Tea and Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (Impact Factor: 6). 08/2010; 30(8):1665-71. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.201939
Source: PubMed


To examine the associations of coffee and tea consumption with risk of morbidity and mortality of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) and with all-cause mortality.
Coffee and tea consumption were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and 37 514 participants were observed for 13 years for the occurrence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A U-shaped association between coffee and CHD was found, with the lowest hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) for 2.1 to 3.0 cups per day (0.79 [0.65 to 0.96]; P(trend)=0.01). Tea was inversely associated with CHD, with the lowest HR (95% CI) for more than 6.0 cups per day (0.64 [0.46 to 0.90]; P(trend)=0.02). No associations between tea or coffee and stroke were found (P(trend)=0.63 and P(trend)=0.32, respectively). Although not significant, coffee slightly reduced the risk for CHD mortality (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.11; P(trend)=0.12) for 3.1 to 6.0 cups per day. A U-shaped association between tea and CHD mortality was observed, with an HR of 0.55 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.97; P(trend)=0.03) for 3.1 to 6.0 cups per day. Neither coffee nor tea was associated with stroke (P(trend)=0.22 and P(trend)=0.74, respectively) and all-cause mortality (P(trend)=0.33 and P(trend)=0.43, respectively).
High tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CHD mortality. Our results suggest a slight risk reduction for CHD mortality with moderate coffee consumption and strengthen the evidence on the lower risk of CHD with coffee and tea consumption.

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    • "Case-control and cohort studies have brought inconsistent results. The former have mostly demonstrated an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among regular coffee consumers [Kawachi et al., 1994; Riksen et al., 2009; Sofi et al., 2007], whereas the latter have found no evidence of a detrimental effect of coffee [Higdon & Frei, 2006; Lopez-Garcia et al., 2011; Silletta & Marchioli, 2008], and reported a lower risk of coronary heart disease to be correlated with coffee consumption [de Koning et al., 2010; Kleemola et al., 2000; Woodward & Tunstall-Pedoe, 1999]. Numerous studies conducted by Lopez Garcia et al. have provided strong evidence against the hypothesis that coffee consumption increases the risk of cardiovascular dis- eases [Lopez-Garcia et al., 2006. "
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    ABSTRACT: The question whether coffee has a negative or a positive impact on human health has been the topic of much heated debate for years. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only failed to confirm earlier concerns, but in fact suggested a positive effect of coffee intake. Latest studies revealed that people who drink at least 3 cups of coffee per day are at a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as liver and colon cancer. The reports on a possible correlation between coffee drinking and heart diseases have also generated optimistic results. No adverse associations between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension have been found. What is more, some authors demonstrated that coffee drinking may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Composition of coffee is determined by the strength of the brew and brewing methods. Unfiltered coffee is rich in cholesterol-raising diterpenes, therefore patients with dyslipidemia should be advised to drink filtered rather than non-filtered coffee. On the other hand coffee contains polyphenols which act as antioxidants, and these compounds are probably responsible for the suggested beneficial effect of coffee on health. This article summarizes the current literature reports on this controversial topic.
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    • "Epidemiologic studies have indicated that regular coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for CVD [3] [12] [13]. However, the coffee compounds responsible for the suggestive TAFC contributed to the study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation , and wrote the manuscript. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of medium light roast (MLR) and medium roast (MR) paper-filtered coffee on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy volunteers. Methods: This randomized crossover trial compared the effects of consuming three or four cups (150 mL) of MLR or MR coffee per day for 4 wk in 20 healthy volunteers. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), total homocysteine, and endothelial dysfunction-related inflammation biomarkers, serum glycemic biomarkers, and blood pressure were measured at baseline and after each intervention. Results: Both roasts increased plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) concentrations (10%, 12%, and 18% for MLR; 12%, 14%, and 14% for MR, respectively) (P < 0.05). MR also increased high-density lipoportein-cholesterol concentration by 7% (P = 0.003). Plasma fibrinogen concentration increased 8% after MR intake (P = 0.01), and soluble E-selectin increased 12% after MLR intake (P = 0.02). No changes were observed for Lp(a), total homocysteine, glycemic biomarkers, and blood pressure. Conclusion: Moderate paper-filtered coffee consumption may have an undesirable effect on plasma cholesterol and inflammation biomarkers in healthy individuals regardless of its antioxidant content.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Nutrition
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    • "Several epidemiological and experimental investigations have described an inverse association between tea consumption and cardiovascular diseases [1]. A recent study described an association between coffee and tea consumption and a low morbidity and mortality risk from stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and all causes of mortality in 37,514 subjects followed for 13 years [2]. A possible causal factor associated with tea and coffee consumption is the role of bioactive compounds present in these foods in metabolic pathways related to body weight loss, and a consequent reduction of the overall risk for developing metabolic syndrome [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Previous experimental investigations have suggested that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, supplied by EMBRAPA Oriental) consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases and has positive effects on lipid metabolism, mainly related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. As LDL oxidation is an important initial event in the development of atherosclerosis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to observe the potential effects of guaraná on LDL and serum oxidation. Methods The in vivo protocol was performed using blood samples from 42 healthy elderly subjects who habitually ingested guaraná (GI) or never ingested guaraná (NG). The formation of conjugated dienes (CDs) was analyzed from serum samples. The in vitro protocols were performed using LDL obtained from 3 healthy, non-fasted, normolipidemic voluntary donors who did not habitually ingest guaraná in their diets. The LDL samples were exposed to 5 different guaraná concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/mL). Results GI subjects demonstrated lower LDL oxidation than did NG subjects (reduction of 27%, p < 0.0014), independent of other variables. In the GI group the total polyphenols was positively associated with LDL levels. Also, guaraná demonstrated a high antioxidant activity in vitro, mainly at concentrations of 1 and 5 μg/mL, demonstrated by suppression of CDs and TBARS productions, tryptophan destruction and high TRAP activity. Conclusions Guaraná, similar to other foods rich in caffeine and catechins such as green tea, has some effect on LDL oxidation that could partially explain the protective effects of this food in cardiometabolic diseases.
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