on average an additional 1.8 days per week to shopping (p ≤ 0.001) and an additional 1.35 days per week to work and school (p ≤ 0.001) compared to program entry. At program exit, participants were willing to spend 23% more on a bicycle and 32% more (p < 0.01) on accessories like carriers, helmets and locks. They were more confident about the rules of the road and were aware of safe streets for riding in their neighbourhood. They were less confident of finding a safe route and more aware of the relative rarity of women cyclists. The programs were effective in increasing cycling for transport regardless of the distance people lived from their respective central business district. These results are promising and suggest that with sufficient support people will bicycle in neighbourhoods throughout the region. Increased availability of cycling infrastructure would likely increase confidence in finding a safe route and improve these results.
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Increased physical activity is associated with numerous health benefits. This study investigated the effect of active commuting (walking and cycling to work) on health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) and absence days from work due to sickness in healthy working adults. In total, 73 participants (age: 46 ± 9 years), all working at a tertiary university hospital in Salzburg, Austria, were randomized into an intervention group (IG, n=51) and a control group (CG, n=22). The IG was asked to commute actively for twelve months, whereas the CG did not have to change their usual commuting behavior. IG was divided into two subgroups: IG‐C (cycling, n=26) was asked to commute by bicycle and IG‐PT (public transport, n=25) partially using public transportation and walked the remaining distance to work. Significant positive changes in IG were observed in four sub‐components of the SF‐36 (physical functioning (95 [10] to 100 [8.8], p=0.023), mental health (82 [15] to 86 [15], p=0.036), vitality (65 [20] to 70 [14], p=0.005) and general health (70 [19] to 80 [24], p=0.004)) as well as the physical component summary score (56.5 [9] to 59.2 [6.3], p=0.002). IG‐C showed greater and more statistically significant changes regarding HRQoL compared to IG‐PT. Associations between active commuting and sick leave days were only observed in IG‐PT (7.5 [14.8] to 4.0 [11.3] days, p=0.038). In conclusion, active commuting improves various components of HRQoL and might therefore be a possible strategy to increase quality of life in the workforce.
Chapter
The human body is the most sophisticated transport technology available. What is fundamental to its good use is understanding that the anatomy and physiology of the body are coded for movement. Deprived of the chance to be active, the body deteriorates. For most of our species existence, physical activity was obligatory and food was scarce. The tables have turned—for most people, machines do our work and food is on hand at all times. Active transport offers a rare opportunity to build activity into daily routines. And where there are attractive options for walking and cycling, it is clear that there are benefits for physical and mental health. Those who cycle or walk to work or school are more likely to achieve minimum levels of healthy physical activity than those who commute by other modes. Active transport is associated with improved mood and feelings of well-being, lower body weight, and better heart health. Walking and cycling are linked also with better cognition and mental alertness. Clinical researchers have shown that the combination of arousal, sensory reward, and exercise is a powerful brain tonic and this mix of challenge, sensation, and exertion is familiar to city cyclists and pedestrians. Physical activity has been called the best buy for public health because it is effective, cheap, and by and large is risk-free. If city streets are designed for walking and cycling, and this means more people are more active more often, then this is an opportunity that should not be missed.
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Commuting is a central activity of life that cuts across industries and occupations. Because a large majority of employees commute to work, organizational scholars have long been interested in the relevance of commuting to organizational life. This interest forms the foundation of a research tradition to understand commuting spillover, which reflects inter‐relationships between commuting and work experiences. Unfortunately, commuting spillover investigations have historically been fractured across publications in the management, psychology, transportation, and ergonomics communities, impeding understanding of the nature and implications of commuting spillover for organizational stakeholders. We conduct a systematic review to identify what is known and unknown about commuting spillover, attending to both between‐ and within‐person approaches to studying this process. This effort yields five major conclusions emerging from the commuting spillover literature, as well as the identification of two frequently investigated topics that have yielded few clear findings within this research base. This knowledge synthesis is used to develop an agenda for the next wave of commuting spillover research that aims to extend this research base while resolving inconsistencies observed in past research. We conclude with calls for methodological advancement and theory development on the commuting spillover topic.
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Beiträge zur Fachtagung im Forschungscluster „Dynamics, Tensions and Xtreme Events (DTX)“
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Cahiers de l'Observatoire de la mobilité de la Région Bruxelles-Capitale, 2020 Ce septième Cahier vient compléter la collection des Cahiers de l’Observatoire de la mobilité de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale (RBC). Après avoir traité de l’offre de transport, des pratiques de déplacement en général et de celles liées au travail et à l’école en particulier, de logistique et de transport de marchandises, ou encore de partage de l’espace public entre tous les modes, ce nouveau Cahier s’arrête pour la première fois sur un mode spécifique : le vélo. Cette publication comporte trois parties. La première offrira une brève histoire du vélo racontée depuis Bruxelles et évitera d’emblée toute naturalisation du phénomène : le lent déclin du vélo au cours de la seconde moitié du 20e siècle résulte d’évolutions structurelles et non d’explications selon lesquelles Bruxelles ne serait " pas faite pour le vélo ". Cette première partie comportera également une mise en contexte institutionnelle afin d’identifier qui sont les acteurs compétents en matière de politique cycliste et la place occupée par celle-ci dans les outils réglementaires et planologiques régionaux, ainsi que dans ses budgets. Elle se terminera par une définition et une typologie des vélos et autres engins de déplacement légers. La deuxième partie du Cahier abordera la pratique du vélo en RBC à travers une analyse approfondie du parc vélo et des déplacements à vélo. Enfin, la troisième partie analysera la cyclabilité de la Région : les aménagements pour le vélo en mouvement, la sécurité et l’insécurité des cyclistes, le stationnement des élos et les services liés au vélo. Une conclusion générale viendra clore ce vaste exercice de synthèse. À noter que les données mobilisées dans ce Cahier ont été arrêtées en juillet 2019. Il va de soi qu’une actualisation régulière de cette synthèse sera nécessaire pour suivre l’évolution de ce secteur en pleine ébullition.
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This study identifies the most valued factors for potential bicycle users on work trips and evaluate the impact of implementing different strategies to improve bicycle use. We applied an online stated-preference survey from 127 Companhia Riograndense de Saneamento (CORSAN) employees in Porto Alegre (Brazil). Then, we formulated hybrid ordered logit models to estimate the probability of bicycle use under different hypothetical scenarios. The results showed that locker rooms, bicycle parking, bike-sharing systems (bike loaner programs run by the company), training for employees in bicycle use and the presence of bike paths for access to CORSAN all encourage bicycle use. The availability of locker rooms proved to be the most important variable. The joint implementation of locker rooms, bicycle parking and bike-sharing systems (loaner programs) would increase demand by 66%. The strategies discussed in this article can easily be adapted to other contexts where there is a desire to increase shared bicycle commuting to workplaces.
Thesis
Hintergrund Körperlich aktive Mitarbeiter stellen für Unternehmen einen enormen gesundheitlichen und finanziellen Mehrwert dar. Inaktive Mitarbeiter sind häufiger und länger krank und arbeiten nicht so produktiv wie körperlich aktive Mitarbeiter. Interventionen zur Förderung Körperlicher Aktivität in Betrieben (IFKAB) haben also das Potential unternehmensbezogene Kosten zu reduzieren. Die aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse zur Wirksamkeit von IFKAB sind jedoch nicht einheitlich. Narrative Reviews (Proper et al., 2003; Janer et al., 2002) bewerten IFKAB als wirksam und empfehlen ausdrücklich Interventionen umzusetzen. Metaanalysen (Dishman et al., 1998; Marshall, 2004) belegen andererseits, dass die Effekte gering und heterogen sind. Dishman et al. (1998) gehen davon aus, dass die Wirksamkeit von IFKAB durch Untersuchungen mit methodisch hochwertigen Standards erst noch zu belegen ist. Ziele der Arbeit Die Ziele der vorliegenden Arbeit lauten, die Wirksamkeit von IFKAB zu untersuchen und herauszufinden, ob dadurch Körperliche Aktivität erhöht wird, wie wirksam die Interventionen sind und ob bestimmte Interventionscharakteristika die Varianz des globalen Effekts erklären können. Methoden Nach einer systematischen Literaturrecherche wurden quantitative und qualitative Daten von randomisierten und quasi-experimentellen Primärstudien (1980–2007) zusammengefasst. Primärstudien mit Prä-Post Design wurden ausgeschlossen. Die integrierten Primärstudien wurden nach ihrer methodischen Qualität mit einem selbst entwickelten Instrument bewertet. Quantitative Daten wurden über eine metaanalytische Statistik in einem randomisierten Modell zufälliger Effekte zusammengefasst. Der gewichtete, globale Effekt wurde als Hedges' g berechnet. Die Konsistenz des globalen Effekts wurde in einer Sensitivitätsanalyse auf Ausreißerwerte und Publikationsverzerrung geprüft. Zur Bestimmung der Ausreißerwerte wurden adjustierte und standardisierte Residuen berechnet. Mit dem bereinigten und adjustierten Datensatz wurde dann ein bereinigter, globaler Effekt berechnet. Die Publikationsverzerrung wurde über die Berechnung des Fail-Safe N und eine Funnel-Plot Analyse geprüft. Ergebnisse Aus neunundvierzig integrierten Primärstudien mit 16.508 Teilnehmern konnten insgesamt 218 Primärstudieneffekte errechnet werden. Die methodische Qualität der integrierten Primärstudien war allgemein niedrig. Der globale Effekt war signifikant, heterogen und erreichte mit Hedges' g = 0,56 (95 % CI, 0,32; 0,86) eine moderate Größe. Für Teilnehmer in der Interventionsgruppe ergibt sich daraus ein Treatmentvorteil von 28,4 %. Die Moderatoren „Interventionsort“ F(2,41) = 2,83(p < 0,1) und „Studiendesign“ F(3,45) = 14,03 (p < 0,05) zeigten signifikante Unterschiede. Interventionsort erklärte 15,2 % und Studiendesign 11,5 % der vorhandenen Varianz. Weitere Moderatoren konnten die vorhandene Varianz (p < 0,05) nicht auf einem angemessenen statistischen Niveau (p < 0,1) erklären, obwohl die Mittelwerte der Faktoren differierten. Die Outlieranalyse ergab, dass der globale Effekt durch mehrere Ausreißerwerte verzerrt ist. Der auf Ausreißerwerte bereinigte und adjustierte globale Effekt ist mit g = 0,27 (95 % CI, 0,21; 0,32) als gering zu bewerten. Die Funnel-Plot Analyse und die Berechnung des Fail Safe N zeigen, dass dem globalen Effekt auch eine starke Publikationsverzerrung zugrunde liegt. Schlussfolgerungen Die vorliegende Arbeit bestätigt die Ergebnisse vorheriger Metaanalysen. IFKAB sind wirksam, haben aber einen geringen Wirkungsgrad. Die Repräsentativität der Effekte ist beschränkt, da der unbereinigte globale Effekt heterogen ist. Die methodische Qualität der integrierten Primärstudien ist, wie bei den vorherigen Analysen, ebenfalls unbefriedigend. Neu sind die Erkenntnisse, dass den integrierten Primärstudien eine starke Publikationsverzerrung zugrunde liegt und dass mehrere Ausreißerwerte den globalen Effekt stark beeinflussen. Um zukünftig valide Aussagen über die Wirksamkeit von IFKAB treffen zu können, ist es wichtig, dass • Studien mit nicht signifikanten Ergebnissen veröffentlicht werden; • die Berichterstattung in den Primärstudien sich an den APA Vorgaben orientiert; • die methodische Qualität der Primärstudien verbessert wird; • primär verhaltensorientierte Ergebnisparameter verwendet werden, um die Wirksamkeit von IFKAB zu überprüfen.
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The propensity score is the conditional probability of assignment to a particular treatment given a vector of observed covariates. Both large and small sample theory show that adjustment for the scalar propensity score is sufficient to remove bias due to all observed covariates. Applications include: (i) matched sampling on the univariate propensity score, which is a generalization of discriminant matching, (ii) multivariate adjustment by subclassification on the propensity score where the same subclasses are used to estimate treatment effects for all outcome variables and in all subpopulations, and (iii) visual representation of multivariate covariance adjustment by a two- dimensional plot.
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Matched sampling is a method for selecting units from a large reservoir of potential controls to produce a control group of modest size that is similar to a treated group with respect to the distribution of observed covariates. We illustrate the use of multivariate matching methods in an observational study of the effects of prenatal exposure to barbiturates on subsequent psychological development. A key idea is the use of the propensity score as a distinct matching variable. Statistics Version of Record
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We provide an updated version of the Compendium of Physical Activities, a coding scheme that classifies specific physical activity (PA) by rate of energy expenditure. It was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-reports of PA. The Compendium coding scheme links a five-digit code that describes physical activities by major headings (e.g., occupation, transportation, etc.) and specific activities within each major heading with its intensity, defined as the ratio of work metabolic rate to a standard resting metabolic rate (MET). Energy expenditure in MET-minutes, MET-hours, kcal, or kcal per kilogram body weight can be estimated for specific activities by type or MET intensity. Additions to the Compendium were obtained from studies describing daily PA patterns of adults and studies measuring the energy cost of specific physical activities in field settings. The updated version includes two new major headings of volunteer and religious activities, extends the number of specific activities from 477 to 605, and provides updated MET intensity levels for selected activities.
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The aim of the present study was to compare the differences in dietary and non-dietary factors contributing to normal weight and overweight among urban Chinese adults. Two cross-sectional population surveys were carried out in Tianjin, one of the largest cities in China. A total of 2631 subjects aged 25-64 years were selected by random stratified cluster sampling; 398 men and 490 women were overweight, and 886 men and 857 women were of normal weight. The diet was assessed by food weighing plus consecutive individual 3 d food records. Health-related behaviours and anthropometry were assessed. The overweight group had significantly higher mean daily intakes of energy and carbohydrate than the normal-weight group. Overweight men also had significantly higher mean daily intakes of protein and fat than normal-weight men. Age, daily intakes of energy and carbohydrate, and marital status were positively associated with overweight, while occupational and commuting physical activity, as well as smoking, were inversely associated with overweight among both genders. Daily intakes of protein, fat and alcohol were positively related to the incidence of being overweight among men. People with 7-12 years education were more likely to be overweight compared with those with less than 6 years of education. High intakes of energy and carbohydrate among both genders, as well as high intakes of protein and fat among men, and lower levels of occupational and commuting physical activity, being a non-smoker, and partly higher socio-economic status were related to a greater incidence of being overweight in this population.
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The study presents cost–benefit analyses of walking and cycling track networks in three Norwegian cities. The cost–benefit analyses take into account the benefit of reduced insecurity and the health benefits of the improved fitness the use of non-motorized transport provides. In addition to reductions in health costs, the analyses also take into account that a change from travel by car to cycling or walking means reduced external costs (e.g. air pollution and noise) from motorized traffic and reduced parking costs. The benefits of investments in cycle networks are estimated to be at least 4–5 times the costs. Such investments are thus more beneficial to society than other transport investments.The results of such complete cost–benefit analyses make it possible to calculate the benefits to society that are not realized because motorized traffic prevents people from bicycling or walking as much as they otherwise would prefer. These “barrier costs” attributable to motorized traffic are estimated to be of at least the same magnitude as air pollution costs and more than double the noise costs. Barrier costs should therefore be taken into account in the same way as other external costs, when the issue is to determine the proper level of car taxes or to evaluate different kinds of restrictions on car use.
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The substantial health-enhancing potential of physical activity can be realised on population level best if people can incorporate physical activity into their daily life routines. Physically active commuting to and from work provides a promising mode for such activity. In a series of three studies we explored more specifically the population prevalence, the physiological effectiveness, and the promotional possibilities of commuting to work by walking and cycling in a mid-size Finnish town. The results of the questionnaire survey indicated that while about one-third of the working-age sample commuted by walking or cycling an additional one-quarter were in a position to either begin or increase physically active commuting. The controlled intervention study showed that this kind of moderate-intensity, high-frequency activity improved the health-related fitness and selected indices of metabolic health. The promotion project in a large industrial plant demonstrated that walking and cycling during work trips can be successfully promoted by relatively low cost measures. These experiences suggest that physically active commuting to work offers substantial potential as a health-enhancing measure for working-age population.
Article
To examine the influence of physical activity on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (W) and body mass changes (DeltaBMI) in middle-aged men, with special regard to moderate-intensity activities. Longitudinal study of adults who participated in the PRIME Study. A cohort of 8865 men aged 50-59 y, free of coronary heart disease. BMI and W at baseline, body mass changes over a 5 y period. Detailed baseline assessment of net energy expenditure due to physical activity (PAE) in the preceding year, according to category of activity, by means of the MOSPA Questionnaire. PAE was expressed in weekly metabolic equivalent scores (MET h/week). After adjustment for confounders, the multiple regression analyses indicated that BMI, W and DeltaBMI were inversely associated with PAE spent in getting to work (P<10(-5), <10(-5) and 0.04, respectively) and practice of high-intensity (>or=6 MET) recreational activities (<0.01, <10(-5) and <0.01). Men who regularly spent more than 10 MET h/week in walking or cycling to work had a mean BMI, W and DeltaBMI respectively 0.3 kg/m(2), 1 cm and 0.06 kg/m(2) lower than those who did not expend energy in getting to work. In the subgroup of subjects who did not perform high-intensity activities, the level of recreational PAE was inversely associated with BMI and W but not with subsequent weight-gain. These findings indicate that, in middle-aged men, physical activities of moderate-intensity, which are probably easier to promote than more vigorous activities and, in particular, a more current daily activity, walking or cycling to work, may have a favourable effect on body fat markers and body mass gain.
Article
Leisure time physical activity is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, although evidence for the protective effects of active commuting is more limited. The present review examines evidence from prospective epidemiological studies of commuting activity and cardiovascular risk. Meta-analytic procedures were performed to examine the association between commuting physical activity and cardiovascular risk. Several cardiovascular endpoints were examined including mortality, incident coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension and diabetes. We included eight studies in the overall analysis (173,146 participants) that yielded 15 separate risk ratios (RR). The overall meta-analysis demonstrated a robust protective effect of active commuting on cardiovascular outcomes (integrated RR=0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.81-0.98, p=0.016). However, the protective effects of active commuting were more robust among women (0.87, 0.77-0.98, p=0.02) than in men (0.91, 0.80-1.04, p=0.17). Active commuting that incorporates walking and cycling was associated with an overall 11% reduction in cardiovascular risk, which was more robust among women. Future studies should investigate the reasons for possible gender effects and also examine the importance of commuting activity intensity.
Article
To investigate the association between means of transportation to work and overweight+obesity and obesity. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study of the population aged 18-80 with a 59% response rate including 16,705 employed participants. Forty-six percent of men and 26.6% of women were overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9); 11.6% of men and 10.3% of women were obese (BMI 30.0-); 18.2% of men and 25.9% of women bicycled and/or walked to work and 10.4% and 16.2% used public transportation, respectively. In contrast, 68.3% of men and 55.8% of women went to work by car. The odds ratios of overweight+obesity among persons who walked or bicycled were significantly lower and remained 0.62 (95% CI 0.51-0.76) among men and 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.94) among women in the models including all confounders compared to the car driving reference category. The odds ratios of obesity were initially significantly lower among both men and women who walked or bicycled, but in the final models only among women. The odds ratios of overweight+obesity as well as obesity were also lower among men using public transportation. Walking and bicycling to work are significantly negatively associated with overweight+obesity and, to some extent, obesity. Public transportation is significantly negatively associated with overweight+obesity and obesity among men.
Article
In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published national guidelines on Physical Activity and Public Health. The Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the American Heart Association endorsed and supported these recommendations. The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1995 recommendations on the types and amounts of physical activity needed by healthy adults to improve and maintain health. Development of this document was by an expert panel of scientists, including physicians, epidemiologists, exercise scientists, and public health specialists. This panel reviewed advances in pertinent physiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical scientific data, including primary research articles and reviews published since the original recommendation was issued in 1995. Issues considered by the panel included new scientific evidence relating physical activity to health, physical activity recommendations by various organizations in the interim, and communications issues. Key points related to updating the physical activity recommendation were outlined and writing groups were formed. A draft manuscript was prepared and circulated for review to the expert panel as well as to outside experts. Comments were integrated into the final recommendation. PRIMARY RECOMMENDATION: To promote and maintain health, all healthy adults aged 18 to 65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. [I (A)] Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendation. [IIa (B)] For example, a person can meet the recommendation by walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeably accelerates the heart rate, can be accumulated toward the 30-min minimum by performing bouts each lasting 10 or more minutes. [I (B)] Vigorous-intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. In addition, every adult should perform activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance a minimum of two days each week. [IIa (A)] Because of the dose-response relation between physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity. [I (A)].
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between various modes of transport to work and overweight and obesity, in men and women. The study was conducted using data from a representative sample of 6810 respondents who reported being in the workforce, extracted from the 2003 New South Wales Adult Health Survey, Australia. Logistic regression modeling adjusted for potential confounders. Men who cycled to work were significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (39.8%) compared with those driving to work (60.8%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.31-0.76) and much less likely to be obese (5.4%) with an adjusted odds ratio 0.34 (95% CI: 0.13-0.87). Men who used public transport to work were also significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (44.6%) with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53-0.81). However, these inverse relationships were not found in women. These findings support recommendations to cycle to work or use public transport as a strategy to maintain healthy weight for men. Although healthy weight cannot be causally attributed to cycling and use of public transport in this study, the link is plausible, and increased cycling and use of public transport would have positive benefits for the environment and health in any case.
Valuing the benefits of cycling: A report to Cycling England. Cambridge, SQW Limited Available at: http://www.networks.nhs.uk/uploads Influence of exercise, walking, cycling, and overall nonexercise physical activity on mortality in Chinese women
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Valuing the benefits of cycling: A report to Cycling England. Cambridge, SQW Limited Available at
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National statistics on sickness absence. [Nationale Verzuim Statistiek]. Statline, Statistics Netherlands Available at: http:// statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb
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Vragen naar de mate van lichamelijke activiteit (Questionnaire for Physical Activity)
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Comparison of dietary and non-dietary risk factors in overweight and normal-weight Chinese adults
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Reizen naar en voor het werk en verzuim in de banksector [Traveling to and for work and sickness absence in the banking sector]
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