Clinical correlations of grey matter reductions in the caudate nucleus of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Departamento de Investigación del Centro Estatal de Salud Mental, Querétaro, México.
Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN (Impact Factor: 5.86). 07/2010; 35(4):238-46.
Source: PubMed


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown decreased caudate volumes in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most of these studies have been carried out in male children. Very little research has been done in adults, and the results obtained in children are difficult to extrapolate to adults. We sought to compare the volume of the caudate of adults with ADHD with that of healthy controls; we also compared these volumes between men and women.
We performed an MRI scan on 20 adults with ADHD (10 men and 10 women) aged 25-35 years and 20 healthy controls matched by age and sex. We used voxel-based morphometry with the DARTEL algorithm for image analyses. We used the specifically designed Friederichsen, Almeida, Serrano, Cortes Test (FASCT) to measure the severity of ADHD; both the self-reported (FASCT-SR) and the observer (FASCT-O) versions were used.
The statistical parametric map showed a smaller region with low grey matter volume and a smaller concentration of grey matter in this region of the right caudate in ADHD patients than in health controls, both in the entire sample and within each sex. There was a significant correlation between the volume of this region of the caudate with the number of DSM IV-TR criteria, as well as with the total scores and most of the factors of the FASCT-SR and FASCT-O scales. A separate correlation analysis by sex gave similar results. Limitations: The study design was cross-sectional.
The region of the right caudate with low grey matter volume was smaller in adults with ADHD in both sexes and was correlated with ADHD severity.

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    • "A series of reports by Almeida Montes and colleagues has shown that adults with ADHD have reduced cortical thickness in the right superior frontal cortex (Almeida Montes et al. 2010) and right frontoparietal cortex (Almeida Montes et al. 2012), and that the severity of their ADHD symptoms correlates negatively with thickness in these regions. These reports also reveal reduced grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus (Almeida Montes et al. 2010) and, specifically in women, reduced grey matter density in the right cerebellum (Almeida Montes et al. 2011) in these individuals. Other studies have found decreased volume and/or cortical thickness in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral, and anterior and posterior cingulate regions (Cubillo and Rubia 2010; Makris et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally.
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    • "s have speculated this normalization of caudate volume may be associated with age - related decreases in hyperactivity / impul - sivity in ADHD ( Castellanos et al . , 2002 ; Nakao , Radua , Rubia , & Mataix - Cols , 2011 ) ; however , rela - tively modest ( yet significant ) reductions in caudate volume may still be observed in adults with ADHD ( Montes et al . , 2010 ; Proal et al . , 2011 ; Seidman et al . , 2011 ) . In addition , accompanying smaller basal ganglia volumes is reduced activation of the basal ganglia in individuals with ADHD across a wide range of tasks ( Cubillo , Halari , Smith , Taylor , & Rubia , 2012 ; Hart , Radua , Nakao , Mataix - Cols , & Rubia , 2013 ; Scheres , Milham , Kn"
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    • "Imaging studies found abnormalities with respect to structure and function in anterior cingulate (Dickstein, 2006; Bush, 2011) and ventral prefrontal areas (Hesslinger et al. 2002; Dickstein, 2006), the striatum (Seidman et al. 2005; Scheres et al. 2007; Almeida Montes et al. 2010), amygdala and hippocampus (Plessen et al. 2006). Konrad et al. (2006) found a methylphenidate effect on insula activation in ADHD children. "
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