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The Relative Merits of Lean, Enriched, and Empowered Offices: An Experimental Examination of the Impact of Workspace Management Strategies on Well-Being and Productivity


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Principles of lean management encourage managers to exert tight control over office space and the people within it. Alternative, design-led approaches promote the value of offices that are enriched, particularly by plants and art. On the basis of a social identity perspective, we argue that both of these approaches may compromise organizational outcomes by disempowering workers and failing to give them input into the design of their office space. This hypothesis is tested in two experiments (ns = 112, 47). The first was conducted in an interior office in a psychology department, the second in a commercial city office. In 4 independent conditions we examine the impact of space management strategies in which the office is either (a) lean, (b) decorated by the experimenter (with plants and art), (c) self-decorated, or (d) self-decorated and then redecorated by the experimenter. We examine the impact of these conditions on organizational identification, well-being, and various forms of productivity (attention to detail, information processing, information management, and organizational citizenship). In both experiments, superior outcomes are observed when offices are decorated rather than lean. However, further improvements in well-being and productivity are observed when workers have input into office decoration. Moreover, these effects are attenuated if this input is overridden. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. In particular, findings point to the need to question assumptions about the merits of lean office space management that have been dominant throughout the last century.
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The Relative Merits of Lean, Enriched, and Empowered Offices:
An Experimental Examination of the Impact of Workspace Management
Strategies on Well-Being and Productivity
Craig Knight and S. Alexander Haslam
University of Exeter
Principles of lean management encourage managers to exert tight control over office space and the people
within it. Alternative, design-led approaches promote the value of offices that are enriched, particularly
by plants and art. On the basis of a social identity perspective, we argue that both of these approaches
may compromise organizational outcomes by disempowering workers and failing to give them input into
the design of their office space. This hypothesis is tested in two experiments (ns112, 47). The first
was conducted in an interior office in a psychology department, the second in a commercial city office.
In 4 independent conditions we examine the impact of space management strategies in which the office
is either (a) lean, (b) decorated by the experimenter (with plants and art), (c) self-decorated, or (d)
self-decorated and then redecorated by the experimenter. We examine the impact of these conditions on
organizational identification, well-being, and various forms of productivity (attention to detail, informa-
tion processing, information management, and organizational citizenship). In both experiments, superior
outcomes are observed when offices are decorated rather than lean. However, further improvements in
well-being and productivity are observed when workers have input into office decoration. Moreover,
these effects are attenuated if this input is overridden. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
In particular, findings point to the need to question assumptions about the merits of lean office space
management that have been dominant throughout the last century.
Keywords: identity, space, office, productivity, well-being
Studies of psychological well-being at work were initiated at the
turn of the last century (e.g., Mayo, 1933; Mead, 1913; Myers,
1925; Viteles, 1923; Wells, 1912) and continue to this day (e.g.,
Hansson, Vingard, Arnetz, & Anderzen, 2008; Messer & White,
2006; Mills, Tomkins, & Schlangen, 2007). However, the man-
agement of modern office space is typically influenced far less by
psychologists than by architects, interior designers, facility man-
agers, corporate real estate agents, and popular management the-
orists (Cohen, 2007; Stegmeier, 2008). Here the emphasis is gen-
erally on corporate return rather than psychological welfare (Bain
& Taylor, 2000; Handy, 1990). Indeed it has been observed that
when it comes to office management more generally, psycholog-
ical factors tend to be considered only as an adjunct to business
interests rather than exerting any influence over them (Furnham,
1990; Peters & Waterman, 2004; Statt, 2004).
In this paper we report research that explores some of the key
concepts at the heart of workspace management. In this, we draw
on insights from the social identity approach to organizational life,
as previously applied to the study of office space (e.g., Ashforth &
Mael, 1989; Baldry, Bain, & Taylor, 1998; Haslam, 2004; Knight
& Haslam, in press; Millward, Haslam, & Postmes, 2007; Postmes,
Tanis, & de Wit, 2001). The key issues that we investigated are
whether empowerment within office space impacts on (a) well-
being (in particular, feelings of psychological comfort, organiza-
tional identification, physical comfort, and job satisfaction) and (b)
The Lean Approach: The Case for Managerial
Control of Office Space
Key recommendations of the Taylorist approach to office space
management (e.g., Pruijt, 2003; Tapping & Dunn, 2006) include
(a) the removal from the workspace of everything except the
materials required to do the job at hand, (b) tight managerial
control of the workspace, and (c) standardization of managerial
practice and workspace design (Boyer, 2003; Duffy, 1997; C.
Harris & Harris, 2006). These ideas have been particularly influ-
ential in work that has promoted the lean office as the key to
efficiency and productivity (Hirano, 1996; Hobson, 2006; Louis,
2007; Tapping & Shuker, 2002; Zalesny & Farace, 1987). This
approach is exemplified by Bibby (1996) in his comparison of two
adjacent offices in a modern bank:
The contrast between the old and new in office life is currently well
reflected here. Part of one floor is temporarily being occupied by staff
from the [old] operation: here there is the usual clutter of office
paperwork to be seen, the pinned-up postcards and personal photo-
Craig Knight and S. Alexander Haslam, School of Psychology, The
University of Exeter.
This research was supported by a CASE award from the Economic and
Social Research Council (PTA–33–2005– 00021). This award was cospon-
sored by Ambius (a division of Rentokil Initial) and Haworth U.K. (a
division of Haworth, Inc.).
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Alex
Haslam, School of Psychology, The University of Exeter, Perry Road,
Exeter, EX4 4QG England. E-mail:
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied © 2010 American Psychological Association
2010, Vol. 16, No. 2, 158–172 1076-898X/10/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0019292
graphs beside the desks. By contrast, the desks for [new] staff only a
few feet away are spick-and-span, bare of all paper and, in line with
company policy, free of any personal belongings. (para. 10)
The Taylorist literature sees lean, open space as efficient for a
number of reasons. In the first instance, large, uncluttered space
can accommodate more people and so lends itself to economies of
scale (Durmusoglu & Kulak, 2008; Kelliher & Anderson, 2008).
Desks (undecorated or personalized) can also easily be reconfig-
ured for use by other workers (Hobson, 2006; Thompson, 2000).
As a result, space occupancy can be centrally managed with
minimal “disruptive” interference from workers (Keyte & Locher,
2004; Titman, 1991). Indeed, many businesses now adopt a clean
or lean office policy because they have more employees than they
have spaces at which they can work. These lean desks are either
taken on a first-come-first-served basis (hot desking) or can be
booked in advance (hotelling; Millward et al., 2007; Stegmeier,
2008). In the lean office, employee involvement in the running of
the working space is purposefully de-emphasized (Wood & Wall,
2007; Zeisel, 2006). Low-status workers follow the system
planned for them by management (George, Maxey, Rowlands, &
Upton, 2004; Skinner, 2005), performing deskilled, repetitive tasks
(J. A. H. Becker & O’Hair, 2007), reflecting Taylor’s injunction
that “all possible brainwork should be removed from the shop and
centered in the planning or laying out department” (Braverman,
1974, p. 447).
These low autonomy environments echo the demand— control
model (Karasek, 1979), which argues that a combination of low-
decision latitudes and high pressure job roles (e.g., as found in a
classic telesales environment; Baldry et al., 1998), lead not just to
psychologically uncomfortable working conditions and depression
(Seligman, 1975; Sundbom, 1971), but also to greater incidence of
cardio-vascular disease. Indeed since the early 1960s, research has
pointed to the negative association between social class and cor-
onary heart disease (Theorell & Karasek, 1996), despite the per-
sistent belief that those at the top of the tree are under the most
pressure (Martin, 1997; Peters, 1989).
The methodology based on low-worker autonomy has proved
attractive to businesses since Taylor and his contemporaries began
their work in the 1880s (Becker & Steele, 1995; Kanigel, 1999).
Yet despite the enormous body of literature spawned (e.g., Bibby,
1996; Brill, Margulis, Konar, & BOSTI, 1984; George et al., 2004;
Hirano, 1996; Hobson, 2006; Hyer & Wemmerlov, 2002; Louis,
2007; Pruijt, 2003) there is a surprising lack of empirical evidence
to support the claims for greater efficiency. There would appear to
be two main reasons for this oversight. First, the assumption that
Taylorist methodology “just works” (Pyzdek, 2003, p. 664) and,
second, the heavy reliance (particularly in fields of design, archi-
tecture, and space management) on evidence gleaned from case
studies (e.g., Louis, 2007; Tapping & Shuker, 2002; Taylor, 1911).
The Green Approach: The Case for Design-Led
Office Space
Space planning and design is frequently seen as an expression of
managerial intent (Marmot & Ely, 2000), in which a building’s
aesthetics are seen as an opportunity to reflect and project a
particular corporate ethos and image (Myerson & Ross, 2003; see
also Cornelissen, Haslam, & Balmer, 2007). We have seen how
this space is often deliberately stark (or lean; C. Harris & Harris,
2006; Hobson, 2006), but some organizations choose to avoid
Taylorist prescriptions for a lean office and instead enrich the
workspace by investing in “environmental comfort” (Vischer,
2005, p. 102). This strategy is typically informed by a belief that
such enrichment may promote health. In particular, aesthetically
uplifting art—particularly images from nature—is believed to re-
duce stress and anger in a working environment (Kweon, Ulrich,
Walker, & Tassinary, 2008). The presence of living plants in a
workspace is also thought to have the additional benefit of clean-
ing, or “conditioning” the air, thereby helping workers feel happier
and healthier (Bringslimark, Hartig, & Patil, 2007; Dravigne,
Waliczek, Lineberger, & Zajicek, 2008).
In line with these ideas, psychological literature has suggested
that relative to lean offices, enriched offices are psychologically
advantageous (Elsbach, 2003; Handy, 1990; Haslam & Knight,
2006; Myerson, 2007; Thompson, 2000; Vischer, 2005; Zelinsky,
2006). More specifically, it leads to the hypothesis that enriching
workers’ office space with pictures and plants is likely to increase
organizational identification (Hypothesis 1a; H1a), well-being
(specifically, sense of psychological comfort, job satisfaction, and
physical comfort; H2b), and productivity (H2c). In line with pre-
vious work (see Knight & Haslam, in press), we would also
anticipate that (as with H2 and H3 below) organizational identifi-
cation might also mediate the relationship between the experimen-
tal condition and other dependent variables.
The Social Identity Approach to Space Use
Yet despite being more sensitive to employees’ needs than lean
approaches, it remains true that even the most benign, design-
focused space management strategies still tend to assume that it is
management’s prerogative to retain control of the workspace
(Laing, Duffy, Jaunzens, & Willis, 1998; Peters & Waterman,
2004). This assumption is one that is increasingly being called into
question—not least by designers themselves (Commission for Ar-
chitecture and the Built Environment, 2004; Froggett, 2001;
Zeisel, 2006). In particular, some psychologists have argued that
employees should be encouraged to decorate their immediate
space with meaningful artifacts to project their identity onto their
own environment and to give some sense of permanency, control,
and privacy (Baldry, 1997; Hall, 1968; Vischer, 2005). It has been
noted that approximately 70% of American workers personalize
their workspaces, but that managers and employees with enclosed
offices decorate more than others (Wells & Thelen, 2002). Where
open-plan offices are common, personalization of low-status work-
ing space is both infrequent and discouraged (Laing et al., 1998;
Tapping & Shuker, 2002). Accordingly, it would seem that the
decorative style of one’s working space is primarily predicted by
status (Elsbach & Bechky, 2007; Wells & Thelen, 2002).
At a group level it is argued that collectively, teams should be
free to express their own identity within their workspace, differ-
entiating themselves from other groups without necessarily com-
promising identification with the organization as a whole (Abrams,
Ando, & Hinkle, 1998; Peters & Waterman, 2004). In particular,
this recommendation is informed by a social identity approach to
organizational life (after Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Turner, Hogg,
Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987; Turner, Oakes, Haslam, &
McGarty, 1994), which suggests that employee recognition and
involvement have the capacity to increase motivation and engage-
ment by increasing organizational identification (i.e., individuals’
willingness to define themselves as members of a particular orga-
nizational unit; Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Haslam, Postmes, &
Ellemers, 2003; Tyler & Blader, 2000). In line with this view,
previous research has shown that higher levels of organizational
identification are associated with an increased sense of job satis-
faction (Kreiner & Ashforth, 2004; van Dick, 2004) and also with
enhanced group performance (Worchel, Rothgerber, Day, Hart, &
Butemeyer, 1998). Along these lines, a social identity approach to
space management suggests that managers who involve employees
in decision making are also likely to build a sense of shared
identity that enhances the motivation and commitment of junior
colleagues (Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Cornelissen et al., 2007;
Ellemers, De Gilder, & Haslam, 2004). This view is also supported
by Riketta’s (2004) observation of a strong correlation between
shared organizational identification and employees’ willingness to
engage in behavior that is beneficial to both the organization and
job involvement (see also Organ, 1988; van Knippenberg, 2000).
Where decision making is not shared, management is likely to
foster less intrinsic motivation and compliance may be contingent on
higher levels of control and surveillance (Ellemers, van Rijswijk,
Bruins, & de Gilder, 1998; McCabe & Black, 1997; Turner, 1991).
This in turn may lead to lower morale (Ellemers et al., 2004;
Oldham, Hackman, & Pearce, 1976), less cooperative behavior
(Baldry et al., 1998; Organ, 1988; Paille, 2008; Tyler & Blader,
2000) and lower levels of productivity (Vischer, 2005). In this
way, it may also compromise a company’s bottom line (Ellemers
et al., 2004; Hackman & Oldham, 1980; Lawler, 1986). A potential
exception to this rule was highlighted by Ullrich, Christ, and van
Dick (2009) who found that having a leader who is representative
of the group can offset the effects of group members’ lack of
voice—particularly if those members identify highly with the
organizational unit in question. However, these researchers also
found that when leaders were not representative of group mem-
bers, lack of voice was again associated with negative organiza-
tional outcomes.
On the basis of these approaches, we therefore hypothesize that
empowering workers to manage and have input into the design of
their own workspace—thereby allowing them to projecting their
own identity onto it—will enhance organizational identification
(H2a), well-being (H2b), and productivity (H2c).
Reestablishing Managerial Control
Historically, management has not empowered low-status work-
ers (Hobsbawm, 1969; McCabe & Black, 1997). Indeed, the man-
agement literature generally counsels that managers should assert
(or reassert) control of the workspace (Pruijt, 2003; Taylor, 1911).
Giving autonomy to workers, only to remove it because manage-
ment prefers its own options to those chosen by workers is seen by
some literature as a legitimate option (Pruijt, 2003; Tapping &
Shuker, 2002). However, the social identity approach outlined
above would suggest that reintroducing managerial control into
areas where workers are used to more autonomous conditions is
likely to compromise organizational identification and thereby
undermine productivity and well-being (Peters, 1989; Peters &
Waterman, 2004). Along these lines, disempowerment within the
workspace (Frederickson, 1989; George et al., 2004; Titman,
1991) has been found to engender a sense of alienation and
discomfort (Baldry et al., 1998; Handy, 1990) and to reduce job
satisfaction (Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Cohen, 2007). Meanwhile,
research in both environmental design and psychology points to a
link between a reduction in workplace autonomy and greater levels
of stress-related complaint (Bringslimark et al., 2007; Danielsson
& Bodin (2008); Scheepers & Ellemers, 2005). Similarly, a meta-
analysis by Humphrey, Nahrgang, and Morgeson (2007) suggests
that an integrated approach that accounts for social needs at work
increases motivation and satisfaction. On the basis of these argu-
ments (Keyte & Locher, 2004; Louis, 2007; Pruijt, 2003; Wood &
Wall, 2007), we therefore predict that disempowering workers by
overriding their input into workspace design will compromise
organizational identification (H3a), well-being (H3b), and produc-
tivity (H3c) relative to an enriched or an empowered office envi-
The Present Research
To test the above hypotheses we conducted two experiments in
which space management was manipulated across four indepen-
dent conditions. In these, the lean condition is informed by a
neo-Taylorist perspective, in which minimalist office space is
intended to focus employees’ attention solely on the work at hand
(in particular through the imposition of a clean desk policy; Bibby,
1996; Fredrickson, 1989; George et al., 2004). The second, en-
riched condition, instantiates ideas from the design literature in
which workers fulfill their job function in an office that incorpo-
rates art and plants, but where they have no input into their
deployment (e.g., Duffy, 1997; Greenhalgh, 2002; Myerson,
2007). A third empowered condition is informed by social identity
principles and allows participants to design their own office envi-
ronment using a selection of the same art and plants as in the
enriched condition but thereby allowing them to realize something
of their own identity within their working space (De Croon,
Sluiter, Kuijer, & Frings-Dresen, 2005; Elsbach, 2003; Elsbach &
Bechky, 2007). Finally, in a disempowered space, participants’
workspace design is overridden by the experimenter, so that an
initial sense of autonomy within the workspace is taken away
(B. E. Becker & Huselid, 1998; Wood & Wall, 2007).
Experiment 1
In our first experiment, participants were drawn from a wide
cross-section of society and were recruited to take part in a study
that was conducted in a university psychology department. Here
participants were randomly assigned to one of the four experimen-
tal conditions described above to gauge the impact of various
space management strategies on organizational identification,
well-being, and productivity with reference to our three main
Participants and design. There were 112 people (40 men, 72
women) ranging in age from 18 to 78 years (M37.55, SD
15.05) who took part in the study. Of the sample, 31% described
themselves as students, 61% as being in paid employment, and 8%
as retired. Potential participants were recruited from a range of
sources, but most were drawn from a panel of members of the
general community who had indicated a willingness to participate
in psychological research. Participation was voluntary and unpaid,
although where appropriate, traveling expenses were reimbursed.
Individual participants were randomly assigned to one of four
conditions (lean, enriched, empowered, or disempowered). The
main dependent variables were psychological comfort, organiza-
tional identification, job satisfaction, physical comfort, and pro-
Materials and procedure. The laboratory “office” was a small
interior office in a psychology department, measuring 3.5 m 2m.
The office had no windows or natural light. Participants arrived
individually and it was explained to them that they would take part
in an experiment examining performance on analytical, process-
ing, and intellectual tasks. Participants gave their informed consent
and confidentiality and anonymity were assured.
At every trial, the experimenter (Craig Knight) explained that he
needed to confirm a room booking with a secretary, thus leaving
the participant alone in the office space for 5 min to take in the
ambient environment. The office contained a rectangular desk
(1,600 mm 800 mm) and a comfortable office chair on castors.
The room was lit by diffused, overhead fluorescent tubes, the floor
was carpeted and an air conditioning system kept the room at a
constant temperature of 21 °C.
In the lean condition, no further additions to the room were
made. In the enriched condition, participants were shown into a
space where six potted plants (each approximately 350 mm high)
had already been placed toward the edge of the desk surface, so as
not to impinge on the participants’ working area. Six pictures (800
mm 800 mm) hung around the walls. The pictures were all
photographs of plants enlarged onto canvas.
In the empowered condition, participants entered an office
where the pictures and plants were placed randomly around the
room. They were told that they could decorate the space to their
taste using as many, or as few, of the plants and pictures provided
as they wished. They could therefore work in a lean or very
enriched space or at a point anywhere along that continuum. The
disempowered condition involved the same initial procedure as the
empowered condition. However, when the experimenter reentered
the office, he looked at the chosen decorations, briefly thanked the
participant and then completely rearranged the pictures and
plants—thereby overriding the participant’s choices. If challenged,
participants were told that their designs were not in line with those
required by the experiment. No further information was given until
the final debrief.
Card-sorting task. Once the experimenter returned to the of-
fice (or as soon as he had rearranged the pictures and plants in the
disempowered condition), he asked the participant to perform a
card-sorting task. Three packs of playing cards had been shuffled
together and the participant was required to sort them back into the
three constituent packs and to sort each pack into its four suits
(hearts, clubs, diamonds, and spades). These suits then had to be
ordered from ace to king and placed in discreet piles, leaving 12
piles altogether. The key performance measures were the time
taken to complete this task and the number of errors made.
Vigilance task. After this, participants performed a vigilance
task. For this purpose they were given an A4 photocopy of the
same magazine article and asked to cross out and count all the
lower case letters “b” that were on the page. The time taken to
complete the task was measured as well as the number of errors
(missed “b”s).
In both cases the participants were told that they needed to
perform the tasks as quickly and as accurately as possible.
Questionnaire. After they had finished both tasks, participants
completed a 74-item questionnaire, in which items measuring
different constructs were presented on five different pages. Most of
these required a response on a 7-point scale ranging from 1
(completely disagree)to7(completely agree). The penultimate
page obtained participants’ demographic information. The first
items constituted manipulation checks in which participants were
asked to consider the managerial control of space (Tapping &
Shuker, 2002; Taylor, 1911). There were three, 3-item scales that
examined (a) involvement (␣⫽.87; e.g., “I felt engaged in what
I was doing in the office”; after Lodahl & Kejner, 1965); (b)
autonomy (␣⫽.82; e.g., “During this experiment I had control
over my environment”; after Breaugh, 1989) and (c) quality of
workspace (␣⫽.87; e.g., “This was a pleasant room in which to
work”; after Ferguson & Weisman, 1986).
The scales that followed were all based on previous studies of
space management and organizational identification at work
(Knight & Haslam, in press). Psychological comfort was measured
using a 5-item scale (␣⫽.87; e.g., “I felt at ease during the
experiment”; after Vischer, 2005). Organizational identification
was measured by three items that assessed participants’ identifi-
cation with the university in which the study was conducted (␣⫽
.70; e.g., “I identify with the university”; after Doosje, Ellemers, &
Spears, 1995). Employees’ positive experience of work was as-
sessed using two scales (a) job satisfaction (5 items; ␣⫽.68; e.g.,
“I enjoyed the “finding the letters” task”; after Haslam, O’Brien,
Jetten, Vormedal, & Penna., 2005) and (b) physical comfort (5
items; ␣⫽.75; e.g., “I felt too hot in the room”; after Spector et
al., 2005). After completing the questionnaire, participants were
debriefed and thanked for their participation.
Analytic strategy. Questionnaire and performance data were
analyzed by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with office
condition (lean, enriched, empowered, disempowered) as a
between-participants factor. Interitem correlations are shown in
Table 1; means and effect sizes (
) are presented in Tables 2 and 3.
Effect sizes indicate how much of the variance in the DV (depen-
dent variable) can be accounted for by each IV (independent
variable). Here an eta-square of .07 is considered moderate, .14
large (Sheshkin, 2004).
Manipulation checks. ANOVAs revealed effects for in-
volvement, autonomy and quality of workspace, Fs(3, 108)
44.92, 38.21, 20.23, respectively, all ps.001,
s.56, .51,
.36, respectively. Orthogonal planned contrasts showed that (a)
participants in the lean condition felt less involved, less auton-
omous, and thought they were in a poorer quality space than
participants in other conditions; (b) that participants in the
enriched office felt less involved and less autonomous than
participants in the empowered condition; and (c) that partici-
pants in the disempowered condition felt less involved, less
autonomous, and thought they were in a poorer quality space
than participants in the enriched and empowered conditions.
Relevant statistics are presented in Table 2.
Organizational identification. Analysis revealed a main effect
for organizational identification, F(3, 108) 2.87, p.04,
However, orthogonal contrasts only provided support for H3a in
showing that participants in the disempowered condition identified
less with the organization than participants in enriched and empow-
ered conditions. Relevant statistics are presented in Table 2.
Well-being. Analysis revealed effects for psychological comfort,
job satisfaction, and physical comfort, Fs(3, 108) 21.15, 5.55,
10.03, respectively, ps.001, .001, .001, respectively,
.13, .22, respectively. Consistent with H1b, orthogonal contrasts
showed that participants in the lean condition felt less psychologically
comfortable, reported less job satisfaction, and expressed lower feel-
ings of physical comfort than participants in other conditions. Con-
sistent with H2b, orthogonal contrasts showed that participants in the
empowered condition felt more psychologically comfortable and re-
ported greater job satisfaction than participants in the enriched con-
dition. Consistent with H3b, orthogonal contrasts showed that partic-
ipants in the disempowered condition felt less psychologically
comfortable and reported lower feelings of physical comfort than
participants in the enriched and empowered conditions. Again, rele-
vant statistics are presented in Table 2.
Productivity. Analysis revealed effects for time taken to com-
plete the card-sorting and the vigilance tasks, Fs(3, 108) 10.07,
4.44, respectively, both ps.01,
s.22, .11, respectively.
However, there were no effects for the number of errors made on
either task, Fs(3, 108) 1.67, 0.91, ps.18, .44,
s.04, .02,
respectively. Consistent with H1c, orthogonal contrasts showed that
participants in the lean condition took longer to complete both timed
tasks than participants in other conditions. Consistent with H2c,
orthogonal contrasts showed that participants in the empowered con-
dition took less time to complete the card-sorting task than partici-
pants in the enriched condition. Consistent with H3c, orthogonal
contrasts showed that participants in the disempowered condition took
more time to complete the vigilance task than those in enriched and
empowered conditions. Relevant statistics are presented in Table 3.
This experiment provided support for our three core hypotheses.
Consistent with H1, relative to the lean condition, participants in
Table 1
Experiment 1: Bivariate Correlations
Dependent variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Involvement — .16 .65
.08 .41
2. Autonomy .01 .02 .12 .06 .07
3. Quality of workspace .75
.04 .39
4. Psychological comfort .14 .40
5. Organizational identification .30
6. Job satisfaction .35
7. Physical comfort
Table 2
Experiment 1: Scale Properties, Means, and Effects for Measures of Participants’ Subjective Experience
Dependent variable
Condition (n112) Effects Contrasts (tvalues)
Lean Enriched Empowered Disempowered F(3, 108)
Effect size
LvR, P,
D, H1
RvP, H2
DvR, P, H3
2.56 3.21 5.77 3.18 44.92
.56 6.08
SD 1.06 1.34 0.91 1.15
2.90 3.77 5.93 3.95 38.21
.51 6.90
SD 1.20 1.31 0.85 0.96
Quality of workspace
3.32 5.39 5.49 4.57 20.23
.36 7.10
0.32 3.18
SD 1.12 1.09 1.02 1.06
Psychological comfort
4.01 4.74 5.72 4.24 21.15
.37 4.64
SD 1.11 0.99 1.02 1.06
Organizational identification
4.60 5.25 4.64 4.33 2.87
.07 0.56 1.88 2.17
SD 1.19 1.13 1.14 1.37
Job satisfaction
4.82 5.26 5.71 5.31 5.55
.13 3.39
SD 0.82 0.93 0.78 0.74
Physical comfort
4.56 5.49 5.74 4.59 10.03
.22 3.19
0.92 4.37
SD 1.29 0.88 0.96 0.90
Note. Llean; R enriched; P empowered; Ddisempowered; H1 Hypothesis 1, (L R, P, D); H2 Hypothesis 2, (D R); H3 Hypothesis
3, (D R, P, H).
Means relate to 7-point scales (1 [completely disagree]–7 [completely agree]).
Contrast related to relevant hypotheses.
enriched office space reported enhanced feelings of organizational
identification and well-being, in line with previous claims made in
the design literature (Elsbach & Beckhy, 2007; Zelinsky, 2006). It
also led to the tasks being performed quicker, with no decrement
in accuracy.
When participants were empowered to decorate their own work-
ing space, this led to further improvements in participants’ per-
ceptions of their working conditions. Consistent with H2, empow-
erment within the office space improved feelings of well-being
(Faller, 2002; Haslam, Eggins, & Reynolds, 2003; Postmes et al.,
2001; van Dick, Ullrich, & Tissington, 2006). Tasks were also
completed more quickly but, more important, without any accom-
panying rise in errors. However, once this feeling of empowerment
was overridden by the experimenters (i.e., in the disempowered
condition), as predicted by H3, feelings of organizational identi-
fication and well-being fell relative to those of participants in both
the enriched and the empowered conditions. Disempowerment also
led participants to take longer to complete the two tasks (Peters,
Despite the support that it provides for our hypotheses, this first
study also has some significant limitations. First, our sample
represented a fairly wide cross-section of the population who had
not necessarily experienced office work themselves. Second, the
experiment took place in a university setting, whereas (for obvious
reasons) the majority of previous design studies have been based in
the workspace (e.g., Brill et al., 1984; Dravigne, Waliczek,
Lineberger & Zajicek, 2008; Gensler, 2005; Gorjup, Valverde, &
Ryan, 2008; Louis, 2007).
Third, although support for our hypotheses was generally
strong, it was noticeably weaker on the measure of organizational
identification. Indeed, the fact that there was no support for H1a or
H2b meant that there could be no evidence of organizational
identification mediating the relationship between the way space
was managed and participants’ well-being and productivity (as
found in the previous survey research; Knight & Haslam, in press).
In part, this may reflect the fact that identification was here
operationalized by asking participants to express their level of
identification with an organizational entity (the university), that
was irrelevant both to their everyday lives and to this study. More
relevant, then, was their identification with those who conducted
the study itself. However, this was something we failed to assess.
Another concern was that the card-sorting task could be seen as
unrepresentative of tasks typically performed in an office environ-
ment (Anastasi, 1988). Finally, this study did not include specific
measures of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB; Organ,
1988) that might have allowed us to examine issues of workspace
motivation and consideration. Along these lines, OCB is seen as a
key indicator of relevant outcomes at the organizational level
because it measures “behavior that is discretionary, not directly or
explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the
aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the
organization” and so would seem to be particularly important to
address in this context (Organ, 1988, p. 4; see also Baker, Hunt, &
Andrews, 2006; Messer & White, 2006; Tyler & Blader, 2000).
Experiment 2
Experiment 1 provided evidence that participants performed and
felt better having been involved in decisions that affected their
Table 3
Experiment 1: Means and Effects for Performance Measures
Dependent variable
Condition (n112) Effects Contrasts (tvalues)
Lean Enriched Empowered Disempowered F(3, 103)
Effect size
LvR, P,
D, H1
RvP, H2
P, H3
Card sorting task
(SD) 15.24 (3.20) 12.91 (3.19) 10.94 (2.64) 12.76 (2.70) 10.07
.22 4.74
Card sorting task
(SD) 1.04 (2.02) 1.29 (1.98) 0.36 (0.95) 0.82 (1.22) 1.67 .04 0.61 2.15
Vigilance task
(SD) 7.51 (1.92) 6.69 (1.76) 6.08 (1.20) 7.70 (2.45) 4.44
.11 1.66
1.21 3.02
Vigilance task
(SD) 19.54 (6.25) 17.64 (6.52) 18.21 (4.89) 19.82 (5.40) 0.91 .02 0.77 0.37 1.41
Total time
(SD) 22.75, 100% (4.12) 19.60, 86.2% (3.47) 16.74, 73.6% (2.39) 20.47, 90.0% (4.28) 13.11
.27 4.81
Total errors
(SD) 20.57, 100% (6.80) 18.86, 91.2% (7.40) 18.36, 89.3% (4.97) 20.64, 100.3% (5.96) 0.96 .03 0.93 0.30 1.39
Note. Llean; R enriched; P empowered; Ddisempowered; H1 Hypothesis 1, (L R, P, D); H2 Hypothesis 2, (D R); H3 Hypothesis 3, (D R, P, H).
Contrast related to relevant hypotheses.
Time given in minutes.
Number of errors.
Total time and total errors (productivity) are shown as a percentage of the control (Lean) condition.
workspace. As hypothesized, nonempowered and disempowered
participants (after Baldry et al., 1998; Laing et al., 1998; Sewell,
1998; van Dick, Christ, & Stellmacher, 2004) were less satisfied
and less productive than participants who were empowered. Nev-
ertheless, as outlined above, the study had significant limitations.
To address these issues, Experiment 2 used a sample drawn ex-
clusively from a population of office workers. The experiment
itself took place in a working office and contained more realistic,
office-based tasks. The study also included a more relevant mea-
sure of organizational identification and an explicit measure of
organizational citizenship behavior (Organ, 1988). These tasks
were designed to replicate the straightforward tasks (information
processing and management) and repetitive activities (vigilance)
found in many low-skilled office jobs (C. Harris & Harris, 2006).
Although recognizing that self-reported OCB is of only limited
validity (Baker et al., 2006); it was felt that developing a quanti-
fiable measure of citizenship behavior would usefully augment the
results of the study. On the basis of social identity theorizing, we
anticipated that OCB would increase to the extent that workers
identify with each other and with their employer (Haslam, 2004;
Postmes et al., 2001). Thus, although the hypotheses for Experi-
ment 2 were the same as those in Experiment 1, we also predicted
that OCB would be more apparent in an enriched office than a lean
office (H1d), that OCB would increase further in an empowered
space (H2d), and that it would be reduced if empowered workers
were subsequently disempowered (H3d).
Participants and design. The design of Experiment 2 was the
same as Experiment 1 but with the addition of a quantifiable
measure of OCB. There were 47 office workers (28 men, 19
women) ranging in age from 22 to 61 years (M36.23, SD
9.57) who took part in the study. Of the sample, 35% described
themselves as nonmanagement staff, 30% as lower management,
26% as middle management, and 9% as senior management.
Potential participants, all from commercial businesses, were con-
tacted by mail, email, and telephone. Participation was on a vol-
untary basis and was unpaid.
Materials and procedures. The study was conducted in Lon-
don in an air-conditioned commercial office approximately 4.5 m
6 m in size. The space housed an executive desk (approximate
dimensions 2,200 800 mm) with two, 90° returns of approxi-
mately 2,000 600 mm, so that the effective desktop area took up
three sides of a hollow square with the participant at its center.
There was also a large matching credenza with eye-level storage in
the room (approximately 1,800 high 2,200 wide 800 deep).
Participants sat in a high backed, comfortable leather chair as they
worked. The room had a raised Tec-Crete floor, with a large
sea-grass rug beneath the desk covering the immediate working
area. The door and most of the walls were glass. Given that the
office used in Experiment 1 had no windows, views and external
distractions in this second experiment were minimized by ensuring
that participants sat with their backs to the outside world. Mean-
while temporary, opaque transfers were fixed to all other areas of
glass up to eye-line height thus obscuring any further views. The
study followed the same procedure as Experiment 1, using the
same number of plants and pictures. Participants spent 5 min alone
in their workspace in which to absorb the ambient environment
before the experiment began.
Measures. Although the instructions and timing procedures
were the same as in Experiment 1, the measures in Experiment 2
varied slightly to include tasks that were more representative of an
office environment (Anastasi, 1988). An additional OCB element
was also added.
Information management and processing task. Participants
were asked to work with a shuffled pile of corporate memoranda
based on a fictitious company. They had to imagine that they were
employees of this company and (a) sort the memoranda into
chronological order (an information management task) and then
(b) answer 15, multiple-choice questions based on the information
contained in these memos (an information processing task).
Vigilance task. The experiment’s second element, was exactly
the same as in Experiment 1 and once more participants were told
that they needed to perform the tasks as quickly and accurately as
Organizational citizenship behavior task. This new measure
took the form of a quantifiable, OCB task (after Organ, 1988;
Williams Pitre, & Zainuba, 2000). This built on the participants’
fictitious employment with the company described in the informa-
tion management task. Participants were asked to imagine that in
addition to a normal workload, they were responsible for 10 further
tasks. Five of these were undesirable (e.g., “Draw up proposals
about how the company should reduce its headcount”) and five
were desirable (e.g., “Represent the company at the annual Awards
Dinner”; after Paille, 2008). Participants were told that any number
of these tasks could be off-loaded onto a colleague and that this
would have no additional implications for them as the company’s
management would make sure that the participants’ peers did not
find out the source of any increase in workload.
Questionnaire. The same questionnaire was used as in Exper-
iment 1, but with two modifications. The three-item, organiza-
tional identification scale now reflected participants’ identification
with the organization managing (rather than the organization host-
ing) the experiment (␣⫽.90; typical item: “I identify with the
organization that is running this experiment”; after Doosje et al.,
1995), while the job satisfaction scale incorporated a measure of
OCB (8 items; ␣⫽.90; e.g., “If these were my normal working
conditions I would stay behind to do extra work if necessary, even
if I was not paid overtime”; after Haslam, O’Brien, Jetten,
Vormedal, & Penna, 2005).
Analytic strategy. Questionnaire and performance data were
then analyzed by means of ANOVA with office condition (lean,
enriched, empowered, disempowered) as a between-participants
factor. Interitem correlations are shown in Table 4; means and
effect sizes (
) are presented in Tables 5 and 6.
Manipulation checks. ANOVAs revealed effects for involve-
ment, autonomy and quality of workspace, Fs(3, 43) 18.42,
29.96, 11.51, respectively, all ps.001,
s.57, .68, .45,
respectively. Orthogonal planned contrasts indicated that (a) par-
ticipants in the lean condition felt less involved, less autonomous,
and thought they were in a poorer quality space than participants
in other conditions; (b) participants in the enriched office felt less
involved and less autonomous than participants in the empowered
condition; and (c) participants in the disempowered condition felt
less involved, less autonomous, and thought they were in a poorer
quality space than participants in the enriched and empowered
conditions. Relevant statistics are presented in Table 5.
Organizational identification. Analysis revealed a main ef-
fect for organizational identification, F(3, 43) 4.29, p.01,
.23. However, although this effect was stronger than that
obtained in Experiment 1, orthogonal contrasts again only pro-
vided support for H3a in showing that participants in the disem-
powered condition identified less with the organization than par-
ticipants in enriched and empowered conditions. Relevant statistics
are presented in Table 5.
Well-being. Analysis revealed effects for psychological com-
fort, job satisfaction, and physical comfort, Fs(3, 43) 20.50,
7.00, 6.65, respectively, all ps.01,
s.65, .33, .32, respec-
tively. Consistent with H1b, orthogonal planned contrasts indi-
cated that participants in the lean condition felt less psychologi-
cally comfortable, reported less job satisfaction, and felt less
physically comfortable than participants in other conditions. Con-
sistent with H2b, orthogonal contrasts showed that participants in
the empowered condition felt more psychologically comfortable
than participants in the enriched condition. Consistent with H3b,
orthogonal contrasts indicated that participants in the disempow-
ered condition felt less psychologically comfortable, reported
lower levels of job satisfaction, and reported feeling less physically
comfortable than participants in enriched and empowered condi-
tions. Relevant statistics are again presented in Table 5.
Productivity. Analysis revealed effects for time taken to com-
plete both the information management and the vigilance tasks,
Fs(3, 43) 3.73, 5.75, respectively, ps.018, .002, respectively,
s.21, .29, respectively. It also revealed effects for the number
of errors made on the information management task F(3, 43)
4.17, p.011,
.23. At the same time there were no effects
for the number of errors made on the vigilance task, F(3, 43)
1.23, p.311,
.08. Consistent with H1c, orthogonal planned
contrasts showed that participants in the lean condition took longer
to complete the information management task. There were no
significant differences in the number of errors made on the infor-
mation management task. Consistent with H2c, orthogonal con-
trasts showed that participants in the empowered condition took
less time to complete the vigilance task than participants in the
enriched condition. There were no significant differences in terms
of the number of errors made on the information management task.
Consistent with H3c, orthogonal contrasts showed that participants
in the disempowered condition took longer to complete the vigi-
lance task than participants in either the enriched or the empow-
ered conditions. Participants in the disempowered condition also
made significantly more errors on the information management
task than those in the enriched or empowered conditions. Relevant
statistics are presented in Table 6.
Organizational citizenship. Analysis revealed a main effect
for the total number of tasks retained on the OCB task, F(3, 43)
4.77, p.006,
.25. Consistent with H1d, orthogonal planned
contrasts indicated that participants in the lean condition retained
Table 4
Experiment 2: Bivariate Correlations
Dependent variable 1 2 34567
1. Involvement — .01 .89
2. Autonomy .04 .12 .07 .05 .02
3. Quality of workspace .79
4. Psychological comfort .64
5. Organizational identification .72
6. Job satisfaction .60
7. Physical comfort
Table 5
Experiment 2: Scale Properties, Means, and Effects for Measures of Participants’ Subjective Experience
Condition (n47) Effects Contrasts (tvalues)
Dependent variable Lean Enriched Empowered Disempowered F(3, 43)
Effect size
LvR, P,
D, H1
RvP, H2
DvR, P, H3
(SD) 2.25 (1.37) 4.82 (0.91) 5.83 (0.66) 2.79 (1.24) 18.42
.57 4.93
(SD) 2.44 (1.33) 4.33 (1.22) 5.94 (1.28) 2.48 (1.50) 29.96
.68 5.14
Quality of workspace
(SD) 3.39 (1.51) 5.47 (1.32) 5.69 (1.40) 3.82 (1.44) 11.51
.45 4.08
0.46 4.12
Psychological comfort
(SD) 3.02 (1.44) 4.98 (1.06) 5.68 (1.23) 3.20 (1.64) 20.50
.65 5.45
Organizational identification
(SD) 4.00 (2.10) 5.19 (1.19) 5.00 (1.13) 3.21 (1.41) 4.29
.23 0.93 0.32 3.43
Job satisfaction
(SD) 3.51 (1.69) 5.06 (1.13) 5.25 (0.98) 4.02 (1.75) 7.00
.33 3.49
0.43 2.87
Physical comfort
(SD) 5.02 (1.28) 6.08 (1.55) 6.45 (1.25) 4.79 (1.25) 6.65
.32 2.11
0.84 3.81
Note. H1 Hypothesis 1, (L R, P, D); H2 Hypothesis 2, (R P); H3 Hypothesis 3, (D R, P).
Contrast related to relevant hypotheses.
Means relate to 7-point scales (1 [completely disagree]–7 [completely agree]).
fewer OCB tasks (particularly, fewer negative tasks) than partici-
pants in other conditions. No other contrasts were significant (i.e.,
there was no support for H2d or H3d). Relevant statistics are
presented in Table 6.
The findings from this experiment are consistent with those
from Experiment 1 and provide further support for our experimen-
tal hypotheses. Consistent with H1, relative to the lean condition,
enriched office space led to improved feelings of psychological
comfort, job satisfaction, and physical comfort. It also led to tasks
being performed more quickly and to an increase in organizational
citizenship behavior.
Consistent with H2, when participants were empowered to dec-
orate their own working space, this led to a further improvement in
feelings of psychological comfort and to an increase in their levels
of productivity relative to participants in the enriched condition.
As had been found in Experiment 1, and consistent with Hypoth-
esis 3, among disempowered participants, feelings of psychologi-
cal comfort, organizational identification, and physical comfort all
fell relative to participants in both the enriched and empowered
conditions. Disempowered participants also tended to take more
time to complete the two tasks.
As well as replicating effects observed in Experiment 1, this
study extended its findings within a working commercial office as
opposed to a university laboratory and used a representative orga-
nizational sample. It also examined the impact of space manage-
ment on organizational citizenship behavior, which was lower in
the lean office than in all other conditions. This is in accord with
observations in the social psychological literature, which suggest
that when managers extend visible signs of care and empowerment
to employees, this can enhance organizational identification and
thereby increase the likelihood of workers engaging in more su-
pracontractual activity that benefits both their colleagues and their
employer (Baker et al., 2006; Williams & Anderson, 1991). As in
Experiment 1, however, there was again no evidence that organi-
zational identification played this mediational role, as effects on
this measure provided less support for our specific hypotheses than
responses on other outcome measures.
General Discussion
The two experiments reported above provide consistent support
for our hypotheses and for the central claim of this paper, namely
that design and empowerment both have an important role to play
in determining people’s responses to their work environment. In
both experiments, well-being and productivity were enhanced by
enriching a space (H1) and then further enhanced by empowering
participants (H2) within the same working environment. However,
disempowering participants (H3) had the effect of significantly
compromising both well-being and productivity. Experiment 2
also indicated that enrichment and empowerment led to increased
OCB (Organ, 1988). It is worth noting that in the empowered
condition there were no significant differences on key dependent
variables as a function of whether participants chose to create a
spartan or enriched space. These hypotheses, and the level of
support they received across the two experiments, are summarized
in Table 7.
Table 6
Experiment 2: Means and Effects for Performance Measures
Dependent variable
Condition (n47) Effects Contrasts (t-values)
Lean Enriched Empowered Disempowered F(3, 43)
Effect size
LvR, P,
D, H1
RvP, H2
DvR, P,
Information management/handling
(SD) 32.04 (9.28) 25.49 (6.85) 21.29 (6.63) 27.27 (8.91) 3.73
.21 2.75
1.29 1.33
Information management
(SD) 1.42 (1.08) 1.00 (1.21) 0.75 (.97) 2.64 (2.06) 4.17
.23 0.10 0.44 3.52
Vigilance task
(SD) 8.42 (2.11) 8.03 (2.34) 6.13 (1.78) 9.67 (2.06) 5.75
.29 0.68 2.24
(SD) 22.92 (10.16) 20.00 (9.97) 16.33 (8.99) 21.64 (9.98) 1.23 .08 1.21 1.01 1.07
Total time
(SD) 40.45, 100% (10.26) 33.53, 82.9% (7.62) 27.41, 67.8% (6.74) 36.94, 91.3% (9.70) 4.58
.24 2.61
1.67 1.98
Total errors
(SD) 24.33, 100% (10.02) 20.42, 83.9% (8.91) 17.08, 70.2% (6.52) 24.09, 99.0% (9.87) 1.88 .12 1.32 0.95 1.70
Negative OCB tasks retained (SD) 2.00 (1.91) 3.42 (1.17) 3.92 (.79) 2.82 (1.42) 4.20
.23 2.97
0.88 1.67
Positive OCB tasks retained (SD) 2.50 (1.31) 3.25 (.87) 2.75 (.97) 3.09 (.94) 1.25 .08 1.53 1.18 0.24
Total OCB tasks retained
(SD) 4.50, 100% (1.98) 6.42, 142.7% (1.78) 6.67, 148.2% (1.24) 5.91, 131.3% (1.30) 4.77
.25 3.56
0.40 1.13
Note. H1 Hypothesis 1, (L R, P, D); H2 Hypothesis 2, (R P); H3 Hypothesis 3, (D R, P); OCB organizational citizenship behavior.
Contrast related to relevant hypotheses.
Time given in minutes.
Given in errors.
Total time and total errors (productivity), and number of tasks retained (OCB) are shown as a percentage
of the control (Lean) condition.
The evidence presented here is in accord with the view that lean
conditions may indeed be psychologically impoverished (Munster-
berg, 1913; Zelinksy, 2006) and that insufficient peripheral stim-
ulation may be a factor in lower performance (Bringslimark et al.,
2007; Peters & Waterman, 2004; Zeisel, 2006). Certainly, enrich-
ing the environment—in line with most animal studies (e.g., Lars-
son, Winblad, & Mohammed, 2002)—made a quantitative and
qualitative difference to participants’ perceptions and perfor-
mances. As one of our participants remarked, “it’s so nice to come
into an office with plants and pictures, it makes a place feel more
homely, even a glass box [of an office] like this.” In line with
claims in the organizational literature (B. E. Becker & Huselid,
1998; Lawler, 1986) and as suggested by research in the social
identity tradition (Ellemers et al., 2004) having input into the
design of their work space increased participants’ feelings of
autonomy and decisional involvement and this led to increases in
comfort, job satisfaction and productivity. However, as a corollary,
these effects were attenuated when participants were disempow-
ered (Cohen, 2007; Peters, 1989).
From one perspective, these results may not seem at all surpris-
ing. Workers’ perception of procedural fairness via participative
decision making has already been equated with higher levels of
organizational identification and greater job satisfaction (Ellermers
et al., 2004; Haslam, 2004; Tyler & Blader, 2000). Nevertheless,
these data sit uncomfortably with a large body of neo-Taylorist
literature that promotes lean space, clean-desk policies, and stan-
dardized managerial control of working environments as keys to
productivity (e.g., Fredrickson, 1989; Hyer & Wemmerlov, 2002;
Marmot & Ely, 2000; Mills et al., 2007; Sewell & Wilkinson,
1992; Titman, 1991; Wilmott, 1993). Illustratively, Hobson (2006,
p. 33) argued that to maximize efficiency, the office must be
standardized to a pattern determined by management and clearly
communicated to staff. Such an approach points to a gulf between
managers empowered to think and the workers who are expected
to respond to their injunctions (see Baldry et al., 1998). Hobson
explained that “Having a defined, current best way of doing
something is of course completely useless unless people use it. We
(i.e., management) must communicate the new way of working to
the people who will use it” (p. 38). This philosophy of standard-
ization and control lie at the core of the lean office (see Keyte &
Locher, 2004; Louis, 2007) in which the practice of “sorting”
(George et al., 2004; Hirano, 1995; Peterka, 2006), encourages
managers to remove all items not directly related to the business
process to promote “work focus” and to minimize distraction
(Thompson, 2000).
Contrary to these ideas, the data from the present research
indicate that a lean space over which employees have no control is
the least productive use of the working environment. Instead, our
findings suggest that welfare and productivity are most likely to be
optimized by practices that empower the workforce (after Reicher
& Haslam, 2006). Indeed, in the experiments here, empowerment
was the key differentiating factor in increasing productivity by up
to 32%.
When management follows the recommendations to limit or
eliminate entirely the decisional involvement of low-status work-
ers in environmental decision making (e.g., Brill et al., 1984;
Duffy, 1997; Durmusoglu & Kulak, 2008; Faller, 2002; Garten-
berg, 2006; George et al., 2004; Hirano, 1996; Titman, 1991), the
result, as Vischer (2005) pointed out, is that apparently rational
space alteration, such as the removal of a door or partition, made
by managers and planners in the interests of efficiency, can mean
a “loss of privacy, a loss of control, a loss of identity” for the
powerless person who works in that space (p. 45). Such managerial
intrusion into “established” workspace (Sewell, 1998) links to the
fourth condition in the present studies, in which disempowerment
of participants was found to be at least as disadvantageous as
imposing a lean environment. Our results thus suggest that work-
space management techniques such as “setting in order” (George
et al., 2004; Hobson, 2006), which is prescriptive at the micro
level—so that, for example, “a draftsman should locate all his
stationery within reachable distance but not put (out) more pencils
than required on an average day” (Peterka, 2006, para. 4)—are
likely to compromise comfort, organizational identification, and
ultimately organizational effectiveness.
These findings represent an advance on previous studies in
providing a direct, quantitative assessment of the relative benefits
of approaches to space management informed by Taylorist, design
and social identity approaches. Although the patterns observed
here accord with findings that have previously been observed in
qualitative, case studies (e.g., Elsbach, 2003; Keyte & Locher,
2002; Laing et al., 1998; Peters & Waterman, 2004), the particular
advantage of the present research is that it uses an experimental
approach to manipulate relevant variables thereby increasing con-
trol over these variables and increasing confidence in the causal
Table 7
Summary of Support for Hypotheses Across Both Experiments
Hypothesis 1: Lean inferior
to all other conditions
Hypothesis 2: Enriched
inferior to empowered
Hypothesis 3:
Disempowered inferior to
enriched and empowered
Dependent variable Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 1 Exp. 2
Psychological comfort ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹ ()⫹⫹ ⫹⫹
Organizational identification ––––⫹⫹
Job satisfaction ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹ ––⫹⫹
Physical comfort ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹
Productivity—Time ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹ ⫹⫹ ()
Productivity—Errors –––––()
Organizational citizenship Not tested ⫹⫹ Not tested ⫹⫹ Not tested
Note. Exp. experiment; ⫹⫽strong support ( p.01); ⫹⫽support ( p.05); ()weak support ( p.10); – no support ( p.10).
status of our independent variables. These data thus provide strong
support for previous suggestions that there may be value in orga-
nizations taking steps to empower all employees in the develop-
ment and management of their work space. This conclusion is very
much at odds with Taylorist principles and the managerial ap-
proach they have inspired, but it also points to some of the
limitations of a design-led approach to space management that
similarly lacks nonmanagerial input (Baldry et al., 1998; Furnham,
1990; Haberkorn, 2005; Hobsbawm, 1969; Louis, 2007; Masaaki,
1986; McGregor, 1960; Taylor, 1911; Zalesny & Farace, 1987).
Limitations and Further Research
Not withstanding the support it lends our hypotheses, this re-
search also has a number of limitations. The first of these is the
nature of the work space, which, even in Experiment 2, was
somewhat artificial. Participants were introduced to a strange
space and asked to perform unfamiliar tasks—a situation clearly
unlike most working offices in which workers are familiar with
both their working environment and the often repetitious nature of
their jobs (Baldry et al., 1998; Laing et al., 1998). In Experiment
2 it could be argued that instead of creating a more realistic setting
within a commercial environment, we had instead simply created
a laboratory in an office. This though, was very much the point, in
that by excluding the role of elements that were extraneous to our
purpose, the two studies allowed for a more forensic examination
of different theoretical positions than has previously been possible
(Mook, 1983; Turner, 1981). Indeed, in this respect, our manipu-
lations may have exposed less striking effects than we might
otherwise have achieved (e.g., had we disempowered participants
in their own established office rather than one in which they were
unfamiliar; see Peters & Waterman, 2004; Wegge, van Dick,
Fischer, Wecking, & Moltzen, 2006; Zelinsky, 2006).
Second, our studies examined individuals in cellular space,
whereas most low-status office workers work (a) in multiper-
son, open-plan offices and (b) in teams (see Baldry et al., 1998;
Barker, 1993; Fredrickson, 1989; Laing et al., 1998; Millward
et al., 2007). Accordingly, there is clearly a need for future
studies to extend the reasoning of the present studies to inves-
tigate the behavior of groups of participants working in desig-
nated space. Our general expectation would be that the hypoth-
eses explored here would also hold true in these contexts,
although we might expect the effects to be moderated by social
identity dynamics that would exacerbate both productivity and
resistance (e.g., see Haslam, 2004).
Third, it is apparent that although we had expected the impact of
our manipulations on key outcomes to be mediated by organiza-
tional identification (as they were in previous survey research;
Knight & Haslam, in press), neither of the above studies provided
any evidence of this. In part this was a consequence of the fact that
the effects observed on our measure of organizational identifica-
tion were weaker than those observed on other key measures (i.e.,
of well-being and productivity). Planned contrasts thus indicated
that identification was lower when participants worked in disem-
powered rather than enriched or empowered space (supporting
H3a), but there was no evidence that identification was lower in
the lean office than others (H1a), or lower in the enriched office
than in the empowered one (H2a). The reasons for this are unclear
and certainly warrant further investigation. Although in Experi-
ment 1 there were problems with the way that the identification
measure was framed, these were rectified in Experiment 2, but
there was still only limited evidence of variation in identification
across conditions. It is possible however, that this reflects the fact
that the present studies manipulated rather than simply measured
organizational identification. In particular, whereas in survey stud-
ies the meaning of identification is quite clear and is anchored in
people’s ongoing organizational experiences (reflecting what
Rousseau (1998) referred to as deep identification; see also Riketta
& van Dick, 2005), in the present context—in which participants
were responding to a novel and unfamiliar organizational con-
text—its meaning may have been less clear (reflecting what Rous-
seau termed surface identification, 1998) with the result that it did
not covary quite so straightforwardly with the IV. Consistent with
this point, Sigall and Mills (1998) sounded a cautionary note in
identifying a range of reasons why experimental studies often fail
to detect mediation when it is present (and vice versa; see also
Haslam & McGarty, 2004).
It follows from this point, fourth, that there would be value in
longitudinal research that examined the processes we have studied
here over an extended period. The present studies do not show, for
example, whether workers in the lean office perform better as time
progresses. We find it interesting that the lean literature suggests
they do not. Indeed, sustaining improvements associated with the
introduction of lean practices is frequently cited as hard for man-
agers to achieve (George et al., 2004; Hobson, 2006; Peterka,
2006). Conversely, it is important to establish whether improve-
ments brought about by empowering employees will be main-
tained in the way that the literature suggests they are (Cohen, 2007;
Duffy, 1997; Vischer, 2006).
Fifth, it is also the case that our OCB task would benefit from
proper weighting. Originally we asked 12 office workers not involved
in the study to rate which seven of 14 original tasks they considered
undesirable and which seven they considered desirable. The top five
undesirable and desirable tasks were then used in the experiment
itself. However, had we also asked for these tasks to be explicitly
weighted (e.g., in terms of time taken and popular/negative affect) the
reliability of this measure might have been improved.
Finally, our research to date has concentrated on the world of work.
However, it may be beneficial to examine the effects of empowerment
in, for example, hospital or residential care environments. Literature
tells us of the importance of high-quality emotional contact with
family and friends in such settings (Deci, La Guardia, Moller, Schei-
ner, & Ryan, 2006) and of the importance of group identity within
familial and social boundaries (Twigger-Ross, Bonaiuto & Breakwell,
2003). However would introducing elements of group choice into care
situations increase or compromise physical well-being and feelings of
satisfaction? Extending the rationale of the present study, we have
begun to explore such questions among groups of older residents in
care homes and it is interesting to note that our preliminary findings
accord closely with the conclusions of the present research. Specifi-
cally, they indicate that residents’ well-being and engagement are
enhanced to the extent that living arrangements are not just enriched
but also empowering (Knight, Haslam, & Haslam, in press).
Concluding Comments
The novel contribution of the present research lies in identifying
theoretical and empirical connections between different strategies
of office space management and workers’ well-being and produc-
tivity. In this, it also breaks new ground by demonstrating how
strategies of empowerment can contribute not only to organiza-
tional productivity but also to employee welfare.
At the same time it suggests that popular approaches to office
space management that overlook the psychological needs of em-
ployees may be misguided. For these approaches miss out on the
benefits that accrue when employees are included in decisions
about space management and hence come to identify both with that
space and with the organization itself. In this respect, it appears
that it is not only better for an office to be “green” rather than
“lean,” but also that employees within that office should be em-
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Zelinsky, M. (2006). The inspired workspace: Design for creativity and
productivity. Gloucester, MA: Rockport.
Received July 13, 2009
Revision received December 18, 2009
Accepted February 8, 2010
Call for Papers
Special Issue on Human Performance in Health Care
The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied invites submissions of manuscripts that
address issues related to applied experimental psychology and human performance in all aspects of
health care.
Human error and safety in health care systems has been a focus of national concern since the 1999
Institute of Medicine report. That report also emphasized the critical role of human factor issues as
both a contributor to medical error that threatens safety and an approach to mitigating error and
improving safety. Theories and methods related to human performance and cognition have played
an increasingly important role in guiding research related to health care, error, and system safety.
JEP: Applied invites manuscripts that describe empirical research that investigates any aspect of
health care with implications for understanding and improving health care processes and practices.
An ideal submission will describe work that meets the following criteria:
1. The work is motivated by and contributes to theories of human performance (relevant to
cognitive or other psychological processes).
2. The work is experimental in the sense that it provides evidence for causal influences underlying
the findings and provides the reader some certainty in the interpretation of the causal influences;
multiexperiment studies may be important for providing such evidence. Observational methods may
also be appropriate as long as the study design provides compelling suggestions of causal factors.
3. The work produces findings that have immediate and obvious practical relevance. Employing
participants (e.g., providers or patients) and tasks that are representative of actual health care
contexts are especially sought.
Topics of interest for the special issue are not constrained and may include the impact of
information technology on practitioner workload, evaluation of the design of health care displays
(e.g., patient monitoring), impact of operator factors (e.g., fatigue, situation awareness) or task-
related factors (e.g., interruptions) on error or other aspects of performance, teamwork processes in
critical care, or patient self-care.
If you are interested in contributing to this special issue, please e-mail both guest editors, Dan
Morrow ( and Frank Durso (, by May 15, 2010. Include
a tentative title and brief summary of the planned manuscript. The letter of intent is optional. All
solicited manuscripts will be peer-reviewed and required to meet the standards of any JEP: Applied
The deadline for submissions is September 1, 2010. The special issue will be published mid-2011.
Papers should be submitted through the ,JEP: Applied web portal:
xap/submission.html. Please indicate in your cover letter that you wish for the paper to be
considered as part of the special issue on human performance in health care.
... We el ll l--b be ei in ng g. . This subcategory of physical factors includes employee feelings, emotions and moods (Byron & Laurence, 2015;Knight & Haslam, 2010;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004;Wells, 2000) and health (Bjørnstad et al., 2016). In general, the functional, inspirational and psychosocial support provided by creative workspaces has been found to enhance employee well-being and health, while less supportive workspaces are associated with poorer well-being and health (Bjørnstad et al., 2016;Burke, 1990;Hoff & Öberg, 2015). ...
... A At tt ti it tu ud de es s t to o w wo or rk k. . There is some evidence that creative workspaces influence organisational identification (Knight & Haslam, 2010), trust in management (Zalesny & Farace, 1987) and work attitudes (Brewer et al., 2007). ...
... However, moving from a conventional office layout to an open-plan office design can undermine employees' trust in management (Zalesny & Farace, 1987). Physical elements may also impact employee task engagement (Oldham & Brass, 1979;Zalesny & Farace, 1987); for example, working in an office decorated with plants and pictures can make workers feel more autonomous and more involved in their tasks (Knight & Haslam, 2010). ...
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Providing adequate workspaces for employees is now considered crucial for organisational innovativeness in light of evidence that the work environment influences creative behaviour. It is unsurprising, then, that companies increasingly seek to implement modern workspace designs based on what is often referred to as New Work to support employee creativity. However, designing, planning, and implementing a modern and creative workspace is a highly complex undertaking. Existing studies report a multiplicity of interconnected organisational variables affected by such changes at the levels of the individual employee (e.g. creativity), the team (e.g. communication) and the organisation (e.g. culture). To explore whether and how organisational changemakers consider these variables when designing creative workspaces, we interviewed 20 experts from companies that have recently implemented creative workspace designs, asking them about the objectives and consequences of their new workspace designs. Upon comparing the interviewees’ answers to the findings reported in the existing literature, we found that their organisations were not fully aware of the organisational impact of such changes and failed to consider creativity enhancement as an explicit goal. Concluding that much of the potential of modern workspace design remains untapped, we propose avenues for further research.
... Related to this, Knight and Haslam studied the effects of allowing employees to decorate the office by themselves. Their work showed that this empowerment, what they termed the "empowered condition", improved the well-being and productivity of workers [82]. Our results, along with their findings, suggest a potential research topic on the psychological aspects that affect telecommuters' awareness and appraisal of the WFH environment, health, and productivity. ...
... We also found that the presence of plants or artwork is associated with telecommuters' home attachments. As Knight and Haslam showed, the beneficial effects of decorations in an office space [82] and creating a visually satisfactory home workspace can contribute to improving the psychological comfort, satisfaction, and productivity of telecommuters. According to a recently released Korean news report [98], more than half of 683 adult respondents said that their interest in organizing and decorating personal space at home had increased since COVID-19 began. ...
... Third, we suggest that the degree of control that residents have over the use of living spaces may influence their perception of the WFH environment. The impact of this control has already been demonstrated in the office environment [82,[99][100][101][102]. Loss of control in a WFH environment, where workers generally might have higher expectations of control than in a typical office environment, might lead to greater negative consequences. ...
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The sudden adoption of working from home (WFH) during the COVID-19 pandemic has required the reconfiguration of home spaces to fit space for remote work into existing spaces already filled with other domestic functions. This resulted in blurring of home and work boundaries, the potential lack of space for telecommuting from home, and telecommuters' feelings of crowding. Numerous studies have shown the negative effects of crowding feelings on workers' responses. This study focused on the issue of crowding in the residential workspace. An online survey was conducted to investigate how features of the home workspace correlate with telecommuters' feelings of crowding and how these feelings affect satisfaction, health, and productivity. As a result, we found that various environmental features of home workspaces (e.g., house size, purpose of workspace, accessible balcony, lighting, noise, etc.), as well as psychological aspects (e.g., individual control over space use), had significant effects on telecommuters' feelings of crowdedness. It was also found that feelings of crowding in the WFH environment can directly and indirectly affect teleworkers' satisfaction with work environments, well-being, and work performance. Based on the results, we offered various potential ways to alleviate overcrowding issues in the WFH context.
... There are a few investigations executed on the impact of natural environments; greenery and nature in work settings on the mental health of IT professionals (Leather et al., 1998, Lottrup, Grahn and Stigsdotter, 2013and Nieuwenhuis et al., 2014. For instance, exposure to natural elements and green spaces have found to be decreasing levels of depression and anxiety (Hartig et al., 2003, Bodin and Harting, 2003and Knight and Haslam, 2010, to be reducing stress (Parsons et al.,1998) and to be boosting psychological well-being (Ulrich, 1986). As revealed by Shin (2007), job-related stress of office workers with a forest view was decreased, while those with views of built elements experienced an increased job-related stress. ...
... The most positive was on reducing Figure 14 -Difference between stress levels -WFH Vs WFO stress of participants (29%) followed by anxiety (18%) and depression (15%). Accordingly, aligned with the findings of Hartig et al. (2003), Bodin and Harting,( 2003), Knight and Haslam (2010) and Parsons et al.(1998) the ability to reduce depression, anxiety and stress levels of individuals by the exposure to natural elements and green spaces was substantiated. However, it was noticed that there were few participants who demonstrated deviations from the above findings. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Professionals in the IT sector are subjected to many stressors leading to an array of mental imbalances and disorders. Nature deprivation: lack of connectedness to nature amidst their busy task oriented, accuracy related stressful work schedules can be highlighted as a significant factor causing poor mental health. In view of this, the current investigation focuses on inquiring the impact of ‘Work From Home’ (WFH) scenario on depression, anxiety, and stress levels of the IT sector employees during pandemic with special reference to their level of exposure to nature. A sample of Software Engineers who were working from office before pandemic (n=35) based in Colombo, Sri Lanka were examined in this investigation via a mixed method. DASS 21 self-report scale was adopted to record the perceived depression, stress, and anxiety levels of participants both before the pandemic when Working from Office (WFO) and during the pandemic once shifted to WFH scenario. A questionnaire survey designed by the author was executed to record the participants level of connectedness to nature during WFO scenario and during pandemic when WFH at his/her own workstation. It was observed that the number of participants having depression, anxiety, and stress in different levels (45%, 52%, 45% respectively) during WFO with less nature connectedness (46%) has significantly reduced during WFH scenario (30%,34%, 16% respectively) with increased nature connectedness (74%). Increasing the possibility to create more connections with nature by participants during WFH set up can be identified as a significant variable in reducing their depression, anxiety, and stress levels. The findings of this study sheds light on actions that organizations can take to lessen the negative impact of techno-stressors on mental well-being of workers in the IT industry.
... It was introduced to mediate collaborative workspace use, facilitate individual and team rotation, and ensure workspace availability (Babapour Chafi and Rolfö, 2019). According to Knight and Haslam (2010), desk sharing policies involve using workstations on a first-come, first-served basis and ensuring that employees leave a clean and undecorated desk after use. ...
... There is ample evidence that a sense of ownership resulting from workspace personalization can positively influence employee wellbeing, attitudes, and relationships (Brown et al., 2005;O'Driscoll et al., 2006;Pierce et al., 2001;Wells, 2000). Environments enriched by plants, artwork, and personal items that reflect personal relationships with family and friends have a greater impact on employees' psychological comfort, autonomy and job satisfaction than environments enriched by others (Knight and Haslam, 2010;Wells and Thelen, 2002). Artifacts and symbols of cultural and group identity are examples of meaningful resources that can foster a collective sense of meaning (Heerwagen et al., 1995b). ...
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This thesis explores the interrelations between the design characteristics of activity-based offices, users’ perceptions of them, and users’ sense of coherence. The goal is twofold: (i) contribute to conceptualizations of healthy activity-based offices and (ii) facilitate practical use of the sense of coherence theory for office designers. Most research into healthy offices has focused on harm-causing factors (pathogenic aspects) while overlooking the health-promoting design characteristics in activity-based offices (salutogenic aspects). This thesis is a response to the call for a paradigm shift and explores the particular design characteristics of activity-based offices that promote health, drawing on the salutogenic approach and sense of coherence theory. The thesis builds on a literature review and two mixed methods case studies on activity-based offices. Drawing on the sense of coherence framework, three types of design characteristics were identified: (i) those that promote a clear understanding of office environments, (ii) those that enhance users' access to relevant resources, and (iii) those that evoke meaning for users to cope with stressors. These characteristics and the perceptions of them are interrelated meaning that they can have multiple impacts on users’ sense of coherence. The findings also highlighted temporal changes in users’ perceptions, indicating that novelties of the new office wore off and the initial problems observed in the office environment worsened. Moreover, activity-based offices were not always perceived as intended because of suboptimal design solutions and contextual factors. In conclusion, there are no definitive answers to how to design healthy activity-based offices. Activity-based offices are complex environments and consist of many interacting aspects including the design characteristics, individuals’, and their work-related prerequisite as well as organization-related factors that influence users’ perceptions and their sense of coherence. The framework developed in this thesis may contribute to better-informed discussions about designing for sense of coherence. The thesis suggests that healthy activity-based offices should be viewed as a "moving project" that develops over time through experimentation and adaptation, with management’s involvement. Thus, a healthy activity-based office provides users resources and opportunities to codesign an environment that enables them (i) build meaningful social relationships, (ii) manage visual and acoustic distractions, (iii) read and understand workspaces, and (iv) receive support from management in their daily work.
... In a study on most common causes on how to improve office workers' productivity, results showed the conducive physical working environment, workers' collaborative spirit, open communication, job satisfaction and dedication to the organization, and opportunity for rest and recreation (Lottrup et al., 2015). Enhancement of the workplace and on the intensity to which workers can influence the office organization is necessary concerning organizational identification, well-being, and productivity (Knight & Haslam, 2010). ...
Full-text available
Theories on work engagement posited that engaged employees are physically, cognitively, and emotionally driven to attain organizational goals. Thus, they produce high levels of workplace productivity. Workplace productivity indexes serve as a parameter that measures how satisfactorily employees are doing and what motivates them to achieve higher goals and higher levels of efficiency and effectiveness. This study aimed to determine the level of work engagement of the human capital of the university as measured by workplace productivity. A quantitative-descriptive method with the use of the Workplace Productivity Snapshot Tool was utilized in the conduct of the research. The data collected were analyzed and interpreted using simple percentages, weighted mean, and one-way Analysis of Variance. Results showed that the UB employees were highly productive in building leadership and management capability, organizing work, networking, and collaboration, and measuring what matters. However, they are moderately productive in creating productive workplace cultures, encouraging innovation, and the use of technology, and investing in people and skills. Workplace Productive Snapshot Tool yielded moderately productive as those needing continuing feedback, monitoring, and evaluation to keep up with individual and environmental challenges. Based on the salient findings, it is elemental to determine the learning and development needs. Such will enable the employee to improve performance and achieve higher workplace productivity continually.
... A systematic review from 2019 updated the knowledge on indoor plants and perceptions (Han and Ruan, 2019), summarising that increasing positive emotions and reducing negative feelings were the most pronounced effects of indoor plants; however, this conclusion was based on 50 experimental studies with heterogeneous features (Han and Ruan, 2019). Similarly, other experimental studies (Knight and Haslam, 2010;Tifferet and Vilnai-Yavetz, 2017) and some recent ones (Apaolaza et al., 2020;Archary and Thatcher, 2021;Jiang et al., 2021;Thatcher et al., 2020;van den Bogerd et al., 2021) have again used heterogeneous methods and reported mixed results. Therefore, it remains challenging to conclusively comment on the effect of indoor plants on mental health. ...
Background Increasing numbers of epidemiological studies are investigating the association between outdoor greenery and various health outcomes. However, in the case of indoor plants, although experimental studies seem relatively abundant, epidemiological studies remain scarce, and research considering the mental health effects is even more limited. Thus, we aim to identify and summarise the relevant epidemiological studies on indoor plant exposure and mental health via this scoping review, thereby presenting the current state of knowledge and research niches. Methods PubMed and PsycINFO were systematically searched for epidemiological studies on indoor plant exposure and mental health, including mental and behavioural disorders, quality of life, and cognitive function. The publication period was from the inception of these two databases to 22nd June 2022. We extracted information on the relevant studies on exposure to indoor plants and mental health-related outcomes. Results The systematic search yielded 1186 unique results. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this scoping review. All included studies were Europe-based cross-sectional studies on mental and behavioural disorders. One study was conducted in 2015 and investigated the office environment, whereas the other five were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and focused on the home environment. Despite considerable heterogeneity in outcome assessments and indoor plant exposure metrics, all six studies generally reported beneficial associations between having indoor plants and mental health, such as reducing stress, depressive symptoms, and negative emotions. Conclusions Epidemiological evidence on exposure to indoor plants and mental health is currently limited. In general, favourable effects of indoor plants are supported, although most relevant studies were conducted in the context of COVID-19. Before conducting more studies to explore the associations, data collection methods must be refined with more elaborate designs that allow for the measurement of more comprehensive metrics of indoor plants. Registration Open Science Framework,
This handbook is the first to comprehensively study the interdependent fields of environmental and conservation psychology. In doing so, it seeks to map the rapidly growing field of conservation psychology and its relationship to environmental psychology. The Oxford Handbook of Environmental and Conservation Psychology includes basic research on environmental perceptions, attitudes, and values; research on specific environments, such as therapeutic settings, schools, and prisons; environmental impacts on human well-being; and ways to promote a more sustainable relationship between people and the natural environment. This handbook presents an extensive review of current research and is a thorough guide to the state of knowledge about a wide range of topics at the intersection of psychology and the physical environment. Beyond this, it provides a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and conservation psychology, and some sense of the directions in which these interdependent areas of study are heading.
A comprehensive overview of the field and its future trajectories is needed to gain insight into how psychological research on well-being has progressed over time and what needs to be addressed. Previous reviews on well-being tend to have limited scope or contain subjective inferences about the state of research on well-being, resulting in fragmented insights and a lack of a comprehensive view of the research on well-being. To address this limitation, we used bibliometric methods to map the intellectual structure of the entire field of well-being science and provide a more comprehensive view of the research. We used a database of over 30,000 primary documents downloaded from Web of Science and leveraged three bibliometric methods: historiography, document co-citation analysis, and bibliographic coupling. The findings shed light on the (1) evolution of well-being science over time, (2) the underlying structure of the intellectual field and its current state, and (3) the future trajectory of the field and emerging topics. Based on our findings, we provide three future directions for well-being science: (i) embracing diversity and broadening the scope of well-being scholarship, (ii) transcending beyond dichotomous perspectives of well-being, and (iii) harnessing advanced methods and measures for a stronger scientific foundation. By offering objective insights and interpretations derived from multiple analyses of well-being research, this paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. It provides guidance and direction in addressing the challenges related to defining, measuring, and advancing our understanding of well-being, fostering progress in the field.
Dieses Kapitel befasst sich mit der somatischen Erfahrung von Arbeit. Wir erörtern, wie und warum Kommunikatoren bei der Neugestaltung von Arbeitsplätzen eine viel stärkere Rolle spielen können. Wir befassen uns mit der Forschung zu Umweltaspekten des Bürolebens, einschließlich natürlichem Licht, Grünpflanzen und Kunstwerken. Wir untersuchen auch Interozeption und Propriozeption und die Bedeutung von Bewegung.
The attention of the architecture, engineering, construction and operation (AECO) industry has been shifting from a great interest in the design and construction phases to the facility management (FM) and operational phase over the last decade. Disruptive technologies, such as information and communication technology (ICT), Internet of things (IoT) and building information modelling (BIM) have shown promising application to achieve a connected and effective management of buildings. Due to issues, such as COVID-19 and energy waste, governments have started promoting smart working to both private and public organisations. The expected benefits are twofold, namely social distancing in offices and better management of costs and spaces. This paper aims to define a digital twin-based system for smart management of office spaces. The system will help organisations to better manage their real estate and provide a basis for the development of a management platform.KeywordsBuilding information modelling (BIM)Internet of Things (IoT)Digital twin (DT)Architecture Engineering Construction and operation (AECO)Facilities management (FM)
The authoritative classic-revised and updated for today's Six Sigma practitionersWhether you want to further your Six Sigma training to achieve a Black or Green Belt or you are totally new to the quality-management strategy, you need reliable guidance. The Six Sigma Handbook, Third Edition shows you, step by step, how to integrate this profitable approach into your company's culture.Co-written by an award-winning contributor to the practice of quality management and a successful Six Sigma trainer, this hands-on guide features:Cutting-edge, Lean Six Sigma concepts integrated throughoutCompletely revised material focused on project objectives Updated and expanded problem-solving examples using Excel and MinitabA streamlined format that puts proven practices at your fingertipsThe Six Sigma Handbook, Third Edition is the only comprehensive reference you need to make Six Sigma work for your company. The book explains how to organize for Six Sigma, how to use customer requirements to drive strategy and operations, how to carry out successful project management, and more. Learn all the management responsibilities and actions necessary for a successful deployment, as well as how to:Dramatically improve products and processes using DMAIC and DMADVUse Design for Six Sigma to create innovative products and processesIncorporate lean, problem-solving, and statistical techniques within the Six Sigma methodologyAvoid common pitfalls during implementationSix Sigma has evolved with the changing global economy, and The Six Sigma Handbook, Third Edition is your key to ensuring that your company realizes significant gains in quality, productivity, and sales in today's business climate.