Direct adhesion force measurements between E. coli and human uroepithelial cells in cranberry juice cocktail. Mol Nutr Food Res

Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Impact Factor: 4.6). 12/2010; 54(12):1744-52. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.200900535
Source: PubMed


Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly measure the nanoscale adhesion forces between P-fimbriated Escherichia coli (E. coli) and human uroepithelial cells exposed to cranberry juice, in order to reveal the molecular mechanisms by which cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) affects bacterial adhesion.
Bacterial cell probes were created by attaching P-fimbriated E. coli HB101pDC1 or non-fimbriated E. coli HB101 to AFM tips, and the cellular probes were used to directly measure the adhesion forces between E. coli and uroepithelial cells in solutions containing: 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 27 wt% CJC. Macroscale attachment of E. coli to uroepithelial cells was measured and correlated to nanoscale adhesion force measurements. The adhesion forces between E. coli HB101pDC1 and uroepithelial cells were dose-dependent, and decreased from 9.32±2.37 nN in the absence of CJC to 0.75±0.19 nN in 27 wt% CJC. Adhesion forces between E. coli HB101 and uroepithelial cells were low in buffer (0.74±0.18 nN), and did not change significantly in CJC (0.78±0.18 nN in 27 wt% CJC; P=0.794).
Our study shows that CJC significantly decreases nanoscale adhesion forces between P-fimbriated E. coli and uroepithelial cells.

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    • "Finally, it is hoped that AFM will help design new anti-adhesion drugs to treat microbial infections, including those caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. In an effort towards this goal, the adhesion force between P-fimbriated Escherichia coli and human uroepithelial cells was shown to be inhibited upon exposure to cranberry juice (Liu et al., 2010). Also, cranberry juice consumption was shown to lower the forces between E. coli or S. aureus and an AFM tip (Abu-Lail et al, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are two important nosocomial pathogens that form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Biofilm infections are difficult to fight as cells within the biofilm show increased resistance to antibiotics. Our understanding of the molecular interactions driving bacterial adhesion, the first stage of biofilm formation, has long been hampered by the paucity of appropriate force-measuring techniques. In this minireview, we discuss how atomic force microscopy techniques have enabled to shed light into the molecular forces at play during staphylococcal adhesion. Specific highlights include the study of the binding mechanisms of adhesion molecules by means of single-molecule force spectroscopy, the measurement of the forces involved in whole cell interactions using single-cell force spectroscopy, and the probing of the nanobiophysical properties of living bacteria via multiparametric imaging. Collectively, these findings emphasize the notion that force and function are tightly connected in staphylococcal adhesion.
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    • "For instance, after 120 s of bond maturation, Gardnerella vaginalis BME-1 adhered to the membrane region not located above the nucleus with an adhesion force of 11.9 nN versus 5.7 nN above the nucleus (significantly different at p < 0.05). For comparison, Liu et al. (2010) measured an adhesion force of 9.3 nN for Escherichia coli to uro-epithelial cells without making a distinction between membrane regions, in line with the values found here. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vaginal epithelium is colonized by different bacterial strains and species. The bacterial composition of vaginal biofilms controls the balance between health and disease. Little is known about the relative contribution of the epithelial and bacterial cell surfaces to bacterial adhesion and whether and how adhesion is regulated over cell membrane regions. Here we show that bacterial adhesion forces with cell membrane regions not located above the nucleus are stronger than with regions above the nucleus both for vaginal pathogens and different commensal and probiotic lactobacillus strains involved in health. Importantly, adhesion force ratios over membrane regions away from and above the nucleus coincided with the ratios between numbers of adhering bacteria over both regions. Bacterial adhesion forces were dramatically decreased by depleting the epithelial cell membrane of cholesterol or sub-membrane cortical actin. Thus, epithelial cells can regulate membrane regions to which bacterial adhesion is discouraged, possibly to protect the nucleus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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