Article

Television viewing time independently predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: The EPIC Norfolk study

MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK.
International Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 9.18). 02/2011; 40(1):150-9. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyq105
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Television viewing (TV), a highly prevalent behaviour, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk independently of physical activity. The relationship with mortality, however, is relatively unknown.
We examined the prospective relationship between TV time and all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality in a population-based cohort [The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Norfolk] of 13 197 men and women {age [SD (standard deviation)]: 61.5 ± 9.0 years}. Participants were free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998-2000 and were followed up for death ascertainment until 2009 (9.5 ± 1.6 years). TV time, total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering medication use, participant and family history of disease and total energy intake were self-reported; height and weight were measured by standardized procedures. Hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for mortality were estimated per 1-h/day increase in TV.
Each 1-h/day increase in TV time was associated with increased hazard of all-cause (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09; 1270 deaths) and cardiovascular (HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.15; 373 deaths), but not cancer mortality (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.98-1.10; 570 deaths). This was independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes history, family history of cardiovascular disease and cancer, body mass index (BMI) and PAEE. They were similar when stratified by gender, age, education, BMI and PAEE. The population-attributable fraction for all-cause mortality comparing the highest TV tertile (>3.6 h/day) with the lowest (<2.5 h/day) was 5.4%.
These findings suggest that public health recommendations should consider advising a reduction in TV time, a predominant leisure activity in modern society, in addition to advocating physical activity.

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    • "Sedentary behaviours—defined by low energy expenditure (ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 metabolic equivalents) in a sitting or reclining position (Owen, 2012; Sedentary Behaviour Research N, 2012)—have emerged as an additional element with concerns about physical activity and health. Television (TV) viewing time, a common leisure-time sedentary behaviour, has been associated with major chronic diseases and adverse cardio-metabolic health outcomes (Thorp et al., 2010; Wijndaele et al., 2010), decreased life expectancy (Veerman et al., 2011) and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (Dunstan et al., 2010; Grontved and Hu, 2011; Wijndaele et al., 2011). Despite increasing evidence on the detrimental health consequences of high volumes of TV viewing time, little is known about the relationships of TV viewing time with health-related quality of life. "
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Preventive Medicine
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    • "A growing body of evidence suggests that sedentary behavior (time spent sitting or reclining) is independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality [1–4], cardiovascular disease [5, 6], type 2 diabetes [7, 8], and some cancers [9]. Sedentary behavior appears to have physiological consequences, distinct from the effects associated with an absence of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, that may further contribute to chronic disease risk [10, 11]. "
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