Can impairment in memory, language and executive functions predict neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD)? Findings from a cross-sectional study

Memory and Alzheimer's Disease Unit, Instituto Andaluz de Neurociencia y Conducta, Alamos, 17, 29012 Malaga, Spain.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Impact Factor: 1.85). 05/2011; 52(3):264-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2010.05.004
Source: PubMed


The authors performed a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between specific cognitive domains and behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) in 125 patients with probable AD. Cognitive deficits were evaluated with the mini mental state examination (MMSE), trail-making test (TMT), Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), and semantic fluency test (SFT) and phonemic fluency test (PhFT), whereas the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) was used to rate BPSD. Patients' performance in cognitive tests significantly correlated with total NPI scores (p<0.0001). After controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics, cognitive impairments in memory, executive function, and language (RAVLT, TMT, PhFT, SFT) importantly estimated total NPI scores (p<0.001, multivariate regression models). These findings suggest that the evaluation of cognitive domains may have a predictive value for the occurrence of BPSD.

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Available from: Miguel Angel Barbancho, Jun 03, 2014
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    • "The relationship between AD and the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia24 (BPSD) is becoming more prevalent. Symptoms of dementia accompany AD in about 90% of cases,25 typically arising early in the course of the disease and persisting. Unlike the steady loss of “global” cognition, throughout the course of AD, behavioral symptoms are more variable, with different types of BPSD seen among patients.26 "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPS) is very high among patients with Alzheimer disease (AD); more than 90% of AD patients will present such symptoms during the course of the disease. These symptoms result in poorer quality of life for both patients and caregivers and increased healthcare costs. BPS are the main factors involved in increases to the caregiver burden, and they often precipitate the admission of patients to residential care centres. Development: Current consensus holds that intervention models combining pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are the most effective for AD patients. Several studies have shown cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine combined with cognitive intervention therapy (CIT) to be effective for improving patients' cognitive function and functional capacity for undertaking daily life activities. However, the efficacy of CIT as a treatment for BPS has not yet been clearly established, which limits its use for this purpose in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to gather available evidence on the efficacy of cognitive intervention therapy (CIT) on BPS in patients with AD. Conclusions: The results of this review suggest that CIT may have a beneficial effect on BPS in patients with AD and should therefore be considered a treatment option for patients with AD and BPS.
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