ArticleLiterature Review

Rhus Chinensis and Galla Chinensis - Folklore to Modern Evidence: Review

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Abstract

The species Rhus chinensis Mill. (Anacardiaceae) is an important representative of the genus Rhus, which contains over 250 individual species found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide. Rhus chinensis has long been used by folk medicine practitioners in Asia. Leaves, roots, stem, bark, fruit and particularly the galls on Rhus chinensis leaves, Galla chinensis, are recognized to have preventative and therapeutic effects on different ailments (such as diarrhea, dysentery, rectal and intestinal cancer, diabetes mellitus, sepsis, oral diseases and inflammation). However, it is critical to separate evidence from anecdote. Fortunately, recent scientific research has revealed that Rhus chinensis compounds possess strong antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antidiarrheal and antioxidant activities. Moreover, compounds isolated from the stem of Rhus chinensis significantly suppressed HIV-1 activity in vitro. Compounds from this plant were also found to inhibit enamel demineralization in vitro and enhance remineralization of dental enamel with fluoride. This review highlights claims from traditional and tribal medicinal lore and makes a contemporary summary of phytochemical, biological and pharmacological findings on this plant material. It aims to show that the pharmaceutical potential of this plant deserves closer attention.

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... 12 Galla chinensis extracts (GCE), a traditional Chinese medicine, is an effective anticariogenic agent, which inhibits the growth and metabolism of cariogenic bacteria. [13][14][15] Demineralization/remineralization balance of the enamel might be favorable in the presence of GCE. 16 Furthermore, recent studies have shown that GCE inhibits the proliferation and production of acids by cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. ...
... 23 In this context, incorporation of GCE into the matrix of polymeric materials as an antimicrobial agent has attracted much attention in recent years. [13][14][15] Based on the present results, incorporation of GCE at all the three concentrations resulted in an increase in antibacterial activity, compared to the control group, in accordance with previous studies. 14,15 In addition, the results showed that the acrylic resin containing GCE had a strong antibacterial effect on S. mutans. ...
... [13][14][15] Based on the present results, incorporation of GCE at all the three concentrations resulted in an increase in antibacterial activity, compared to the control group, in accordance with previous studies. 14,15 In addition, the results showed that the acrylic resin containing GCE had a strong antibacterial effect on S. mutans. Further clinical experiments would be useful, especially for different bacterial and fungal components. ...
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Objective: To evaluate different concentrations of Galla chinensis extract (GCE) added to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is widely used for fabrication of removable orthodontic appliances, regarding the effectiveness of this herbal extract on antimicrobial effect and flexural strength of PMMA. Methods: Acrylic resin samples containing 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.6% GCE were prepared. Flexural strength was investigated via three-point flexural strength test for the 15 acrylic resin blocks of each concentration. Disk diffusion test was used to evaluate antibacterial effects of incorporating the same concentrations of GCE into acrylic resin. All these three groups were compared with the control group, with no added GCE, regarding flexural strength and antibacterial properties. Results: Comparison of flexural strength between the three study groups and the control group showed significant differences between the groups (P=0.018). However, there was no significant difference between the groups containing GCE. There were significant differences in antimicrobial activity between the four groups (P=0.026). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it is suggested that incorporation of GCE into PMMA would be beneficial for antimicrobial activity and flexural strength of PMMA, but further studies on other physical properties and antimicrobial effects on other bacterial strain would be beneficial prior to clinical investigations.
... The ripe fruit of RCM is nutritious and eaten as a condiment in many areas [20]. According to folk pharmacopeia, RCM has medicinal value and its fruit can be used as a treatment for jaundice and hepatitis [21]. Our previous studies have shown that the extracts of RCM are content with a variety of polyphenolic flavonoids, such as gallic acid and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, which have been shown to have a good antioxidant capacity in vitro [22]. ...
... RCM fruits are widely cultivated as a condiment and beverage, and can also be used as a raw material to extract polyphenolic substances, such as gallic acid [28]. The extracts of RCM fruits have shown strong antioxidant activities in vivo and in vitro [21]. In this study, the preventive effect of the extracts of RCM fruits on cholestasis caused by DDC was investigated. ...
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This study focused on the preventive effects of the extracts of Rhus chinensis Mill. (RCM) fruits on cholestasis induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) in mice. The results showed that RCM extracts could significantly ameliorate DDC-induced cholestasis via multiple mechanisms, including (1) alleviating liver damage via enhancing antioxidant capacity, such as increasing the contents of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase and inhibiting the levels of malondialdehyde; (2) preventing liver inflammation by suppressing NF-κB pathway and reducing proinflammatory cytokines secretion (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6); (3) inhibiting liver fibrosis and collagen deposition by regulating the expression of transforming growth factor-β and α-smooth muscle actin; (4) modulating abnormal bile acid metabolism through increasing the expression of bile salt export pump and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. This study was the first to elucidate the potential preventive effect of RCM extracts on DDC-induced cholestasis in mice from multiple pathways, which suggested that RCM fruits could be considered as a potential dietary supplement to prevent cholestasis.
... The Nu consider the seed oil as galactagogue, styptic, antiinflammatory and a remedy for cough and asthma, pain, anaemia, stimulating blood flow, dysmenorrhea and postnatal treatment (Han and Cui, 2012). While the use of Rhus/Toxicodendron in folk medicine has been documented, evidence from prehistoric contexts is extremely rare, and science has only recently started to understand and prove the specific medical properties of different Rhus/Toxicodendron taxa (e.g., Rayne and Mazza, 2007;Djakpo and Yao, 2010). ...
... An alternative or additional function could have been medical effects and/or nutritional properties. Different studies have reported specific medical properties of different Rhus/Toxicodendron taxa, such as antiinflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-diarrheal, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and hepatoprotective effects (Rayne and Mazza, 2007;Djakpo and Yao, 2010). Zazharskyi et al. (2020) found bactericidal and fungicidal activity in leaves of T. orientale. ...
Article
The use of natural lacquer for preservation and decoration of various commodities is a remarkable invention. In Japan lacquer production dates back to the Neolithic Jomon period and has been mainly based on the sap extracted from the lacquer tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F.A. Barkley). However, it is still unclear, if lacquer production evolved in Japan independently or was introduced from Neolithic China, another centre of early lacquer production. A debate also revolves around the origin of the lacquer tree itself and whether it occurs in Japan naturally or was introduced from the continent along with the skills required for lacquer production. Records of Rhus/Toxicodendron fruit remains, recovered from cultural layers of archaeological sites and natural palaeoenvironmental archives across Japan, provide an opportunity to answer the existing questions. This paper presents a method for differentiating charred endocarps of the six Rhus/Toxicodendron species growing in Japan, which is not feasible based on size or morphological properties of whole fruits or endocarps. To develop this method, we used a set of modern reference fruits. Identification is based on the species-specific tissue structure of the charred endocarp in longitudinal sectional view observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We suggest a simple identification key that is based on two prominent traits of the endocarp's tissue structure, i.e., tissue alignment and density. The method was successfully applied to an abundant record of charred Rhus/ Toxicodendron endocarps recovered by flotation from Okhotsk culture layers dating to ca. 490-880 CE at the multi-component Hamanaka 2 archaeological site, Rebun Island, Hokkaido region, northern Japan. The recovered endocarps belong to Asian poison ivy (Toxicodendron orientale Greene, 1905) and the chronology of the archaeobotanical assemblages suggests that fruits and/or other parts of this plant were used by different local populations over a period of up to 3000 years (Final Jomon to Classic Ainu period). This indicates that not only lacquer tree was an important economic plant in Japanese prehistory, but also other Rhus/Toxicodendron species were used for unknown purpose. While use of T. orientale for medical effects or as an alternative source for lacquer production seems possible, we hypothesise that at Hamanaka 2 it was utilised for its high tannin content to tan hides and furs of sea mammals. This interpretation emphasises the discussed function of Hamanaka 2, famous for its rich zooarchaeological record of sea mammal remains, as an important site of marine hunting and raw material processing.
... 2) G. chinensis could synergically interact with other chemical constituents and bring about its therapeutic effect. G. chinensis has long been considered to possess natural medicinal properties with numerous benefits, such as anticancer, anti-diabetic and other pharmacologic and biological activities (Djakpo and Yao, 2010;Devi and Singh, 2018;Tian et al., 2009;Zhang et al., 2009). It is used internally for its antiphlogistic and antiseptic properties to treat disease such as diarrhea and hemorrhage, diabetes mellitus, rectal and intestinal cancer, seminal enuresis and hemorrhoids (Duke and Ayensu, 1985;Gao et al., 2000;Yeung, 1985), promoting clotting following traumatic injuries and to treat burns (Yeung, 1985). ...
... In spite of its beneficial effects, long-term and high dose administration of G. chinensis could cause nausea, vomiting, reduced blood pressure and blood urea nitrogen (Sariozlu and Kivanc, 2011;Djakpo and Yao, 2010). High doses of tannic acid have cytotoxic effects, in addition to inhibit digestive enzymes, particularly membrane-bound enzymes of small intestinal mucosa (Mills and Bone, 2000). ...
Article
Natural herbs, especially traditional Chinese herbs (TCHs), are gaining attention as alternatives to treat bacterial diseases in aquaculture. In order to assess the possibility of using TCHs to cure bacterial diseases of mud crab Scylla paramamosain, firstly, the antibacterial effects of twelve TCHs were determined using the in vitro antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the main pathogen of S. paramamosain. The results showed that Galla chinensis displayed the highest antibacterial effect on the pathogen, with an inhibitory plaque diameter > 35 mm, and MIC <0.2 mg∙mL⁻¹. Subsequently, V. parahaemolyticus-infected S. paramamosain was subjected to medicated bath (20 mg∙L⁻¹ G. chinensis) for three days and monitored for seven days (Therapeutic group). At the end of the experiment, the crabs in Positive control group (V. parahaemolyticus-infected crabs, non-medicated bath) showed the highest mortality (all died 6 days later), with noticeable changes in total bacteria counts (TBC), as well as total haemocyte counts (THC), and phenoloxidase (PO), lysozyme (LSZ), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities compared to the Negative control group (saline-injected crabs, non-medicated bath). In the Therapeutic group, low cumulative mortality (CM) (25%) was observed. The indices of TBC, THC, and PO improved in the Therapeutic group compared to Positive control group two days after treatment but returned to normal, with no difference to the Negative control group at the end of the experiment. Compared with Safety group (saline-injected crabs, medicated bath) and Negative control group, 20 mg∙L⁻¹ G. chinensis extract showed no adverse effect on crabs other than causing some decrease in THC, 24 h after immersion. It was therefore concluded that certain TCH are able to inhibit the V. parahaemolyticus, and G. chinensis may be useful in the treatment of crab diseases caused by V. parahaemolyticus.
... R. chinensis has been used by folk medicine practitioners for long time in Asia. 3 Fruits are used in stomachache, profuse bleeding in menstruation, bloody dysentery, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, and foot and mouth diseases of animals. [4][5][6][7][8] Roots have been used in folk medicines as antitussive, and for the treatments of anasarca, jaundice and snake bite. ...
... 9 Gallarhois on the leaf of R. chinensis has been used for treating diarrhea, seminal emission, excessive sweating, bleeding, chronic cough and polyuria; and possesses anti-thrombotic and antianaphylactic effects. 3,[10][11][12][13] Although R. chinensis has been consumed since ancient times, the responsible phytoconstituents for the health benefits are remain to be identified. 14 Isolation of gallic acid, gallicin, betulin, betulonic acid, moronic acid, rhuscholide A, benzofuranones, phenolics, etc. has been reported from different parts (root, stem, gallarhois) of R. chinensis. ...
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Background: Ethnobotanical survey in the rural villages in Nepal revealed that the fruits of Rhus chinensis Mill. have been using for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant effects, and identification of chemical constituents in the fruits of R. chinensis. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was performed on the hexane and 70% methanolic extracts of the sample followed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total phenolic content (TPC) was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu method. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Antibacterial effect was estabilished by the Agar well diffusion assay. Results: A total of 30 compounds belonging to phenolics, anhydrides, aldehydes, fatty acids and hydrocarbons were identified in the extracts. The TPC value of 123.52±1.29 mg GAE/g dry extract was estimated. IC50 value of 135.54±0.82 μg/mL was calculated in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Scavenging of 42.69±0.1% DPPH free radical and 63.20±1.48% hydrogen peroxide at 100 μg/mL concentration of 70% methanolic extract were estimated. The maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) observed was 23.00±0.57 mm against Escherichia coli at loading dose of 5 mg of the extract. Conclusion: All together 30 compounds were identified in the fruits. The extracts efficiently inhibited the growth of E. coli and Shigella dysenteriae verifying the rural knowledge. At the same time, the extracts displayed efficient antioxidant activity. The phytochemicals identified were responsible for these activities. Keywords:Antibacterial susceptibility assay, DPPH radical scavenging assay, GC-MS, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, total phenolic content
... R. chinensis is a common deciduous sumac tree that is widely distributed in Asia, including China, India, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan [4]. This species is an important medicinal plant containing various pharmacologically active constituents, which have been used for medicinal purposes such as anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory as well as being used as a revegetation plant for ecological restoration due to its cold tolerance and easy multiplication [5][6][7][8]. In particular, as the primary host plant of several species of Chinese sumac aphids, R. chinensis hosted the aphids which induced galls, which are a source of traditional Chinese medicine [9]. ...
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The sumac Rhus chinensis Mill. is an economically and ecologically important shrub or tree species in the family of Anacardiaceae with a wide distribution in East to Southeast Asia. We assembled the complete chloroplast genome of 159,187 bp in length and the GC content of 37.8%. The genome encoded 132 genes, including 86 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, 8 rRNA genes, and 1 pseudogene, and 77 SSRs were identified as well as the interval regions, totaling 46,425 bp in length. The mauve alignment revealed one gene rearrangement among the Rhus species. All the SSRs were divided into five types, most of which consisted of mono- and tri- repeat motifs. Our genome exhibited the longest size and more annotated genes compared to the three other genomes of R. chinensis reported in GenBank. We also discovered some relatively highly variable regions in the complete chloroplast genomes of the Rhus species. The ML phylogenetic analysis of the available chloroplast sequences of the Anacardiaceae well supported the monophyly of each tribe and each genus; the tribe Rhoideae was close to the tribe Anacardiaceae with a high support of 100%, and they then grouped with the tribe Spondiadeae. R. chinensis was sister to R. potaninii, and they then grouped with the species R. typhina.
... As a widely used traditional medicine in China, gallnut (Galla chinensis) is rich in tannic acid (TA), even accounting for 50-70% of its weight (30). Gallnut TA belongs to the family of hydrolyzable tannins (31) and is a naturally occurring polyphenol compound of high molecular weight (500-3,000 Da). The structures of gallnut TA are made up of a polyol core (typically D-glucose), which is esterified with phenolic acids (mainly gallic acid or hexahydroxy diphenic acid) (32). ...
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Stress exposure is a potential threat to humans who live or work in extreme environments, often leading to oxidative stress, inflammatory response, intestinal dysbiosis, and metabolic disorders. Gallnut tannic acid (TA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has become a compelling source due to its favorable anti-diarrheal, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the anti-stress effects of gallnut TA on the stress-induced inflammatory response, dysbiotic gut microbiota, and alterations of serum metabolic profile using beagle models. A total of 13 beagle dogs were randomly divided into the stress (ST) and ST + TA groups. Dietary supplementation with TA at 2.5 g/kg was individually fed to each dog in the ST + TA group for 14 consecutive days. On day 7, all dogs were transported for 3 h from a stressful environment (days 1–7) to a livable site (days 8–14). In our results, TA relieved environmental stress-induced diarrheal symptoms in dogs and were shown to protect from myocardial injury and help improve immunity by serum biochemistry and hematology analysis. Also, TA inhibited the secretion of serum hormones [cortisol (COR), glucocorticoid (GC), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)] and the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 to protect dogs from stress-induced injury, thereby relieving oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that TA stimulated the growth of beneficial bacteria (Allobaculum, Dubosiella, Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002, and Faecalibaculum) and suppressed the growth of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia-Shigella and Streptococcus), thereby increasing fecal butyrate levels. Serum metabolomics further showed that phytosphingosine, indoleacetic acid, arachidonic acid, and biotin, related to the metabolism of sphingolipid, tryptophan, arachidonic acid, and biotin, respectively, could serve as potential biomarkers of stress exposure. Furthermore, Spearman’s correlation analysis showed strong relationships between the four potential serum biomarkers and differential bacteria. Overall, gallnut TA may be a potential prebiotic for the prevention and treatment of stress-induced metabolic disorders by targeting intestinal microbiota.
... 31 Djakpo and Yao reported that Galla Chinensis contains strong antiviral properties. 59 The bioactive compound of Galla Chinensis that possesses antiviral activity is the polyphenol Tetra-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (TGG), a tannin. Indeed, Ling et al. discovered that TGG is effective against SARS-CoV with a mechanism that would interfere with the virus entry into host cells. ...
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Medicinal plant is a major source of drug discovery for disease management. Over 85% of the population in Asia and in the Middle East use herbal medicine for disease management such as SARS caused by coronavirus. Infection from coronavirus is initiated by entry of the virus into a susceptible host cell. The two human coronaviruses of public health importance two decades ago were SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and now SARS-CoV 2. These three viruses belong to the same class of beta coronavirus and are somewhat similar in genome sequencing, life cycle, mode of entry into a host, mode of transmission and clinical manifestations. This review identified twenty medicinal plants with potential inhibitory bioactive compounds from natural sources that are active against coronaviruses that could be developed into various drug delivery systems. It also highlighted several evidences to show that medicinal plant used in the treatment of SARS-CoV may offer some sort of relief from the burden of COVID 19 pandemic. Since there is no specific treatment for COVID 19 yet, the search for medicinal plants with inhibitory bioactive compounds against coronavirus could be the long awaited breakthrough scientists have been searching to change the narratives of Covid-19 pandemic.
... Other biological effects of this plant have been described, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-herpes, anti-HIV, and anticytomegalus properties. Rhus javanica contains several biological components that responsible to these activities, such as gallotannins, phenolics, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, and organic acids [16][17][18][19][20]. Gallic acid, scopoletin, 5methylresorcinol, phlorizin, methylgallate, 3,4,5-trihydroxyacetophenone 4-O-Dglucop yranoside, and 3-hydroxy-5-methylphenol 1-O-D-(6'-galloyl) glucopyranoside were among the active chemicals identified from Rhus javanica nutgall stem bark [21]. ...
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Article
Herpes are a group of similar viruses that are responsible for a number of infecting diseases, the most important of which are herpes simplex, herpes zoster and pseudopox. Resistance to traditional antiviral medications is becoming increasingly common, making treatment of such infections even more difficult. For example, the usage of nucleoside analogues like acyclovir to target the DNA-polymerase of the virus on a regular and long-term basis promotes the generation of resistant viruses. As a result, a different treatment is required. Natural products, such as herbal remedies, have been shown to have in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes viruses, and have shown to be a valuable source for new antivirals development and separation. The goal of this review is to highlight the most promising extracts and pure chemicals obtained from plants and marine species that have in vivo anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) action. Natural products as new anti-HSV medications offer a number of benefits, including fewer side effects, minimal toxicity, and lowered resistance, and a variety ways of deed.
... Its fruits are commonly used as a beverage, spice or natural source of edible oil (Zhou et al., 2020). According to folk medicine, its fruits can be used to treat some liver-related diseases and have good hepatoprotective effects (Djakpo & Yao, 2010). Our previous studies revealed that the obtained fruit extract is abundant in phenolic compounds and has a strong antioxidant activity (Wu et al., 2020;Zhang, Ma, Zao et al., 2018;. ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the effects of the phenolic-rich fraction from Chinese sumac fruits against liver injury induced by acetaminophen in mice and elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms. Results showed that the phenolic-rich fraction of the fruits significantly decreased the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase activities and malondialdehyde content, restored the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and reduced the glutathione content. Further analyses revealed that the fraction alleviated liver oxidative stress by upregulating the Nrf2 protein pathway to increase the HO-1 and NQO1 expression levels. It also suppressed liver inflammation by downregulating the expression levels of p-NF-κB, COX-2, p-JNK, p-ERK and p-P38 and inhibiting the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. The fraction prevented hepatocyte apoptosis by upregulating p-PI3K, p-Akt, and Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax and cleaved Caspase 3. Thus, the phenolic-rich fraction from Chinese sumac fruits could serve as an adjuvant dietary therapy to prevent drug-induced liver injury.
... Conservation of this species is important not only for its ecological value, but also for its medical potential. Multiple species in the genus Rhus have shown their medical value including antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, and other medicinal properties [16][17][18][19]. Fruit from R. glabra or R. typhina fed to horses can even help control chronic emphysema [20]. ...
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Article
Rhus michauxii is a perennial rhizomatous shrub native to the southeastern United States that is found mainly in sunny, dry, open rocky or sandy woodlands. Moreover, it is found on ridges or river bluffs in the inner coastal plane and lower piedmont of Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolinas. Habitat conversion to agriculture, suppression of fires, and low reproduction have caused R. michauxii to become rare and it is now federally listed as threatened. Methods are needed to multiply and conserve R. michauxii. Protocols were developed for seed cryopreservation, in vitro germination, and micropropagation for R. glabra and R. michauxii. Seed scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid for 6 h and germination on ½ MS medium resulted in germination up to 96% for control and cryopreserved seeds of R. glabra and 70 and 40% for control and cryopreserved seeds of R. michauxii. Shortly after germination in vitro, young seedlings were established in a greenhouse potting mix providing new plants from the endemic Georgia R. michauxii populations. Several of the findings meet goals within the R. michauxii recovery plan by providing methods for sexual and asexual multiplication and long-term seed storage under cryogenic conditions. The protocols developed will assist in the safeguarding and conservation of dwindling natural R. michauxii populations.
... Chinese sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.) belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is widely distributed around world (Wu et al., 2019). According to folk records, some parts of this plant, including the fruits, are traditionally used as herbs to cure diarrhea, malaria, dysentery and other gastrointestinal diseases (Djakpo and Yao, 2010). Chinese sumac fruits are rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and quercitrin and show strong antioxidant effects Zhang et al., 2018). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance According to traditional Chinese medicine and a previous literature, many parts of Chinese sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.), including fruits, are used as traditional herb to prevent or cure many diseases, such as inflammation, diarrhea, malaria, and other acute or chronic gastrointestinal diseases. However, the effects of the fruits on the prevention of gastric ulcer and the underlying mechanisms have not been reported. Aim of the study: This experiment aimed to investigate the preventive effect of ethanol extract (RM) from Chinese sumac fruits on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods A single gavage of indomethacin was used to induce a gastric ulcer model in Kunming male mice. According to the results of histopathological analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis, as well as the expression of prostaglandin E−2, antioxidant enzymes and cytokines, the protective effect of RM on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer was evaluated. The expression levels of several key proteins involved in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in gastric tissue were detected to illuminate the underlying mechanisms. Results RM significantly reduced the ulcer index and pepsin activity, improved the microstructure of gastric mucosa and the prostaglandin E−2 content, restored the levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase, and decreased the contents of malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-6. Further experimental results showed that RM could improve the expression levels of HO-1 and NQO1 by activating the Nrf2 protein pathway to alleviate oxidative stress in gastric tissue. At the same time, RM significantly down-regulated the expressions of p-NF-κB, p-IκBα and iNOS to relieve inflammatory response, and inhibited the cellular apoptosis of gastric tissue by up-regulating Bcl-2 and down-regulating Bax and cleaved Caspase-3. Conclusions The current work clarified that the ethanol extract from Chinese sumac fruits can improve the oxidative stress level, inflammatory response and cell apoptosis in gastric tissue by interfering with the expressions of several key regulatory proteins to prevent indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. This study may provide some insights and scientific evidence on the application of Chinese sumac fruits as a traditional herb to prevent or alleviate gastric ulcer.
... Asian practitioners of folk medicine have been using sumac bark for a long time, in addition to its leaves, roots, stems, fruit, and especially the galls on the leaves. Studies have shown that sumac tree compounds have strong antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, antidiarrhea and antioxidant activities [5]. Galla chinensis is a gall formed by the parasitic aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis on RCM leaves, that stimulates the proliferation and expansion of leaf tissue cells. ...
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Rhus chinensis Mill. (RCM) is the host plant of Galla chinensis, which is valued in traditional medicine. Environmental temperature directly determines the probability of gallnut formation and RCM growth. At present, there is no experiment to systematically analyse the stability of internal reference gene (RG) expression in RCM. In this experiment, leaves that did not form gallnuts were used as the control group, while leaves that formed gallnuts were used as the experimental group. First, we conducted transcriptome experiments on RCM leaves to obtain 45,103 differential genes and functional enrichment annotations between the two groups. On this basis, this experiment established a transcriptional gene change model of leaves in the process of gallnut formation after being bitten by aphids, and RCM reference candidate genes were screened from RNA sequencing (RNA‐seq) data. This study is based on RCM transcriptome data and evaluates the stability of 11 potential reference genes under cold stress (4°C) and heat stress (34°C), using three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). The results show that GAPDH1 + PP2A2/UBQ are stable reference genes under heat stress, while GAPDH1 + ACT are the most stable under cold stress. This study is the first to screen candidate reference genes in RCM and could help guide future molecular studies in this genus.
... 19,20,29 Galla rhois (RG) is the gall caused by the Chinese aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell) on Rhus chinensis leaves (Anacardiaceae) and has been used in Oriental medicine for treatment of excessive sweating, persistent cough, and diarrhea. 34,4,6 In our previous work, a 50% EtOH aqueous extract mixture of AP and RG in a 6:4 ratio (APRG64) was optimal to exert maximum biological activities without significant pharmacological toxicity on cardiovascular, central nervous, and respiratory systems. 14,22 Therefore, we hypothesized that AP, RG, and APRG64 will display antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. ...
Article
Agrimonia pilosa (AP), Galla rhois (RG), and their mixture (APRG64) strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 by interfering with multiple steps of the viral life cycle including viral entry and replication. Furthermore, among 12 components identified in APRG64, three displayed strong antiviral activity, ursolic acid (1), quercetin (7), and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (12). Molecular docking analysis showed these components to bind potently to the spike receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 and its variant B.1.1.7. Taken together, these findings indicate APRG64 as a potent drug candidate to treat SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.
... [2] It is also listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia due to its extensively clinic usage. Previous chemical investigations of G. chinensis revealed that hydrolysable tannins were the major ingredients, [3] which showed antifungal, [4] hepatoprotective, [5][6] antibacterial, [7] antidiarrheal, [8] anti-oxidative, [9] pancreatic lipase inhibitory [10] and osteoclast differentiation inhibitory [11] activities. There were few reports concerning the less polar ingredients of G. chinenesis. ...
... Recent studies revealed that R. chinensis compounds possess strong antiviral, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities. Extracts from G. chinensis inhibited several bacteria, including B. cereus, B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, and others (MICs 0.5-8 mg/ml) [22]. In our study, the methanol extract of R. chinensis exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, especially against the two Bacillus species (MIC 31.3 µg/ml) ( Table 1). ...
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Objectives: Infectious diseases caused by bacteria are a leading cause of death worldwide. Hence, the objectives of the study are aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity against five human pathogenic bacteria of methanolic extracts from 66 plants collected from Vietnam. Methods: The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extracts of 66 plant species against five bacterial strains. Results: In this study, all the plant extracts were active against at least one train with MIC values ranging from 24 to 2048 μg/mL. Twenty-five plant extracts were active against all three Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Of these, the extracts of Macaranga trichocarpa (Rchb. f. and Zoll.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) and Caryodaphnopsis baviensis (Lecomte) Airy Shaw (Lauraceae) exhibited the highest antibacterial activity (MIC =24–128 μg/mL), followed by extracts of Betula alnoides Buch.- Ham. e × . D. Don (Betulaceae), Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq. (Rutaceae), Croton alpinus A. Chev. ex Gagnep. (Euphorbiaceae) (MIC =64–256 μg/mL). Furthermore, the extract of Rhus chinensis Mill. (Anacardiaceae) and Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the two Bacillus species (MIC =32–64 μg/mL). Conclusion: Results of this study reveal that plant extracts from Vietnam have highly antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. These results suggest that Vietnamese plant extracts may be a rich source of antibacterial drugs.
... S. burchellii is an evergreen shrub and grows up to 5 meters height. Several plants from the Searsia genus have previously been reported with antimalarial, antiviral, anticancer, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities (Djakpo and Yao, 2010;Moteetee and Van Wyk, 2011;El-Salam and Mohammed, 2015;Moteetee and Kose, 2017;Mtunzi et al., 2017). However, the species S. burchellii, which belongs to the same Searsia genus, has not been explored well for its biological and pharmacological activities so far. ...
Article
Searsia burchellii has therapeutic applications in traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to analyse the phytochemical profiles, total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC) and ferric reducing power of various extracts from roots and leaves of S. burchellii collected from the kingdom of Lesotho. A combination of maceration, hot solvent extraction and solvent-solvent partition techniques were used to obtain methanolic extracts, fractions such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol/water from methanolic extracts and water extracts separately from the roots and leaves of S. burchellii. The presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins and phlobatannins were identified from these extracts/fractions. The TPC of these extracts/fractions was found to be in the range of 3.22±0.37 to 247.46±4.33 mg TAE/g DW, respectively. The TFC of these extracts/fractions was found to be in the range of 34.70±4.31 to 278.20±2.01 mg QE/g DW, respectively. Additionally, these extracts/fractions showed a moderate to strong ferric reducing power compared to ascorbic acid. The IC50 values were found to be in the range of 5.35-143.12 and 65.64-348.28 µg/mL for extracts/fractions from the roots and leaves, respectively. Ascorbic acid showed an IC50 value of 20.93 µg/mL. Therefore, the extracts/fractions from S. burchellii have the potential to replace the existing synthetic antioxidants
... 4 Rhus chinensis is a Chinese herbal medicine used for cancer treatments in some regions of China, and mainly contains triterpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, and other components. [5][6][7] Our previous study had confirmed the capacity of triterpenoids of Rhus chinensis (TER) to regulate the level of glycolysis and lactic acid metabolism in the formation of acidic products. 8 However, the mechanism of TER's anticancer effects underlying the regulation of acidic microenvironment and CD8+ T-cells activity remained vague. ...
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Rhus chinensis Mill. is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which is commonly used for cancer treatments. Our previous work had proven that triterpenoids of Rhus chinensis (TER) could effectively regulate glycolysis involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) and play an important role in the prevention of T-cells dysfunction. This study aimed to systematically investigate the effects and mechanisms of TER on glucose metabolism in CRC, while the regulatory mechanisms of TER on restoring T-cells function and activity in CRC were explored as well. The extract of triterpenoids from Rhus chinensis was obtained, and production of lactic acid and glucose uptake were assayed. Also, the expression of CD8+ T-cells surface markers, cytokines secreted by CD8+ T cells, and the expression of key glycolytic enzymes and glucose deprivation induced by tumor cells were further examined. Notably, results showed that TER prevented the dysfunction in CD8+ T cells by enhancing mTOR activity and subsequent cellular metabolism. Furthermore, our findings also demonstrated that TER promoted glycolytic gene expression in CD8+ T cells in vivo, and significantly inhibited tumor growth. Altogether, our studies suggested that TER not only reversed effector CD8+ T-cells dysfunction and enhanced T-cells recognition, but also improved tumor microenvironment, thereby providing new insight into the prevention and treatment of CRC with TCM.
... However, the composition of polyphenols varies from plant to plant affecting the physicochemical characteristics of the dyed fabrics. Gallotannin extracted from galls (Galla chinensis) of the Chinese sumac is used as traditional Chinese medicine for various diseases (Huang et al. 2012;Djakpo and Yao 2010). However, published literature shows that gallotannin from galls was hardly considered for the dying of jute fiber. ...
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Natural fiber-made apparel dyed with natural dyes is drawing consumer attention because of the possible toxic and health hazards associated with fabric dyed with synthetic dyes. However, many textile products dyed with natural dyes available in the market could pose a health risk because of the use of toxic heavy metals as a dye-complexing agent. In this work, jute fabrics were dyed and multi-functionalized with gallotannin (GT), using ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as a non-toxic mordanting agent. The shades produced and other physicochemical properties of the GT-dyed jute fabrics were compared with the jute fabric treated with GT using copper sulfate (CuSO4), a common mordanting agent. It was found that the GT with various mordanting agents produced navy blue and brown shades with tonal changes along with quite good colorfastness to washing. The concentration of GT and mordanting agents, types of mordanting agents, and the treatment pH affected the shade produced and physicochemical properties of the treated fabrics. The surface resistivity was reduced from 235 × 10¹⁰ Ω/sq for the control to 6.7 × 10¹⁰ Ω/sq for the AlCl3 mordanting agent, slightly higher than the surface resistivity exhibited by the CuSO4 mordant. The fabric treated with GT using FeSO4 and CaCl2 mordanting agents showed excellent antioxidant activity, even at the lowest GT dosage applied. Similarly, FeSO4 and CaCl2 also showed excellent UV radiation absorption capability. The developed treatment can be used in the textile industry to make cellulosic textiles multifunctional without using any toxic dyes and chemicals. Graphic abstract
... S. burchellii has been used to treat tuberculosis, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, fever, cold and problems associated with childbirth (Nielsen et al., 2012;Umberto, 2012). Plants from the Searsia genus have been shown to possess antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities (Djakpo and Yao, 2010;Moteetee and Van Wyk, 2011;El-Salam and Mohammed, 2015;Moteetee and Kose, 2017;Mtunzi et al., 2017). However, the species S. burchellii, which belongs to the same Searsia genus, has not been explored for its biological and pharmacological activities so far. ...
Article
Searsia burchellii finds therapeutic applications in traditional medicine. Methanolic extracts, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol/water fractions of methanolic extracts and water extracts were obtained separately from the roots and leaves of Searsia burchellii by the combination of maceration, hot solvent extraction and solvent-solvent partition techniques. These extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil radical scavenging assay (DPPH). The extracts from roots and their fractions showed radical scavenging activity ranging from 6.60±4.50 to 63.27±1.93% at various concentrations. Similarly, the extracts from leaves and their fractions showed radical scavenging activity ranging from 3.32±0.95 to 64.91±0.15% at various concentrations. Ascorbic acid served as positive control which showed radical scavenging activity ranging from 53.62±2.80 to 60.82±0.62% at various concentrations. The IC50 values of these extracts and fractions were found to be < 200 to > 3000 µg/mL. The IC50 value of ascorbic acid was found to be <200 µg/mL. From this study, we concluded that extracts and their fractions from S. burchellii showed promising radical scavenging activity.
... Mill., also known as Chinese sumac, is commonly used as a herb to treat inflammation, diarrhea, malaria, jaundice, alcoholic toxicity and phlegm according to the record of Traditional Chinese Medicine [9]. Previous studies had confirmed that R. chinensis fruits possessed several bioactivities, such as antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects in vitro [10], prevention of liver fibrosis [11], nonalcoholic fatty liver [12] and alcoholic fatty liver [13] in vivo. ...
... et Wils) [14]. The medical uses of Galla chinensis are various, including diarrhea, inflammations, antibacterial and intestinal cancer [15]. It is reported that Galla chinensis extracts can inhibit various bacterial growth in vitro, such as periodontopathic bacteria [16], Staphycoccus aureus [17], E. coli [18] and intestinal bacteria [19]. ...
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Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is classically associated with acute secretory diarrhea, which induces 2 million people death in developing countries over a year, predominantly children in the first years of life. Previously, tannins (47.75%) were extracted from Galla Chinensis and prepared as Galla Chinensis oral solution (GOS) which showed significant antidiarrheal activity in a castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Whether the tannins extract were also effective in treatment of ETEC-induced diarrhea was determined in this study. Methods Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 22). The mice in the normal and untreated groups were given normal saline. Three GOS-treated groups were received different concentrations of GOS (5, 10 and 15%, respectively) at a dose of 10 mL/kg. Mice in the positive control group were fed with loperamide (10 mg/kg). The treatment with GOS started 3 days before infection with ETEC and continued for 4 consecutive days after infection. On day 3, mice were all infected with one dose of LD50 of ETEC, except those in the normal group. Survival of mice was observed daily and recorded throughout the study. On days 4 and 7, samples were collected from 6 mice in each group. Results GOS could increase the survival rate up to 75%, while in the untreated group it is 43.75%. The body weights of mice treated with 15% GOS were significantly increased on day 7 in comparison with the untreated group and the normal group. GOS-treatment recovered the small intestine coefficient enhanced by ETEC-infection. The diarrhea index of mice treated with GOS was significantly decreased. GOS increased the levels of IgG and sIgA in the terminal ileum and decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) in serum. GOS could increase the amount of intestinal probiotics, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. GOS could alleviate colon lesions induced by ETEC-infection. GOS showed higher potency than loperamide. Conclusions GOS could be a promising drug candidate for treating ETEC infections.
... Many traditional Chinese medicines have the potential effect in promoting blood circulation and strengthening the capacity of human metabolism. Therefore, the compounds with antioxidation, anti-proliferative, and antiinflammatory activities are likely to be proposed for anti-keloid treatment, which are wildly distributed in traditional Chinese medicine, i.e. tanshinone II-A (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., Danshen in Chinese), matrine (Sophora flavescens Ait., Kushen in Chinese), gallotannin (Galla Chinensis, Wubeizi in Chinese), ligustrazine (Ligusticum wallichii Franch., Chuanxiong in Chinese) and so on (Ferrandiz et al., 2008;Ho et al., 2009;Djakpo et al., 2010& Zhang et al., 2009. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and therapeutic method of diseases, Chinese medicines were screened for their potential anti-scarring effect according to the principle of activating blood and resolving stasis, softening hardness and dissipating mass (also called "Huo-Xue-Hua-Yu, Ruan-Jian-San-Jie", a concept of traditional Chinese medical theory) (Xu et al., 1989;, such as that S. miltiorrhiza, L. wallichii, and Carthamus tinctorius L. can activate the blood circulation and eliminate stasis (Chen et al., 2014;Guo et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2019), Galla Chinensis and S. flavescens have good effect of Ruan-Jian-San-Jie and inhibitory effects on fibroblast cells (Yulu et al., 1994;Yang et al., 2002), Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. ...
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Objective To study the anti-hypertrophic scar effect of the six-herb Chinese medicine composition (SCMC) ointment on the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models. Methods The optimal formulation of SCMC ointment matrix was screened by the orthogonal designs and a series of evaluation tests. The SCMC ointment was prepared through emulsifying method. The rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models were established and used to investigate the anti-hypertrophic scar effect of SCMC ointment. Results Our results demonstrated that all the quality control indications of the SCMC ointment met the requirements. Anti-hypertrophic scar activity results showed that all the rabbit ear scar tissues appeared different degrees of shrink and fading, and took an unobvious but palpable shift from hard to soft texture with the low, middle and high concentration SCMC ointments treatments in vivo. Additionally, on 21st day the scar area and thickness in different concentrations of SCMC ointment groups were significantly reduced than control group, in a concentration-dependent manner. The immunohistochemical results also indicated that the SCMC ointment had good anti-hypertrophic scar properties and could inhibit hypertrophic scar formation. Conclusion The SCMC ointment could improve the blood circulation condition of hypertrophic scar tissues. Our research has demonstrated the Chinese medicine composition ointment with good anti-hypertrophic scar properties that could be used to treat hypertrophic scars. Meanwhile, it provides a theoretical basis for further clinical application.
... Rhus semialata M. has been reported to contain gallic acid, methylgallate, protocatechuic acid, coumaric acid, β-sitosterol, morolic acid, (2S)-1-O-heptatriacontanoyl glycerol [41,42,29]. In the present study, we found that gallic acid were mainly included in the ethanol extract of Rhus semialata M. (Fig. 5). ...
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para-Phenylediamine (PPD), a major component of hair dyeing ingredients, can induce allergenic sensitization and exert mutagenic, tumorigenic and cytotoxic effect. In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effect of PPD on human keratinocytes and evaluated the protective effect of Rhus semialata M. extracts (RSE) on PPD induced cytotoxicity for the first time. We observed that RSE is a strong inhibitory agent against PPD-induced toxicity in human keratinocytes. The results indicated that RSE pretreatment significantly could suppress PPD induced cytotoxic effects, including decrease of cell viability, accumulation in subG1 phase of cells, and relocation of phosphatidylserine on keratinocytes. Also, we found that PPD caused cytotoxicity was associated with mitochondrial membrane potential loss and subsequent activation of caspase and PARP degradation. However, pretreatment of RSE showed preventive activities against PPD induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and ROS production in keratinocytes. In conclusion, the results of present study suggest that RSE was able to protect the skin from several cytotoxic effects of PPD and could be a meaningful material in many industries using PPD.
... However, it is critical to separate evidence from anecdote. Bhakmilo gall is rich in hydrolysable tannins called gallotannins, used in Chinese medicine to treat coughs, diarrhoea, night sweats, dysentery and to stop intestinal and uterine bleeding (Djakpo et al 2010). Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), isolated from bhakmilo induces apoptosis in human monocytic lymphoma cell line and may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent against lymphoma (Kim et al. 2011). ...
Article
Nine undescribed geranylgeranylated derivatives (chinensens A−G), including malic acid derivative (A) and phenolic derivatives (B−E), as well as two pairs of enantiomers, [(R), (S)]-chinensens F and [(R), (S)]-chinensens G, were isolated from the roots of Rhus chinensis Mill. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, as well as optical rotations. The 95% EtOH extract (95% EXT, 500 mg/kg, p. o.) of the roots of Rhus chinensis and the 95% EtOH fraction (95% FRA, 500 mg/kg, p. o.) from the microporous resin column significantly alleviated indomethacin-induced or water immersion-restraint stress-induced damage in rat gastric mucosa with inhibitory rates from 53% to 89%. The racemic mixture (chinensen G) and its enantiomers [(R), (S)]-chinensens G showed weak activities against H⁺,K⁺-ATPase (20%–24%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM, respectively.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F.A. Barkley (RVS) is an economic tree species and widely distributed in East Asia. Wood parts and raw lacquers of RVS have been used in coatings, herbal medicines or food supplements, and the leaves, flowers, roots, and fruits of RVS are also widely used in medicine traditionally. Lacquer seed oil (LSO) has potential health benefits and has not previously been evaluated for safety. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicological potential of LSO by acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Materials and methods The characterization of fatty acids of the LSO was carried out by gas chromatography. In the acute toxicity study, LSO was administered at single doses of 5000 or 10000 mg/kg by oral gavage. The subchronic toxicity study was conducted by daily oral administration of LSO at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. The animals were evaluated for clinical observations, body weight, organ weight, feed consumption, biochemical and hematological parameters, and liver, lung, and kidney histology. Results There were no mortality and toxic changes were observed in acute toxicity study. The results of subchronic toxicity showed no toxicologically significant changes in clinical observations, body weight, organ weight, biochemical or hematological parameters. Histopathologic results indicated slight hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltration in the rats of 5000 mg/kg/day LSO treated group. However, the histopathologic observation was not confirmed by hepatic biochemical analysis. Conclusions These results suggested that the LD50 of LSO is over 10000 mg/kg and LSO is non-toxic for SD rats in acute toxicity study. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of LSO in rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg/day, and liver is the potential target organ of LSO for 30-day subchronic toxicity study.
Article
Background: Algal infestation in Korean lakes, rivers, and in agroecosystems is a catastrophic problem resulting in contaminated drinking and agricultural irrigation water. Developing allelochemical-based algicides has previously faced difficulties, including dosage requirements and chemical instability. Despite these challenges, these algicides have enormous potential for eco-friendly use. This study presents the efficient use of tannin derivatives as antialgal chemicals modeled on a tannin-rich stem extract of Rhus chinensis in a thermal processing application. Results: Tannic acids were the key component of algal necrosis in R. chinensis stem extract, and although heat extraction from the stem increased the crude extraction yield 1.8-fold, the procedure induced the conversion of tannic acids to gallic acid, resulting in lower antialgal activity. Gallotannin showed stronger antialgal activity (LD50 = 44.6 mg L-1 ) than gallic acid (LD50 = 99.2 mg L-1 ), and the nonheated extract exhibited 3.7-fold lower LD50 (0.66 g L-1 ) than the heated extract (LD50 = 2.45 g L-1 ), resulting in 2.6-fold higher content of gallotannin. Conclusion: These results demonstrate heat treatment of R. chinensis stems during the extraction process is not beneficial to algal control because of the acceleration of thermal tannin degradation, despite it showing higher crude extract yields. Therefore, it is suggested extraction processes minimizing the loss of tannic acids should be the preferred methods used to develop tannin-based natural algicides for controlling algal infestation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
As a fuel, hydrogen may effectively replace the traditional fossil fuels. TiO2 has been in use the most in semiconductors for photocatalytic hydrogen generation, according to a detailed review of the prior art. In our research, we created a photocatalytic system made of an H‐CD/Pt−TiO2 heterostructure, where carbon dots (H‐CD) were derived from a natural plant source called Rhus Semialata and 1 wt% Pt−TiO2 using photo‐deposition technique. After thorough characterization using various techniques including XPS, XRD, UV‐DRS, etc., the nanocomposites as‐prepared as well as the pristine materials were examined for their hydrogen generation capabilities using a 450 W Xe−Hg lamp. Inference from the experimental data showed that 1 wt %‐ Pt/TiO2 nanocomposite with 1 % H‐CD demonstrated a higher rate of hydrogen production (180.7 mmol h−1 g−1cat) than 1 wt%‐ Pt/TiO2. In this work, H‐CD and Pt play the role of photosensitizer and co‐catalyst respectively in enhancing the hydrogen generation of the nanocomposite compared to that of pure anatase TiO2 under similar conditions. In place of traditional fossil fuels, hydrogen fuel is a practical alternative. This work reports the preparation of carbon dots from Rhus Semialata and its nanocomposite with Pt deposited TiO2 nanoparticles as photocatalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen production using Xe−Hg lamp. Inferences drawn from this study revealed that nanocomposite of 1 wt%‐ Pt/TiO2 with 1 % carbon dots exhibited the highest H2 production.
Article
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the pharmacological efficacy of tannins. Tannic acid (TA), the simplest hydrolysable tannin that has been approved by the FDA as a safe food additive, is one of the most important components of these traditional medicines. Studies have shown that TA displays a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antitumor, cardioprotective, and anti-pathogenic effects. Here, we summarize the known pharmacological effects and associated mechanisms of TA. We focus on the effect and mechanism of TA in various animal models of inflammatory disease and organ, brain, and cardiovascular injury. Moreover, we discuss the possible molecular targets and signaling pathways of TA, in addition to the pharmacological effects of TA-based nanoparticles and TA in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.
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The fustin plant-derived bioflavonoid obtained from a common plant known as lacquer tree from family Anacardiaceae, formally known as Rhus verniciflua Stokes, is known to exert a variety of therapeutic properties. The current investigation proved the anti-ulcerative property of fustin on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in an experimental animal model. The fustin 50 and 100 mg/kg was studied in an experimental rat model by performing an 8 day protocol. The ulcer index, pH, total acidic content, and biochemical parameters such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-1β, prostaglandin E-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide (NO) in serum were measured. The gastric parameter such as ulcer index, pH, and acidic content was maintained in the fustin groups compared to the ethanol control group. Clinical presentation of gastric ulcers includes a significant increase in serum levels, GSH, SOD, and CAT and decreased MDA, TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and prostaglandin E-2 parameters in contrast to normal groups. The treatment regimen with fustin has significantly restored all serum parameters in test groups. The current study helps to develop reasonable phytochemical options for the innervations of chemical-induced gastric ulcers.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Rhus chinensis Mill., firstly recorded as herbal medicine in Shan Hai Jing, have been used for thousands of years to treat various diseases. Aim of this review This review targets on the ethnomedicinal applications of R. chinensis and to gather the phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data which support the therapeutic potential of R. chinensis in treatment on different diseases, with emphasis on the naturally occurring compounds and detailed pharmacological developments. Materials and methods The information of R. chinensis was collected based on a variety of popular databases such as Scifinder, PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Wiley, ACS, CNKI, Baidu Scholar, Google Scholar and other published materials (books and Ph.D. and M. Sc. Dissertations). The keywords “Rhus chinensis”, “Rhus amela”, “Rhus javanica”, “Rhus osbeckii”, “Rhus semialata”, and “Schinus indicus” were applied to search the literature related in this review. Results 152 natural compounds of R. chinensis belong to different classes are presented in this review, including flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, simple phenolics, urushiols, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids and other types of constituents. Among them, flavonoids, lignans, and triterpenoids are most frequently reported components. The pharmacological effects of R. chinensis were numerous and complicated, including anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-diarrheal, hepatoprotective, anti-proliferation, enzyme-inhibiting, anti-oxidants and so on. Conclusion In order to discover more compounds with novel structures to both enrich chemical context of genus Rhus and expand the variety of constituents, the phytochemical research is urgent and indispensable. Anti-diarrhea, the most widely application of R. chinensis traditionally, is insufficient in underlying mechanism exploration. And for other activities, in-depth studies on the mechanism of pharmacological effects in vivo and in vitro are both needed. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, quality control and preclinical and clinical data are urgent to assess the rationale and safety of the medicinal and food application of R. chinensis.
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Background Medicinal plants have been used countless times for curing diseases mainly in developing countries. They are easily available with little to no side effects when compared to modern medicine. This manuscript encompasses information on ethnomedicinal plants in Champhai district, located in the North East Region (NER) of India. The region lies within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. This study will be the first quantitative report on the ethnomedicinal plants used by the local tribes of this region. Knowledge of medicinal plants is mostly acquired by word of mouth, and the knowledge is dying among the local youths with the prevalence of modern medicine. Hence, there is urgency in deciphering and recording such information. Methods Information was gathered through interviews with 200 informants across 15 villages of the Champhai district. From the data obtained, we evaluate indices such as used report (UR), frequency of citation (FC), informant consensus factor (Fic), cultural values (CVs) and relative importance (RI) for all the plant species. Secondary data were obtained from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Sci Finder and Science Direct. The scientific name of the plants was matched and arranged in consultation with the working list of all plant species (http://www.theplantlist.org). Results Totally, 93 plant species from 53 families and 85 genera were recorded. The most common families are Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae with six and five species representatives, respectively. Leaves were the most frequently used part of a plant and were usually used in the form of decoction. Curcuma longa has the most cultural value (27.28 CVs) with the highest used report (136 FC), and the highest RI value was Phyllanthus emblica. The main illness categories as per Frequency of citation were muscle/bone problem (0.962 Fic), gastro-intestinal disease (0.956 Fic) and skin care (0.953 Fic). Conclusion The people of Mizoram living in the Champhai district have an immense knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants. There were no side effects recorded for consuming ethnomedicinal plants. We observed that there is a scope of scientific validation of 10 plant species for their pharmacological activity and 13 species for the phytochemical characterisation or isolation of the phytochemicals. This might pave the path for developing a scientifically validated botanical or lead to semisyntheic derivatives intended for modern medicine.
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Background Cervical cancer induced by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common cancers in women in developing countries. Novel treatments for cervical cancer are focused on bioactive metabolites obtained from natural sources. Materials and Methods The biological effects of Galla Chinensis on HPV16 + cells were analyzed by cell scratch and plate cloning, and the cycle process was evaluated by flow cytometry; PCR, WB and immunofluorescence techniques were used to explore its mechanism Results It was shown that compared to a blank control group, Galla chinensis is less toxic to cervical cancer cells and exhibits prominent inhibitory effects on the growth, cloning, and migration of SiHa adherent cells. The effects of Galla chinensis also included cell cycle arrest in the S phase, and our obtained results suggest that its mechanism of action may involve the downregulation of the HPV E6 oncoprotein and the reconstruction of the p53 functional protein. Conclusion It is proved that Galla chinensis can effectively eliminate HPV16 + cells and inhibit the development of cervical cancer. It can down regulate oncoprotein E6 and up regulate tumor suppressor protein p53.
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Rhus chinensis Mill. fruits are a kind of widely distributed edible seasoning, which have been documented to possess a variety of biological activities. However, its inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation has not been determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fruits on osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells, induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and to illuminate the potential mechanisms using network pharmacology and western blots. Results showed that the extract containing two organic acids and twelve phenolic substances could effectively inhibit osteoclast differentiation in RANKL-induced RAW264.7 cells. Network pharmacology examination and western blot investigation showed that the concentrate essentially decreased the expression levels of osteoclast-specific proteins, chiefly through nuclear factor kappa-B, protein kinase B, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, particularly protein kinase B α and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 targets. Moreover, the extract likewise directly down regulated the expression of cellular oncogene Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 proteins. Citric acid, quercetin, myricetin-3-O-galactoside, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside were considered as the predominant bioactive ingredients. Results of this work may provide a scientific basis for the development and utilization of R. chinensis fruits as a natural edible material to prevent and/or alleviate osteoporosis-related diseases.
Article
Background : The worldwide corona virus disease outbreak, generally known as COVID-19 pandemic outbreak resulted in a major health crisis globally. The morbidity and transmission modality of COVID-19 appear more severe and uncontrollable. The respiratory failure and following cardiovascular complications are the main pathophysiology of this deadly disease. Several therapeutic strategies are put forward for the development of safe and effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2 virus from the pharmacological view point but till date there are no specific treatment regimen developed for this viral infection. Purpose : The present review emphasizes the role of herbs and herbs-derived secondary metabolites in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus and also for the management of post-COVID-19 related complications. This approach will foster and ensure the safeguards of using medicinal plant resources to support the healthcare system. Plant-derived phytochemicals have already been reported to prevent the viral infection and to overcome the post-COVID complications like parkinsonism, kidney and heart failure, liver and lungs injury and mental problems. In this review, we explored mechanistic approaches of herbal medicines and their phytocomponenets as antiviral and post-COVID complications by modulating the immunological and inflammatory states. Study design : Studies related to diagnosis and treatment guidelines issued for COVID-19 by different traditional system of medicine were included. The information was gathered from pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions approaches. The gathered information sorted based on therapeutic application of herbs and their components against SARSCoV-2 and COVID-19 related complications. Methods : A systemic search of published literature was conducted from 2003 to 2021 using different literature database like Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science to emphasize relevant articles on medicinal plants against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and Post-COVID related complications. Results : Collected published literature from 2003 onwards yielded with total 625 articles, from more than 18 countries. Among these 625 articles, more than 95 medicinal plants and 25 active phytomolecules belong to 48 plant families. Reports on the therapeutic activity of the medicinal plants belong to the Lamiaceae family (11 reports), which was found to be maximum reported from 4 different countries including India, China, Australia, and Morocco. Other reports on the medicinal plant of Asteraceae (7 reports), Fabaceae (8 reports), Piperaceae (3 reports), Zingiberaceae (3 reports), Ranunculaceae (3 reports), Meliaceae (4 reports) were found, which can be explored for the development of safe and efficacious products targeting COVID-19. Conclusion : Keeping in mind that the natural alternatives are in the priority for the management and prevention of the COVID-19, the present review may help to develop an alternative approach for the management of COVID-19 viral infection and post-COVID complications from a mechanistic point of view.
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Hepatic glycolipid metabolism disorder is considered as one of the key factors in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of Rhus chinensis Mill. fruits against hepatic glycolipid metabolic disorders in rats induced by a high fat/high sugar diet. Results showed that ethanol extract, especially at a dose of 600 mg/kg b.w., could effectively ameliorate glycolipid metabolic disorders in rats. The biochemical indexes, including CAT, GSH and HOMA-IR, were significantly improved by the administration of ethanol extract. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that ethanol extract up-regulated the expression levels of PI3K/AKT, PPAR-α, and the phosphorylation of IRS1 and AMPK proteins, and down-regulated the expressions of SREBP-1 and FAS proteins in the liver, which are closely related to hepatic glycolipid metabolism. Those findings suggested that R. chinensis Mill. fruits could be developed as functional foods and/or nutraceuticals for preventing or controlling some chronic diseases related to hepatic glycolipid metabolism disorder.
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This paper aimed to study the effect of the phenol-rich fraction from Chinese sumac fruits on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice and to further elucidate the potential mechanisms. The results showed that the phenol-rich fraction of the fruits significantly decreased the ulcer index, restored the levels of prostaglandin E-2, heat shock protein 70, glutathione and superoxide dismutase, and reduced the malondialdehyde content. Further analyses revealed that the fraction significantly alleviated the gastric oxidative stress by upregulating the Nrf2 protein pathway to increase the HO-1 and NQO1 expression levels, suppressed the inflammation by reducing the expression levels of p-NF-κB and p-IκBα and inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. In addition, the fraction remarkably prevented gastric mucous cell apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax and cleaved caspase3. This experiment clarified for the first time that the phenol-rich fraction from Chinese sumac fruits can prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice by inhibiting the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and cell apoptosis. The results obtained from the current work indicated that the phenol-rich fraction from Chinese sumac fruits could be applied as a kind of natural resource for producing new functional foods to prevent and/or improve gastric ulcers induced by ethanol.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Galla chinensis, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was widely used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC) in folk prescriptions, however, its active ingredients and mechanism of action in the treatment of UC remain unclear. Aim of the study The aim of our study was to discover the lead compounds and anti-inflammatory active ingredients of Galla chinensis and clarify their molecular mechanism for UC treatment. Materials and methods The ingredients of Galla chinensis were prepared by column and mass spectrometry guided preparative chromatography. Besides, the relationship among the ingredients of Galla chinensis and targets was predicted by systems pharmacology. Additionally, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages were used as in vitro model. The cell viability, the level of the pro-inflammatory factors, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and trans epithelial electric resistance (TEER) values were detected to screen out the active ingredients of Galla chinensis. Moreover, 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis mice were used as the UC animal model. The disease activity index (DAI), pathological degree of colon tissue, activities of antioxidant-related enzymes and expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines were performed to assess the anti-UC effects of the active ingredients. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression level of inflammatory factors and antioxidant related genes were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). And the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway related proteins, intestinal mucosal proteins and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway related proteins in colon tissues were analyzed by Western Blotting. Results Herein, a stepwise tracking strategy was adopted to screen out the anti-inflammatory active ingredients of Galla Chinensis based on "preparative chromatography pharmacology combined with mass spectrometry guidance and system". 11 categories of ingredients of Galla chinensis were prepared and ethyl gallate (EG) was screened out the lead compound and anti-inflammatory active ingredient of Galla Chinensis through in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, EG had a significant therapeutic effect on ameliorating DSS-induced UC mice and protected intestinal mucosal integrity through Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusion Ethyl gallate was the lead compound and anti-inflammatory active ingredient in Galla chinensis. And it was discovered for the first time that EG could treat mice with ulcerative colitis. This research not only found the lead compound of Galla Chinensis for UC treatment and determined the possible mechanism, but also provided valuable references for finding lead compounds from natural products by systems pharmacology coupled with equivalent components group technology.
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Background Medicinal plants have been used countless times for curing diseases mainly in developing countries. They are easily available with little to no side effects when compared to modern medicine. This manuscript encompasses information on ethnomedicinal plants in Champhai district, located in the North East Region (NER) of India. The region lies within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. This study will be the first quantitative report on the ethnomedicinal plants used by the local tribes of this region. Knowledge of medicinal plants is mostly acquired by word of mouth and the knowledge is dying among the local youths with the prevalence of modern medicine. Hence, there is urgency in deciphering and recording such information. Methods Information was gathered through interviews with 200 informants across 15 villages of the Champhai District. From the data obtained, we calculated the Used Report (UR), Frequency of Citation (FC) and Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) for all the plant species. Secondary data was obtained from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Sci Finder and Science Direct. The scientific name of the plants were matched and arranged in consultation with the working list of all plant species (http://www.theplantlist.org ). Results 93 plant species from 53 families were recorded. The most common families are Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae with six and five species representatives respectively. Leaves were the most frequently used part of a plant and were usually used in the form of decoction. The plant species with the highest used report (UR) were Curcuma longa L. (136 FC) and Flueggea virosa (126 FC). The main illness categories as per Frequency of citation were Muscle/Bone Problem (0.962 Fic), Gastro-intestinal Disease (0.956 Fic) and Skin Care (0.953 Fic). Conclusion The people of Mizoram living in the Champhai district have an immense knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants. There are no new adverse effects recorded. We observed that there is a scope of scientific validation of 10 plant species for their pharmacological activity and 13 species for the phytochemical characterization or isolation of the phytochemicals. This might pave the path for developing a scientifically validated botanical or lead to semisyntheic derivatives intended for modern medicine.
Article
Objectives Rhus coriaria L. (RC) is a deciduous shrub with several pharmacological activities. Evidence of the effects of RC on weight, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus have been presented in this study. Books, thesis and internet-based resources such as PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Ovid and Google Scholar were searched for the English, Arabic and Persian literature from 1966 to 2020 (December). The keywords were Rhus coriaria L., Sumac, metabolic syndrome and all its medical conditions (hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus). The inclusion criteria were full-text animal and human studies conducted on RC to evaluate its efficacy on any components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Jadad scale was used to assess the quality of evidence. Key findings Reviewing 23 relevant studies demonstrated that RC is able to decrease the level of blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum insulin and insulin resistance. Studies on hyperlipidaemia and obesity have very contradicting results, and there is no definite conclusion on the effect of RC on lipid profile. However, the hypotensive and effect of RC was confirmed in the existing studies. Summary According to the literature, RC can be considered as a promising curative candidate for MetS. However, further studies with larger sample size and higher methodological quality are needed.
Chapter
Moronic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that derives from a hydride of an oleanane. It may contain an array of olean-18-ene compounds substituted at positions 3 and 28 by an oxo group and a carboxyl group, respectively. The moronic acid and its homologies isolated from Rhus javanica have become famous for their antivirus activity against herpes simplex virus also known as human alpha herpes virus (HSV). Besides, moronic acid and its derivatives have shown antihyperglycemic action mediated by an insulin sensitization in rat models and antiinflammatory activity as indicated by in vitro and in silico studies. Moronic acids are the main constituents of Phoradendron reichenbachianum extract, a medicinal plant used in Mexico for the treatment of diabetes. The chapter describes the origin, extraction, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, antitumor, antiinflammatory, and antihistaminic potential of moronic acid.
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This article surveys a range of important platform and high value chemicals that may be considered primary and secondary 'xylochemicals'. A summary of identified xylochemical substances and their natural sources is provided in tabular form. In detail, this review is meant to provide useful assistance for the consideration of potential synthetic strategies using xylochemicals, new methodologies and the development of potentially sustainable, xylochemistry-based processes. It should support the transition from petroleum-based approaches and help to move towards more sustainability within the synthetic community. This feasible paradigm shift is demonstrated with the total synthesis of natural products and active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as the preparation of organic molecules suitable for potential industrial applications.
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The purpose of this research was to explore the preventive effect of an 80% ethanol extract of Rhus chinensis Mill. fruits on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect. The results indicated that the extract, especially when administered at a high dose, could dramatically decrease the disease activity index, maintain normal spleen conditions, and improve colonic histopathology and length in the DSS-induced mice. In addition, extract administration could significantly suppress the levels of malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 and enhance superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. The extract obviously protected intestinal barrier integrity by improving Occludin, ZO-1 and Claudin-1 expression levels. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses further indicated that the preventive effect of the phenol-rich extract on DSS-induced colitis might be achieved through the up-regulation of the expression of several pivotal oxidative stress-associated proteins, namely Nrf2, NQO1 and HO-1, and the down-regulation of the expression of several pivotal inflammation-associated proteins, namely p-NF-κB, p-IκB, COX-2, iNOS, p-P38, p-Erk1/2, and p-JNK. Therefore, R. chinensis fruits extract possesses the capability to prevent DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice and could be utilized as a natural substance in the exploitation of functional foods as an adjuvant dietary therapy for preventing and/or alleviating inflammatory bowel disease.
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This work studied the effects of gastrointestinal digestion on the phytochemical bioaccessibility and in vitro anti‐diabetic effects of different fractions from Chinese sumac fruits and delineated the underlying mechanisms by molecular docking. Results showed that gastric digestion significantly increased the phytochemical bioaccessibility and inhibitions for α‐glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐IV), and advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation of the ethanol‐extracted fraction, whereas intestinal digestion remarkably decreased these parameters (p < 0.05). For the free phenolic fraction, the parameters were remarkably reduced after gastric digestion but significantly increased after intestinal digestion (p < 0.05). Quercitrin and gvajaverin contributed the most to the α‐glucosidase and DPP‐IV inhibitions, and trigalloyl glucose and its isomer could be the primary bioactive substance responsible for AGE suppression. Quercitrin, the predominant phenolic compound, could effectively interact with crucial amino acid residues in α‐glucosidase, DPP‐IV, and bovine serum albumin with hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to exert its inhibitions.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Galla chinensis (GC), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has a wide range of pharmacological properties which have been widely used for more than 1400 years. Based on shape, GC is divided into two groups: jiaobei and dubei. It is a bitter, sour, cold and astringent substance which is usually used for treating diarrhea, constipation, bleeding, cough, vomiting, sweating, hemorrhoids, and anal and uterine prolapse. It is available in all parts of China, Japan and North Korea. Aim of study This study was aimed at carrying out a comprehensive overview of the current status of research on Galla chinensis (GC) for better understanding of it characteristics, while providing a clear direction for future studies. It has aroused the interest of researchers, leading to development of medicinal value, expansion of its application, and provision of wider and more effective drug choices. This study was focused on the traditional uses, botany, chemical composition, pharmacology and toxicology of GC. Finally, the study focused on possible future research directions for GC. Materials and methods A comprehensive analysis was done based on academic papers, pharmaceutical monographs, ancient medicinal works, and drug standards of China. This review used Galla and Galla chinensis as keywords for retrieval of information on GC from online databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, CNKI, Web of Science, Google Scholar, SCI hub, and Baidu academic. Results It was found that the chemical constituents of GC included tannins, phenolic acid and volatile oils, with polyphenol compounds (especially tannins and gallic acid) as the distinct components. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that GC exerted numerous biological effects such as anti-caries, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and antioxidant effects. The therapeutic effect of GC was attributed mainly to the biological properties of its bioactive components. Conclusions GC is an important TCM which has potential benefit in the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, the relationship amongst the structure and biological activity of GC and its components, mechanism of action, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and target organs need to be further studied. Quality control and quality assurance programs for GC need to be further developed. There is need to study the dynamics associated with the accumulation of chemical compounds in GC as well as the original plants and aphid that form GC.
Chapter
From the beginning of lives on earth, nature is contributing different products to the system constantly and endlessly. Plants synthesize a large number of organic compounds, which are commonly known as primary and secondary metabolites with various applications. Tannins are one of the secondary metabolites solely obtained from the natural or plant sources where it present in the woods, barks, leaves, fruits, cell sap or in vacuoles. Chemically, they are polyphenolic colloidal solutions with complex astringent properties and it has the ability to tan or convert the skin of animals into leather. Depending on the complexity of chemical nature, tannins are classified into two types i.e., hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins. More than 8000 different tannins of free or bound forms have been detected which can be used in various sector. Despite of its astringent property, tannins and polyphenols can show their identity with different applications with properties like anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-aging, stomachic, cardio-tonic, diuretics, laxatives, hypoglycemic, anti-corrosive or in photography, food, neutraceuticals or cosmeceuticals. In this review, we discuss about different tannins and polyphenols obtained from different sources, their types, about important chemicals and their remarkable applications in different fields of the system.
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Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), one of the most widely spread human viruses in the Herpesviridae family, causes herpes labialis (cold sores) and keratitis (inflammation of the cornea). Conventional treatment for HSV-1 infection includes pharmaceutical drugs, such as acyclovir and docosonal, which are efficacious but maintain the potential for the development of viral drug resistance. Extracts from the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have previously been shown to inhibit the replication of HSV-1. In this study, we demonstrate that S. purpurea extracts can inhibit the replication of HSV-1 by two distinct mechanisms of action. These extracts directly inhibit extracellular virions or viral attachment to the human host cell as well as inhibiting the expression of viral immediate-early, early and late genes when added at various times post-infection. This botanical has previously been shown to inhibit the replication of poxviruses through the inhibition of early viral gene transcription. These results support a broader anti-viral activity of S. purpurea extracts against both pox and herpes viruses.
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Chinese sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.) fruits are traditionally used as a condiment and herb. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevention of ethanol extract from Chinese sumac fruits against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that the ethanol extract substantially decreased AST, ALT, MDA and hydroxyprolin (HYP); restored GSH, SOD and CAT; and prevented liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further investigated results illuminated that the prevention against liver fibrosis may be related to the alleviation of inflammation by suppressing the release of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and downregulating COX-2, iNOS, p-NF-κB and p-P38, the prevention of hepatocyte apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax, the reduction of HSCs activation by downregulating TGF-β1 and upregulating PPAR-γ, and the decrease of extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by regulating MMP9 and TIMP2. These findings proved that Chinese sumac fruits could effectively prevent CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice and may be used to develop functional foods and/or nutraceuticals to prevent or alleviate liver fibrosis.
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Dental caries is a chronic bacterial infectious disease caused by multiple factors, with Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) as the main cariogenic bacteria. Trollius altaicus C. A. Mey. (TA) is a common folk medicine in the Xinjiang area of China. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of T. altaicus C. A. Mey. (TA) flower extracts on S. mutans. The inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value were investigated to determine the antibacterial activity of the extracts. Biolfilm study was used to determine the antibiofilm activity of the extracts. Results showed that the water, ethanol, and n-butanol extracts of TA flower against S. mutans had MIC values of 10, 5, and 10 mg/mL, respectively, and MBC values of 20, 10, and 20 mg/mL, respectively. Crystal violet staining assay showed that the inhibition rates of the biofilm were 78.10% ± 1.14%, 81.12% ± 3.33%, and 80.54% ± 3.60% at MIC levels of the water, ethanol, and n-butanol extracts of TA flower, respectively. Observation of the biofilm by confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantification of the biofilm via flow cytometry showed that the TA flower extracts could damage the biofilm. The TA flower extracts significantly inhibited biofilm formation at MIC value (P < 0.05). These results showed that the water, ethanol, and n-butanol extracts of TA flower had inhibitory effects on the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. The ethanol extract had the strongest inhibitory effect among the three extracts. Therefore, TA flower has bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans and has the potential to be developed for the prevention of dental caries.
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Sumac is the common name for a genus (Rhus) that contains over 250 individual species of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae. These plants are found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, often grow in areas of marginal agricultural capacity, and have a long history of use by indigenous people for medicinal and other uses. The research efforts on sumac extracts to date indicate a promising potential for this plant family to provide renewable bioproducts with the following reported desirable bioactivities: antifibrogenic, antifungal, antiinflamma-tory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antithrombin, antitumorigenic, antiviral, cytotoxic, hypo-glycaemic, and leukopenic. As well, the bioactive components can be extracted from the plant material using environmentally benign solvents that allow for both food and industrial end-uses. The favorable worldwide distribution of sumac also suggests that desirable bioproducts may be obtained at the source, with minimal transportation requirements from the source through processing to the end consumer. However, previous work has focussed in just a few members of this large plant family. In addition, not all of the species studied to date have been fully characterized for potential bioactive components and bioactivities. Thus, there remains a significant research gap spanning the range from lead chemical discovery through process development and optimization in order to better understand the full potential of the Rhus genus as part of global green technology based on bioproducts and bioprocesses research programs.
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Sumac is the common name for a genus (Rhus) that contains over 250 individual species of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae. These plants are found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, often grow in areas of marginal agricultural capacity, and have a long history of use by indigenous peoples for medicinal and other uses. The research efforts on sumac extracts to date indicate a promising potential for this plant family to provide renewable bioproducts with the following reported desirable bioactivities: antifibrogenic, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antithrombin, antitumorigenic, antiviral, cytotoxic, hypoglycaemic, and leukopenic. As well, the bioactive components can be extracted from the plant material using environmentally benign solvents that allow for both food and industrial end-uses. The favorable worldwide distribution of sumac also suggests that desirable bioproducts may be obtained at source, with minimal transportation requirements from the source through processing to end consumer. However, previous work has focussed on only a few members of this large plant family. In addition, not all of the species studied to date have been fully characterized for potential bioactive components and bioactivities. Thus, there remains a significant research gap spanning the range from lead chemical discovery through process development and optimization in order to better understand the full potential of the Rhus genus as part of global green technology based bioproduct and bioprocess research programs.
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Rhus semialata Murr. (Anacardiaceae) is a deciduous tree of north eastern India. The fruit of this plant is traditionally used to control diarrhoea and dysentery. The Present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-diarrhoeal potency of methanol extract of fruits of R. semialata using Wister albino rats to substantiate folklore claims. The extract at graded doses (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight) was investigated for anti-diarrhoeal activity in term of reduction in the rate of defecation in castor oil induced diarrhoea. To understand the mechanism of its antidiarrhoeal activity, the gastrointestinal transit and PGE(2)-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) were further evaluated. At graded doses, the extract showed a remarkable anti-diarrhoeal activity evidenced by the reduction in the rate of defecation up to 80.70% of control diarrhoeal animals at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight. Results are comparable to that of standard drug diphenoxylate (50 mg/kg body weight). Extract produced profound decrease in intestinal transit (8.02-47.05%) at selected doses comparable to that of single intraperitoneal injection of standard drug atropine sulphate at doses of 0.1 mg/kg body weight. It significantly inhibited PGE(2)-induced enteropooling (21.98-56.03%). The results indicated that the methanol extract of the fruits of R. semialata possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal effect and substantiated the use of this herbal remedy as a non-specific treatment for diarrhoea in folk medicine.
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The vertebrate digestive tract, including that of humans, is the habitat to trillions of bacteria that are of significant importance to host biology and health. Although these communities are often postulated to have coevolved with their hosts, evidence is lacking, yet critical for our understanding of microbial symbiosis in vertebrates. To gain insight into the evolution of a gut symbiont, we have characterized the population genetic structure and phylogeny of Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from six different host species (human, mouse, rat, pig, chicken and turkey) using Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA). The results revealed considerable genetic heterogeneity within the L. reuteri population and distinct monophyletic clades reflecting host origin but not provenance. The evolutionary patterns detected indicate a long-term association of L. reuteri lineages with particular vertebrate species and host-driven diversification. Results from a competition experiment in a gnotobiotic mouse model revealed that rodent isolates showed elevated ecological performance, indicating that evolution of L. reuteri lineages was adaptive. These findings provide evidence that some vertebrate gut microbes are not promiscuous, but have diversified into host-adapted lineages by a long-term evolutionary process, allowing the development of a highly specialized symbiosis.
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Methyl gallate is a major component of Galla Rhois, as carvacrol is of oregano essential oils. Both have shown good antibacterial activity against intestinal bacteria. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of nalidixic acid in combination with methyl gallate and carvacrol against nalidixic acid resistant bacteria. The combined effect of nalidixic acid with methyl gallate and carvacrol was evaluated using the checkerboard method to obtain a fractional inhibitory concentration index. The results showed that the combinations of nalidixic acid + methyl gallate/carvacrol improved nalidixic acid resistant pathogenic bacteria inhibition with synergy or partial synergy activity. Thus, a strong bactericidal effect of the drug combinations was observed. In vitro data thus suggested that nalidixic acid combined with methyl gallate and carvacrol may be microbiologically beneficial, rather than antagonists.
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This study examined the ability of methyl gallate (MG) and gallic acid (GA), the main compounds of gallo-tannins in Galla Rhois, to inhibit the proliferation of oral bacterial and the in vitro formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were evaluated in vitro using the broth microdilution method and a beaker-wire test. Both MG and GA had inhibitory effects on the growth of cariogenic (MIC<8 mg/ml) and periodontopathic bacteria (MIC=1 mg/ml). Moreover, these compounds significantly inhibited the in vitro formation of S. mutans biofilms (MG, 1 mg/ml; GA, 4 mg/ml; P<0.05). MG was more effective in inhibiting bacterial growth and the formation of S. mutans biofilm than GA. In conclusion, MG and GA can inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and S. mutans biofilm formation, and may be used to prevent the formation of oral biofilms.
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Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera). As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt.
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Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) have been used widely for many years to retard lipid oxidation. Concern about the safety of synthetic antioxidants together with consumer preference for natural products has resulted in increased research on natural antioxidants. Many spices have been shown to impart an antioxidative effect in foods. This article summarizes the literature on the antioxidative effects of spices. The term spice is defined as dry plant material that is normally added to food to impart flavour.
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The extracts from approximately 40 different Korean traditional medicines were prepared to investigate the antimicrobial activities against poultry disease-related bacteria. Among tested, the extracts of Schizandra chinensis (SC), Melia azedarach (MA), Caesalpinia sappan (CS) and Rhusjavanica (RJ) exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against Salmonella gallinarum, whereas the extracts of Elsholtzia ciliata (EC), Myristica fragrans (MF), Alpinia katsumadai (AK), Poncirus trifoliata (PT), runella vulgaris (PV), CS and RJ exhibited antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of MA, CS and RJ extracts against S. gallinarum were 1.2 mg/ml, whereas MIC of RJ extract for S. aureus was 0.6 mg/ml, which was the lowest among tested. The antimicrobial activities of SC and RJ extracts against S. gallinarum were reduced, but those of AK and CS extracts against S. aureus were not affected by heating treatment. The antimicrobial activities of SC extract against S. gallinarum and those of EC, PT and RJ extracts against S. aureus were stable by acid treatment but unstable by alkaline treatment. those of CS extract was not effected by either acid or alkaline treatment. The growth of all bacteria was significantly inhibited within 24 hours by the addition of at least 100 ppm and 300 ppm of RJ and CS extracts, respectively, compared with the control group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that RJ and CS extracts may play important roles for antimicrobial activities against poultry disease-related bacteria.
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The present study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activities of extracts from approximately 40 different traditional Korean medicinal herbs against S. gallinarum and S. epidermidis. The extracts from Schizandra chinensis Baill., Melia azedarach Linn\acute{e}, Caesalpinia sappan Linn\acute{e}. and Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. exhibited high antimicrobial activities against S. gallinarum, whereas the extracts from Melia azedarach Linn\acute{e} and Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. exhibited high antimicrobial growth for S. epidermidis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of Melia azedarach Linn\acute{e}, Caesalpinia sappan Linn\acute{e}. and Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. for S. gallinarum were 1.2 mg/mL, whereas MIC of exracts from Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. extract for S. epidermidis were 0.6 mg/mL. Heat treatment of the extracts from Schizandra chinensis Baill. and Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. caused a significant reduction in antimicrobial activities against S. gallinarum. but didn`t affect antimicrobial activities against S. edidermidis. Alkaline treatment of the extracts from Schizandra chinensis Baill. caused a significant reduction in antimicrobial activities against S. gallinarum, while similar treatment of the extracts from Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. caused a significant increase in antimicrobial activities against S. edidermidis. Since extracts from Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. and Caesalpinia sappan Linn\acute{e}. exhibited the highest antimicrobial activities, these extracts at the concentrations of 100, 300 or 500 ppm were added and then bacterial growth-inhibiting activities for S. gallinarum and S. epidermidis by these two extracts were further examined. Optical density at 620 nm (OD_{620}) after 24 hours incubation in the absence of Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. extract ranged from 0.30 to 0.45 compared with OD_{620} value ranging from 0.06 to 0.18 in the presence of 100, 300 or 500 ppm of the extract, indicating that growth of all bacteria was significantly inhibited within 24 hours by the addition of at least 100 ppm of Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e} extract. Value of OD_{620} after 24 hours incubation in the absence of Caesalpinia sappan Linn\acute{e}. extract ranged from 0.30 to 0.55 compared with OD_{620} value ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 in the presence of 300 or 500 ppm of the extract, indicating that growth of all bacteria was also significantly inhibited within 24 hours by the addition of at least 300 ppm of Caesalpinia sappan Linn\acute{e}. extract. In conclusion, these findings suggest that extracts from Rhus javanica Linn\acute{e}. and Caesalpinia sappan Linn\acute{e}. may play important roles in antimicrobial activities against S. gallinarum and S. epidermidis.
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In this study, Chinese gallotannins were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS, and effects of cationization reagents on the quality of spectra were investigated. The trideca- and tetradeca-galloyl glucoses were observed in Chinese gallotannins, which could not be detected in earlier studies. When Cs+ was used as the cationization reagent, Chinese gallotannins gave a relatively simple MALDI-TOF spectrum, three series of quasimolecular ions [M + Cs]+, [M + 2Cs–H]+, and [M + 3Cs–2H]+ and a series of metastable ion peaks with minimum abundance were detected. Selection of Na+ as the cationization reagent, additional three series of ion peaks including two patterns from the fragmentation and complex 2M adducts [2M + Na]+ can be distinguished. In the case of no deionization or addition of cationization reagent to the analyte/matrix, naturally abundant Na+ and K+ as the cationization reagent, [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+ molecular ions both appeared in the complicated spectrum. Therefore, we conclude that cationization reagents affect the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of Chinese gallotannins significantly. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2007
Article
From the roots of Rhus javanica L. var. roxburghiana, totally thirty-seven known compounds have been isolated and identified. Their structures were elucidated based on their spectral analysis as well as comparison with authentic samples. These compounds were grouped to be fifteen triterpenoids, five steroids, two lignans, two flavonoids, nine phenolics, and four other aromatic derivatives. Their cytotoxicities toward two cell lines NUGC-3 and HONE-1 were also evaluated.
Article
Two new phenol glycosides, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol-1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-4′,6′-O-(E)-diferuloyl ester (1), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenylmethanol-4-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-4′,6′-O-(E)-diferuloyl ester (2), together with six known compounds were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana and their structures were established by various spectroscopic techniques.
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Fifty-one tannins and forty-one flavonoids isolated from Oriental medicinal herbs were evaluated for their antioxidant ability with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-generating system. The results showed that tannins and certain flavonoids are potential free-radical scavengers, and that their activity against the DPPH radical is closely associated with their chemical structure. A comparison of the two classes of compounds showed that tannins have more potential than flavonoids because almost all the tannins demonstrated significant scavenging action within a low concentration range, whereas the activity of flavonoids varied distinctively among the different compounds. An increase of galloyl groups, molecular weight, and ortho-hydroxyl structure enhanced the activity of tannins, whereas the number and position of hydroxyl groups were important features for the scavenging of free radicals by flavonoids. Moreover, it appeared that when the free hydroxyl group was methoxylated or glycosylated, the inhibitory activity was obviously decreased or even abolished.
Article
In order to investigate the relationship between the antiherpetic activity and the structure of tannins, the activities of 38 such compounds were examined. The results indicate that the activities of hydrolysable tannins were dependent on the number of galloyl or hexahydroxydiphenoyl groups and those of condensed ones on the degree of condensation. On the other hand, the more active tannins were the wore cytotoxic.
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The antioxidant potential of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG), isolated from Elaeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus, was investigated by various established systems based on cell-free and cell system experiments, such as radical detection, antioxidant enzyme assay, lipid peroxidation detection, and cell viability assay. PGG was found to quench the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species. PGG recovered the cellular antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, which were reduced by H2O2 treatment, thereby resulting in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Cytoprotective effects of PGG were based on the results of DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), apoptotic body formation, and caspase-3 activity. The results suggest that PGG protects cells against H2O2-induced cell damage via antioxidant properties.
Article
Objective: To explore the antibacterial effect of Chinese crude drugs against clinical strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum(UU), including eight pure herbs and three compound herbs, and determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations(MICs). Methods: Isolates were collected from clinical patients with UU infection, and cultured in UU broth. In order to test the different effects on clinical strains of UU, the assays were performed by microdilution inhibition tests, and MICs of the herbs against the clinical strains of UU were calculated. Results: The MICs of eight pure herbs against clinical strains of UU were as follows: Galla Chinensis:0.313∼1.25 g/L; Fructus Forsythiae: 1.25∼5.00 g/L; Cortex Phellodendri:1.25∼5.00 g/L; Radix Paeoniae Rubra:1.25∼2.50 g/L; Semen Plantaginis:2.50∼10.00 g/L; Herba Lysimachiae: 5.00∼20.00 g/L; Rhizoma Coptidis: 5.00∼20.00g/L, Herba Houttuyniae: 10.00∼20.00 g/L. The MICs of compound herbs were: Liuheji: 0.625∼2.50 g/L; Bazhengsan: 5.00∼20.00 g/L; Wulinsan:2.50∼20.0 g/L. Conclusion: Galla Chinensis, Fructus Forsythiae, Cortex Phellodendrim, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and Semen Plantaginis, exerted the stronger antibacterial effect against clinical strains of UU, whereas Herba Lysimachiae, Rhizoma Coptidis and Herba Houttuyniae, had relatively weaker activity against UU. Compound herbs, Bazhengsan and Wulinsan, and particularly Liuheji, also had antibacterial effects against UU. Further studies of the effects and mechanisms of action of Chinese crude drugs against UU infections are worthwhile. © 2009 The Editorial Board of Journal of Nanjing Medical University.
Article
Rhus L. (sensu lato) has been considered the largest and most widespread genus in the Anacardiaceae. Controversy has surrounded the delimitation of the genus. Historically, seven segregate genera have been recognized: Actinocheita, Cotinus, Malosma, Melanococca, Metopium, Searsia, and Toxicodendron. These genera, together with Rhus s.str., are commonly referred to as the Rhus complex. Rhus s.str. includes two subgenera, Lobadium (ca. 25 spp.) and Rhus (ca. 10 spp.). Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were employed to examine the monophyly of Rhus s.str. and to provide insight into the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of the genus. The ITS data set indicates that Rhus s.str. is monophyletic. Actinocheita, Cotinus, Malosma, Searsia, and Toxicodendron are distinct from Rhus s.str., although the relationships among these genera of the Rhus complex are not well resolved. Rhus subgenus Rhus is paraphyletic; the monophyletic subgenus Lobadium is nested within it. The ITS data set indicates that, for Rhus, the Madro-Tertiary floristic element (subgenus Lobadium) had a single origin within the Arcto-Tertiary floristic element (subgenus Rhus).
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Summary 1. It has been established that the semiacetal hydroxyls of the carbohydrate components of the tannins of the smoketree and of Turkish galls are substituted by galloyl residues and the C3 hydroxy group is free; on the other hand, in the tannins from sumac and Chinese galls all the hydroxy groups of the sugars are substituted by galloyl residues with the exception of the semiacetal hydroxyl. 2. It has been found that in the tannin from sumac, of the six gallic acid residues four are in the form of digalloyl and two in the form of monogalloyl groups; in the tannins from the smoketree and Chinese galls, of the seven gallic acid residues three are in the form of a trigalloyl, two of a digalloyl, and two of monogalloyl groups. In the tannin from Turkish galls, of the five gallic acid residues three are in the form of a trigalloyl and two of a digalloyl residue.
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The gallotannins of Galla chinensis (GAC) were extracted consecutively by five solvents of different polarity, and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated. All of the ether-, ethyl acetate-, ethanol-, and water-extracts presented remarkable antioxidant abilities in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), β-carotene linoleic acid system, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these extracts against 3 species of gram-positive bacteria, 3 species of gram-negative bacteria, and 3 species of fungi were also determined using the agar dilution method. All of the extracts showed excellent antibacterial activities, but no antifungal activities. The gallotannins in different extracts were analyzed by the HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS. The results indicated that the extracts with weaker polarity contained gallotannins with higher molecular weight, and had stronger antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
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Methanol extracts from 50 species of oriental medicinal plants were prepared and subjected to an in vitro screening test for their growth-inhibitory activity towards Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli, using a paper disc agar diffusion method under O2-free conditions. The inhibitory activity was both bacteria and plant-species dependent. Extracts from Pueraria thunbergiana, Astragalus membranaceus, Eucommia ulmoides, Coptis japonica, Akebia quinata and Rhus chinensis strongly inhibited growth of C. perfringens, A growth-inhibitory effect against E. coli was observed from extracts of C. japonica. These plant extracts did not affect the growth of B. adolescentis. It is concluded that intake of these oriental medicinal plants may be important in the prevention of human diseases caused by intestinal microorganisms by altering the growth and composition of intestinal bacteria and modulating the genesis of potentially harmful metabolites.
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The four new lariciresinol-based lignan glycosides, (−)-lariciresinol 4′-(6″-O-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) (1), (−)-lariciresinol 4′-(4″,6″-di-O-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) (2), 5,5′-dimethoxylariciresinol 4′-(4″,6″-di-O-feruloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside) (3), and 4-O-[α-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)syringyl]-5,5′-dimethoxylariciresinol 4′-(4″,6″-di-O-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) (4), together with two known ones, lariciresinol 4′-β-D-glucopyranoside) (5) and tortoside B (6), were isolated from the BuOH extract of Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana roots, and their structures were established by means of various spectroscopic techniques.
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Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) have been used widely for many years to retard lipid oxidation. Concern about the safety of synthetic antioxidants together with consumer preference for natural products has resulted in increased research on natural antioxidants. Many spices have been shown to impart an antioxidative effect in foods. This article summarizes the literature on the antioxidative effects of spices. The term spice is defined as dry plant material that is normally added to food to impart flavour.
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A new compound, semialatic acid was isolated from Rhus semialata and identified from spectral and chemical data as 3α-hydroxy-3β,19-epoxydammara-20,24E-dien-26-oic acid.
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Antifungal activity and target sites of methanolic extract and its constituents from the gall (Galla rhois) caused by the Chinese sumac aphid, Schlechtendalia chinensis, on the nutgall sumac tree, Rhus javanica, were examined. In tests with six phytopathogenic fungi using a whole plant bioassay, the gall extract exhibited good antifungal activity. The biologically active constituents isolated from Galla rhois were characterized as the phenolics methyl gallate and gallic acid by spec-troscopic analyses. Methyl gallate was highly suppressive to Magnaporthe grisea, Botrytis cinerea, and Puccinia recond-ita, whereas gallic acid exhibited good antifungal activity against M. grisea and Erysiphe graminis. These two compounds were ineffective against rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Methyl gallate did not adversely affect conidial germination (94%) but significantly inhibited appressorium formation (7%) of M. grisea. Moderate and significant inhi-bition of conidial germination (64%) and appressorium formation (5%) of M. grisea, respectively, were observed with gallic acid. In complementation tests with M. grisea, cAMP and 1,16-hexadecanediol restored significantly and slightly appressorium formation inhibited by methyl gallate and gallic acid, respectively. These results indicate that methyl gal-late and gallic acid acted on a cAMP-related signaling pathway regulating appressorium formation in M. grisea.
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The present study deals with socio-economic documentation of medicinal plant species against jaundice and hepatitis. A total of 30 plant species belonging to 24 families were reported by local practitioners for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis. The most important plant species are Adiantum capillus, Boerhaavia procumbens, Equisetum debile, Carissa opaca,Cucumis sativus, Hordeum vulgare, Justacia adhatoda, Morus alba, Morus nigra, Phyllanthus emblica, Phyllanthus niruri, Plantago ovata, Prunus domestica, Punica granatum, Raphnus sativus, Rhus chinensis, Saccharum officinarum and Tamarandus indica.
Article
a b s t r a c t The gallotannins of Galla chinensis (Chinese gallotannins, CGTs) were identified using LC–MS, and their numbers of isomers in different extracts of Galla chinensis were determined. The antioxidant activities of CGTs with different degree of galloylation were evaluated in four antioxidant systems. Their antioxidant activities increased with increasing number of galloyl groups in all four antioxidant tests. CGTs had a dose–response relationship at the low concentrations (15–60 mg/mL) in the b-carotene–linoleic acid system assay. The antibacterial activity of CGTs against Salmonella typhimurium (Gram negative) and Bacillus cereus (Gram positive) was assessed using the paper disc diffusion method. Hexa-hepta-gal-loylglucopyranoses (6–7GGs) showed the best antibacterial activities. In general, 6–7GGs possessed antioxidant and antibacterial activities greater than BHT, Trolox, or Ethylparaben. Moreover, an insight on the structure–activity relationship of CGTs is discussed.
Article
We investigated the effects of the gallotannin penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG) on interleukin (IL)-8 gene expression and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. PGG inhibited IL-8 production and gene expression in human monocytic U937 cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. PGG also inhibited PMA-mediated NF-κB activation, as measured by electromobility shift assay. Furthermore, PGG prevented PMA-mediated degradation of the NF-κB inhibitory protein I-κBα, as measured by Western blot analysis. PGG also inhibited both IL-8 production and NF-κB activation in the U937 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α. These results suggest that PGG, a major constituent of the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa ANDREWS, can inhibit IL-8 gene expression by a mechanism involving its inhibition of NF-κB activation, which is dependent on I-κBα degradation.