Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, KhonKaen University, KhonKaen, Thailand, 40002.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 06/2010; 6(6):CD006507. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006507.pub2
Source: PubMed


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that affects a significant number of children and adults in a variety of ways. It is characterized by chronic levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Meditation therapy could be a beneficial treatment for those diagnosed with ADHD. The objective of this review was to assess the efficacy of this treatment. As a result of the small number of studies that we were able to include in this review and the limitations of those studies, we were unable to draw any conclusions regarding the effectiveness of meditation therapy for ADHD. No adverse effects of meditation in children have been reported. More trials are needed on meditation therapies for ADHD so that conclusions can be drawn regarding its effectiveness.

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    • "The use of mind-body techniques to enhance cognitive function in young adults and adolescents would provide an attractive alternative to pharmacological treatment of conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as non-medical use of stimulants for performance enhancement (Sussman et al., 2006; Krisanaprakornkit et al., 2010). Tai chi training may provide cognitive benefits to younger individuals as it has been shown to improve cognitive function in the elderly (Matthews and Williams, 2008; Man et al., 2010; Taylor-Piliae et al., 2010; Lam et al., 2012; Mortimer et al., 2012; Nguyen and Kruse, 2012; Lu et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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    • "These techniques are often classified as ‘third wave’ cognitive therapies, including dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), schema therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and metacognitive therapy (MCT) [13]. These therapies have drawn great attention throughout the world, and especially mindfulness has been implemented in numerous different contexts in recent years [14-16]. One systematic review has found that ‘third wave’ cognitive therapy might prevent relapse of depression [17], and preliminary trials indicate that ‘third wave’ cognitive therapy versus ‘no intervention’ or ‘treatment as usual’ is effective for acutely depressed patients [18,19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Most interventions for depression have shown small or no effects. ‘Third wave‘ cognitive therapy and mentalization-based therapy have both gained some ground as treatments of psychological problems. No randomised trial has compared the effects of these two interventions for patients with major depression. Methods/ design We plan a randomised, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority clinical trial. During two years we will include 84 consecutive adult participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The participants will be randomised to either ‘third wave‘ cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based therapy. The primary outcome will be the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at cessation of treatment at 18 weeks. Secondary outcomes will be the proportion of patients with remission, Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, Beck’s Depression Inventory, and The World Health Organisation-Five Well-being Index 1999. Discussion Interventions for depression have until now shown relatively small effects. Our trial results will provide knowledge about the effects of two modern psychotherapeutic interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01070134
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · BMC Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: This is an ongoing project. Special thanks to Christopher Germer, Ph.D. and the Institute for Meditation and Psychotherapy for their many contributions. This bibliography does not try to include all the references to the broader Buddhist/therapy dialogue, which would extend it considerably. Also, more complete references for mindfulness in relation to physical and medical conditions, as well as neuroscience and physiological effects of mindfulness can be found in John C. Williams and Lidia Zylowska's "Mindfulness Bibliography. From molecules to mindfulness: Howe vertically convergent fractal time fluctuations unify cognition and emotion. Consciousness & Emotion, 1, 193-226.
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