TASARIM+KURAM 10.14744/tasarimkuram.2021.48303 --------
All beings, living or non-living, maintain their physical integrity through their structural system. Space as an architectural creation, is made possible by the existence of the structure. Thus, the architectural fabric can remain stable and resist forces. It is not possible to construct a building without the structure. Especially since the 20th century, the structure has begun to be considered as an element that enriches the design by getting rid of its function that keeps the building performs it. Thus, with the developments in building construction methods and materials, structure has strengthened its role as an effective design element in architecture.
Columns are structural elements that transfer the loads acting on the structure vertically within the structure. In this study, it was desired to question the effect and contribution of the column, which has an important structural role, to the architecture beyond being a carrier. In this context, the development of the concept of structure and its relationship with architecture are examined, and the formation of space, form and meaning as three important elements in architecture are discussed in terms of its relationship with the role of the column in architectural design. Within the scope of the study, 12 buildings were selected, in which the column was used as a design element, and the columns were used in architectural design; their contributions at functional, spatial, formal and semantic levels were evaluated.
In the examples where the relationship of the column with the function is discussed, the tasks they undertake in the architectural space are interpreted within the scope of the purpose of use of the space. Limiting, separating, grouping and defining the areas in the space are found as some of these tasks. With the evaluation of the examples, it has been seen that columns can create a space within the space with their order and the way they come together. Another important finding is that columns have become able to contain space. The massive nature of the column has transformed with technological
developments, having a void, and become permeable. In this manner, columns were designed and constructed as elements that conjunct the areas by taking on roles to define the space. With the aim to understand the effect of the columns in the production of form, the examples where columns are used in architectural design in the production of form are examined. Evaluating the examples, it has been seen that the columns can shape the structure not only functionally, but also with the effects arising from the context. In this context, it was determined that the form of the columns also changed over time. With the recent capabilities, columns can be arranged with void, angled or segmented. Developments in the carrier properties of the column with technological abilities, supported to create new
construction forms. It is also found that, the order of the spatial elements in which the column comes together, determines the
form. In the examples where the relationship with meaning is discussed, the semantic situations that emerge with the way the columns come together with the other elements in the structure, existence and coexistence are interpreted. Due to the subjective and variable nature of the meaning, the interpretations of the selected building’s architects and the relevant researchers were taken into consideration in the selected examples. Thus, the interpretations were compared and the semantic states produced by the columns in the structures were revealed. In this context, it has been seen that the forms of the columns, as well as the additions and voids in their physical integrity, have an effect on the meaning. Furthermore, it is seen that effects of light and shadow interacting with the columns, the form features (color, texture, material, geometry, etc.) also change the formation of meaning. The column is become an instrument in associating the architectural structure with its context and
function and supports the meanings to be formed in this direction.
The obtained results reveal that the column can be used as a part of the architectural design and used as an effective design element to create the space, meaning and form. Consequently, it has been seen that the column goes beyond being a carrier element, and is used as a design element in architecture, and even becomes the focal point of the design. An important point that needed to be emphasized considering the findings is the contribution of structural systems to
architecture would be raise by diversifying thanks to the engineering knowledge, production, and construction methods developed. In particular, the collective efforts of architects and designers, together with experts in the field of engineering, will support developments in the impact of structural elements on architecture.