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Abstract

Edible mushrooms are a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in addition to a growing appeal for humans by their flavors and culinary features. Recently, they have become increasingly attractive as functional foods for their potential beneficial effects on human health. Hence, food industry is especially interested in cultivated and wild edible mushrooms. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Several investigations have shown the influence of mushrooms intake on some metabolic markers (total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, fasting triacylglycerol, homocysteine, blood pressure, homeostatic function and oxidative and inflammatory damage), which potentially may reduce the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. Relevant nutritional aspects of mushrooms include a high fiber supply, a low fat content with low trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids and a low concentration of sodium as well as the occurrence of components such as eritadenine, phenolic compounds, sterols (such as ergosterol), chitosan, triterpenes, etc., which are considered as important responsible agents for some hitherto healthy properties. The aims of this review are to report putative positive effects of mushrooms consumption on cardiovascular diseases risk markers and to identify some putative bioactive compounds involved in these effects.

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... Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of A. bisporus [8,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. ...
... However, it is reported that pre-and post-harvest conditions affect the nutritional and chemical composition of mushrooms. Moreover, different mushrooms' developmental stages exhibit different amounts of protein and amino acid contents [20,26,39,40]. A. bisporus is rich in different forms of amino acid (Figure 2). ...
... A. bisporus is considered an important source of minerals, predominately rich in copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), potassium (K), and manganese (Mn) [20,52]. The principal mineral constituents of fruiting bodies in mushrooms are phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), followed by calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and sodium (Na). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fungi are vital to numerous industrial and household processes, especially producing cheeses, beer, wine, and bread, and they are accountable for breaking down organic matter. The remarkable medicinal and nutritional values of the mushrooms have increased their consumption. Agaricus bisporus belongs to the Agaricaceae family, and it is a top-ranked cultivated mushroom that is well known for its edibility. A. bisporus is rich in nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, fats, and minerals and has potential anticancer, antioxidant, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammation properties. The bioactive compounds extracted from this mushroom can be used for the treatment of several common human diseases including cancer, bacterial and fungal infections, diabetes, heart disorder, and skin problems. A. bisporus has opened new horizons for the world to explore mushrooms as far as their culinary and medicinal values are concerned. In recent years, tyrosinase and ergothioneine have been extracted from this mushroom, which has made this mushroom worth considering more for nutritional and medicinal purposes. To emphasize various aspects of A. bispo-rus, a comprehensive review highlighting the nutritional, medicinal, and cosmetic values and finding out the research gaps is presented. In this way, it would be possible to improve the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds in A. bisporus, ultimately contributing to the discovery of new drugs and the responsible mechanisms. In the present review, we summarize the latest advancements regarding the nutritional, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic properties of A. bisporus. Moreover, research gaps with future research directions are also discussed.
... Mushrooms are considered as a delicacy with high nutritional and functional value, and they are also accepted as nutraceutical foods; they are of considerable interest because of their organoleptic merit, medicinal properties, and economic significance (Chang & Miles 2008, Ergonul et al., 2013. However, there is not an easy distinction between edible and medical mushrooms because many of the common edible species have therapeutic properties and several used for medical purposes are also edible (Guillamon et al., 2010). However, wild mushrooms are becoming more important for their nutritional, sensory, and especially pharmacological characteristics (Ergonul et al., 2013). ...
... In this context, mushrooms have a long history of use in the oriental medicine to prevent and fight numerous diseases. Nowadays, mushroom extracts are commercialized as dietary supplements for their properties, mainly for the enhancement of immune function and antitumor activity (Brown et al., 2003;Wang et al., 2004;Barros et al., 2007;Ferreira et al., 2009;Guillamon et al., 2010;Finimundy et al., 2013). Wild edible mushrooms are collected by tribal peoples for their food as well as livelihood. ...
... Mushrooms are low-calorie foods since they provide low amounts of fat, 20-30 g/kg of dry matter. Edible mushrooms contain high amounts of ash, 80-120 g/kg of dry matter (mainly potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, and zinc) (Mattila et al., 2001;Ribeiro et al., 2009;Guillamon et al., 2010;Kalac et al., 2013). ...
Article
Chhattisgarh state has the huge diversity of mushroom flora among which some are edible. Present study was conducted in Bastar Plateau during rainy season for naturally grown wild edible mushrooms. Mushroom have become attractive as a functional food and as a source for the development of drugs and nutraceuticals responsible with their antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial properties. Besides their pharmacological features, mushrooms are becoming more important in our diet due to their nutritional value, related to high protein and low fat. There are so many types of fungi are present in Bastar palateu Chhattisgarh. Wild edible mushrooms are collected by tribal peoples for their food as well as livelihood support. Mushrooms are used as food supplement in various cultures and known for their edibility and delicacy for which, they are collected from wild and also cultivated. Nutritionally, edible mushrooms provide essential nutrients and contribute significantly to human diet & helth. Mushrooms are not only sources of nutrients but also have been reported as therapeutic foods, useful in preventing diseases such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and cancer etc. 30 village of 6 Tehsil covered under survey and 50 tribal/ rural peoples were contacted from different study villages and different local markets for information about wild edible mushroom at their surrounding locality. Information on wild edible mushrooms was collected from forests of Bastar plateau, Chhattisgarh by visiting different sites in forest areas. Tribal people were contacted and informations recorded by personal interviews. 16 fleshy mushrooms were identified and collected from Bastar Plateau of Chhattisgarh state during the study especially in mansoon season in the year 2021, two species of Termitomyces and Russula were predominantly observed from most of the locality in study area. We observed that environmental factors like rainfall, light, temperature, nutrients and relative humidity etc. Greatly influence the growth and development of mushrooms in the study area. In nature, mushrooms grow wild in almost all types of soils, on decaying organic matter, wooden stumps, and termite comb especially in Bastar plateau due to presence of red lateritic soil etc. They appear in all seasons; however rains favor rapid growth when organic matter or its decomposition products are easily available. This preliminary study shows that the Bastar forests and soils are very rich in mushroom diversity during rainy season in year.
... Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of A. bisporus [8,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. ...
... However, it is reported that pre-and post-harvest conditions affect the nutritional and chemical composition of mushrooms. Moreover, different mushrooms' developmental stages exhibit different amounts of protein and amino acid contents [20,26,39,40]. A. bisporus is rich in different forms of amino acid (Figure 2). ...
... A. bisporus is considered an important source of minerals, predominately rich in copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), potassium (K), and manganese (Mn) [20,52]. The principal mineral constituents of fruiting bodies in mushrooms are phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), followed by calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and sodium (Na). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fungi are vital to numerous industrial and household processes, especially producing cheeses, beer, wine, and bread, and they are accountable for breaking down organic matter. The remarkable medicinal and nutritional values of the mushrooms have increased their consumption. Agaricus bisporus belongs to the Agaricaceae family, and it is a top-ranked cultivated mushroom that is well known for its edibility. A. bisporus is rich in nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, fats, and minerals and has potential anticancer, antioxidant, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammation properties. The bioactive compounds extracted from this mushroom can be used for the treatment of several common human diseases including cancer, bacterial and fungal infections, diabetes, heart disorder, and skin problems. A. bisporus has opened new horizons for the world to explore mushrooms as far as their culinary and medicinal values are concerned. In recent years, tyrosinase and ergothioneine have been extracted from this mushroom, which has made this mushroom worth considering more for nutritional and medicinal purposes. To emphasize various aspects of A. bisporus, a comprehensive review highlighting the nutritional, medicinal, and cosmetic values and finding out the research gaps is presented. In this way, it would be possible to improve the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds in A. bisporus, ultimately contributing to the discovery of new drugs and the responsible mechanisms. In the present review, we summarize the latest advancements regarding the nutritional, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic properties of A. bisporus. Moreover, research gaps with future research directions are also discussed.
... Disorders related to the heart and blood vessels are grouped into cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) [25]. Mushrooms and their bioactive components can prevent CVDs [26]. Being functional foods, edible mushrooms contain a significant number of bioactive compounds that show strong potential in the treatment of CVDs [27]. ...
... Mushrooms and their bioactive molecules show anti-tumor activity which can be immensely beneficial in the treatment of different RDs. RDs commonly lead to different types of cancer and several biomolecules present in edible mushrooms can prevent metastasis toward cancer [1,26]. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) like Huntington's disease (HD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease (PD), etc. have been effectively treated by edible mushrooms through their bioactive components [30]. ...
... The intake of mushrooms has a cholesterol-lowering or hypocholesterolemic effect which has been elucidated by different mechanisms, such as lowering of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), improving lipid metabolism, inhibiting the activity of HMG-CoA reductase and therefore, prevents the development of atherosclerosis (Figure 3). Antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds found in mushrooms also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis [26]. Ganoderma lucidum play a curicral role in mitigating the toxicity of Adriamycin, where, Adriamycin treatment raised the number of marker enzymes found in serum including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). ...
Chapter
Apposite energy is required for body activity. Energy is derived from the oxidation of various biomolecules like carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These bio-molecules in the proper amount are essential for the structural and functional activities of any living being. Certain vitamins and enzymes are also needed for the maintenance of biochemical processes. Our daily food is the major source of these biomolecules. From the last few decades, researchers have placed giant effort into searching for a food material that can provide nearly all the essential components required to maintain the energy need and consequently, balancing the body's homeostasis. Mushrooms have the potential to address the above-raised issues. Besides their pleasant flavor and culinary value, mushrooms are an important source of biomolecules that include large macromolecules (protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and nucleic acid) as well as small molecules (primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products). This chapter discusses the bioactive compounds in edible mushroom and their activities.
... Mushrooms possess considerable therapeutic potential like anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, etc. [26][27][28][29][30][31]. They are also employed in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVDs), neurodegenerative disease (NDs), and reproductive diseases (RDs) [1,32,33]. Accumulating pieces of evidence have suggested that a number of bioactive molecules are present in edible mushrooms [2]. Primary metabolites present in edible mushrooms like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, etc. are utilized to provide energy to individuals [1,2,9]. ...
... Disorders related to the heart and blood vessels are grouped into cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) [44]. Mushrooms and their bioactive components can prevent CVDs [32]. Being functional foods, edible mushrooms contain a significant number of bioactive compounds that show strong potential in the treatment of CVDs [45]. ...
... The intake of mushrooms has a cholesterol-lowering or hypocholesterolemic effect which has been elucidated by different mechanisms, such as lowering of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), improving lipid metabolism, inhibiting the activity of HMG-CoA reductase and therefore, prevents the development of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds found in mushrooms also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis [32]. Figure 2 shows how the edible mushrooms regulate cholesterol levels with the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. ...
Article
The Indian system of medicine – Ayurveda says “When diet is wrong, medicine is of no use. When diet is correct, medicine is of no use”. In this context, mushroom constitutes one of the major resources for nutraceuticals. Biomolecules of mushrooms have attracted the attention of researchers around the globe due to their proven healthy attributes. They have a plenitude of health-giving properties and these range from immunomodulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer, anti-HIV, antidiabetic, anticholesterolic to antiarthritic activities. Mushrooms contain both primary and secondary metabolites. The primary metabolites provide energy while the secondary metabolite exhibits medicinal properties. Hence, the mushroom can be a recipe for human wellness and will play a significant role in fighting COVID-19 pandemics and other infectious diseases. The key findings suggested in this paper refer to the exploration of health and the healing traits of biomolecules of mushrooms. This article reviews the current status of the medicinal attributes of mushrooms and their biomolecules in different diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes, reproductive diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. The global malnutrition-related morbidity and mortality among children under five and lactating women presents a frightening picture and also a black spot on the human face. Malnutrition is responsible for more ill-health than any other cause. Mushrooms as a rich source of bioactive compounds can be claimed as “Best from the Waste” since they grow on the most abundant organic wastes of the Earth, the lignocellulosic substrate, and ‘Best of the Rest’ because they are excellent nutraceutical resources.
... Mushrooms are widespread worldwide and are being increasingly appreciated not only for their unique taste and flavor but also as a source of bioactive compounds with health benefits, including antioxidant [17], antibacterial [18], antiviral [19], antifungal [20], antidiabetic [21], anti-inflammatory [22], and anticancer effects [23]. In addition, they reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases [24]. Their activities are known to be attributed to different groups of bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, proteins, terpenoids, sterols, and polyphenols [25][26][27][28]. ...
... A large body of evidence indicates that edible mushrooms possess various healthpromoting properties including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, immunomodulating, antiallergic, antidepressive, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, osteoprotective, and hypotensive activities in addition to, remarkably, anti-oxidative activities [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]57]. Among mushrooms, PL, GL, and IO are reported to have outstanding neuroprotective effects [32][33][34]. ...
Article
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Although the individual consumption of medicinal mushrooms, including Phellinus linteus (PL), Ganoderma lucidum (GL), and Inonotus obliquus (IO), is known to be neuroprotective, the associated mechanisms underlying their therapeutic synergism on focal cerebral ischemia (fCI) have yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of mixed mushroom mycelia (MMM) against experimental fCI. The water-fractions, ethanolic-fractions, and ethyl acetate-fractions of the MMM (PL, GL, and IO) grown in a barley medium using solid-state fermentation techniques were prepared and their protective effects against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity were compared in PC-12 cells. After the identification of the water extracts of MMM (wMMM) as the most suitable form, which possessed the lowest toxicity and highest efficacy, further analyses for evaluating the anti-apoptotic effects of wMMM, including Hoechst 33258-based nuclear staining, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assays, were performed. Rats were subjected to a 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, after which a wMMM treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent improvements across a number of parameters. Furthermore, measurements of intracellular ROS and levels of antioxidant enzymes revealed a wMMM-mediated ROS attenuation and antioxidant enzyme upregulation. We suggest that wMMM is neuroprotective against fCI through its anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects.
... At the present time, people use different solvents to extract chemical substances from mushrooms. They trade these substances as supplements in diets because they believe that these substances have properties that may improve the human immune system and may also block the formation of cancer tumor (Guillamon et al., 2010). Mshigeni and Chang (2000) highlighted that people who are oriented towards health now enjoy new foods which come from mushrooms and these edible substances got from macro fungi make up the foods that are growing at a very rapid rate around the globe. ...
... However, it is an uphill task to differentiate between edible and medicinal mushrooms. The reason is because many of the common macro fungi that are consumable have curative properties and several mushrooms used for therapeutic purposes are also comestible (Guillamon et al., 2010). However, one can use modern research methods through the employment of analytical techniques applied as a scientific base to establish these empirical observations made for the past years about mushrooms (Chang, 2006a). ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of ethanol extract of the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (POE)and metformin Hydrochloride on the body weight and blood glucose profile of high sucrose high fat diet streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was investigated. The experimental model was 20% High Sucrose (HS) + 20% High Fat Diet (HFD) + 35mg/kg body weight (via intraperitoneal) streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat model, with the fruiting body ethanol extracts administered orally at 50, 150 and 300mg/kg .The Metformin HCl and ethanol extract was given once daily by intragastric gavage to the reference and experimental groups respectively at doses 150mg/Kg b.w., 50mg/Kg b.w, 150mg/Kg b.w. and 300mg/Kg b.w. respectively while the normal control received saline solution for 88days. POE caused significantly dose-(p<0.05) and time dependent reduction (p<0.05) in blood glucose levels of HS-HFD-STZ-induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats indicated a tendency to normal levels after administration of POE at 300mg/kg and 50mg/kg respectively but metformin HCl, (150mg/kg b.w,) showed a greater blood glucose level reduction effect in 9weeks of treatment. Ethanol extract of Pleorotus ostreatus significantly (p<0.05), dose and time dependently restored body weights and blood glucose of rats. Results highlighted show that ethanol extracts of organically cultivated mushroom has anti-diabetic properties, suggesting that people may use it in medicinal formulation processes for the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications.
... Some upsides of commercially cultivated mushrooms over other variants are their ability to produce the fruiting body in a shorter amount of time, the ability to rapidly produce mycelium in liquid culture, and the ability to manipulate the culture medium to produce optimal quantities of antioxidant and antitumoral compounds. However, the nutritional content and bioactive characteristics of these mushrooms types are found to be affected as a result of postharvest preservation techniques [22]. ...
... Cardiovascular issues are one of the leading health risks among the most common reasons for mortality. Fatty acids, cholesterol, lipoproteins, and triacylglycerols are regulated by the bioactives of mushrooms, which efficiently reduce the threat of cardiovascular diseases [22]. Mushrooms demonstrate their cardioprotective actions through their bioactives on metabolic markers such as lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and homocysteine levels, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders [139]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout history, mushrooms have occupied an inseparable part of the diet in many countries. Mushrooms are considered a rich source of phytonutrients such as polysaccharides, dietary fibers, and other micronutrients, in addition to various essential amino acids, which are building blocks of vital proteins. In general, mushrooms offer a wide range of health benefits with a large spectrum of pharmacological properties, including antidiabetic, antioxidative, antiviral, antibacterial, osteoprotective, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, etc. Both wild edible and medicinal mushrooms possess strong therapeutic and biological activities, which are evident from their in vivo and in vitro assays. The multifunctional activities of the mushroom extracts and the targeted potential of each of the compounds in the extracts have a broad range of applications, especially in the healing and repair of various organs and cells in humans. Owing to the presence of the aforementioned properties and rich phytocomposition, mushrooms are being used in the production of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This review aims to provide a clear insight on the commercially cultivated, wild edible, and medicinal mushrooms with comprehensive information on their phytochemical constituents and properties as part of food and medicine for futuristic exploitation. Future outlook and prospective challenges associated with the cultivation and processing of these medicinal mushrooms as functional foods are also discussed.
... Edible mushrooms have been a significant part of human culture since ancient times [1] and those with medicinal properties have had a long tradition in the treatment of various human diseases [2]. In addition to their high content of micro and macronutrients [1], mushrooms also produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including biologically active compounds [2]. ...
... Edible mushrooms have been a significant part of human culture since ancient times [1] and those with medicinal properties have had a long tradition in the treatment of various human diseases [2]. In addition to their high content of micro and macronutrients [1], mushrooms also produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including biologically active compounds [2]. Out of the approximately 14,000 known mushroom species, about 700 are considered pharmacologically active [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Within the group of higher fungi, edible medicinal mushrooms have a long history of being used as food and in folk medicine. These species contain biologically active substances with many potential beneficial effects on human health. The Pleurotus genus is representative of medicinal mushrooms because Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most commonly cultivated culinary mushrooms. In our study, we focused on lesser-known species in the genus Pleurotus and measured their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We prepared extracts of the mushrooms and analyzed them using HPLC−HRMS, GC−MS, and 1H-NMR. Significant differences in biological activities were found among the Pleurotus spp. extracts. A MeOH extract of P. flabellatus was the most active as a radical scavenger with the highest ORAC, while a chloroform extract had significant anti-inflammatory COX-2 activity. The 80% MeOH extract of P. flabellatus contained the highest amounts of ergosterol, ergothioneine, and mannitol. The 80% MeOH extract of P. ostreatus Florida was the most active in the NF-κB inhibition assay and had the highest content of β-glucans (43.3% by dry weight). Given the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of P. flabellatus, the potential therapeutic usefulness of this species is worth evaluating through in-depth investigations and confirmation by clinical trials.
... Being one of the most popular wild mushrooms, native Thai people traditionally consume it. Generally, edible mushrooms are an excellent source of nutritional protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, fibre, and minerals, and have been termed "food of the gods" [1][2][3][4]. It has a distinct flavour and a special sense of taste, making it a very popular food. ...
... As the percentage of improvement in NK cell activity reviews, the improvement in NK cell activity is on par with MPF2. The over-sulphation (OS1, 2,3) showed better activity in the percentages of 10.7%, 19.3%, and 2.78%, but little was observed in HS1, 2, 3 ( Figure 7c). Similar findings were reported by Zhao et al. that sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweed, Polysiphonia senticulosa, effectively enhanced immune function by activating the NK cells [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the mucilage polysaccharide (MP) from Amanita hemibapha subspecies javan-ica was prepared by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation and then fractionated using an-ion-exchange chromatography equipped with a DEAE Sepharose fast flow column. The most immune enhancing polysaccharide fraction 2 (MPF2) was subjected to a structural modification such as hydrolysis or over-sulphation. The sulphate and molecular weight (Mw) of over-sulphated (OS1-3) and hydrolysed (HS1-3) derivatives of MPF2 differed between 9.85% and 14.2% and 32.8 and 88.1 × 10 3 g/mol, respectively. Further, the immune-enhancing properties of MPF2 and its derivatives were tested on RAW264.7 and NK cells through various in vitro assays. Interestingly, a low molecular weight of HS1-3 significantly increased the nitric oxide (NO) production (p < 0.05) more than MPF2, indicating that Mw is a major factor in RAW264.7 cell stimulation. In addition, RAW264.7 cells produced various cytokines by up-regulating mRNA expression levels and the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. On the other hand, OS1-3-treated natural killer (NK) cells induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells through the expression of IFN-γ, Grandzyme-B, perforin, NKp30, and FasL. These results demonstrated that sulphate derivatives play an important role in NK cell activation. Further, this study also explores how polysaccharide binds to RAW264.7 and NK cells. MPF2 and HS3 may activate RAW264.7 cells via binding to TLR4 receptors, and OS2 could be activated through the CR3 signalling pathways.
... Cordyceps are valuable resources for holistic medicine and are termed superstar supplements that accelerate athletic performance, reduce inflammation and promote cardiovascular health [12]. These muchrooms are rich in antioxidants that combat diseases, boost Apart from their nutritional value, many of the mushroom species have therapeutic properties and are sought after for their medicinal properties [16]. Numerous studies have confirmed that the antioxidant properties of mushrooms operate via their phenolic and flavonoid compounds [17][18][19][20][21]. Mushrooms also help in reducing Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, strokes, and cancer, as well as act as antibacterial, antiviral, immune system enhancers and cholesterol-moderating agents [22]. ...
... Higher protein content promotes the development of a better gluten network and produces the right elasticity required for bakery products, especially in pastas and noodles. The additional number of mushrooms in pasta enhance its antioxidant content [16]. Ishara et al. [109] fortified maize flour with mushroom flour from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus; a significant increase in the protein content of maize flour with increasing mushroom flour content was evident [109]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mushrooms are the gifts of the non-green revolution; they are not limited by land demand or specific growth requirements. Nearly 14,000 species of mushrooms are on record thus far; of these, only 2200 species are deemed edible. Only 650 species from this list have been cultivated and consumed. Farmed on waste, mushrooms are rich reservoirs of proteins, polysaccharides, metabolites, minerals and vitamins. In the following review, various edible mushrooms have been listed and their nutritional aspects and their associated contributions have been discussed. Furthermore, the commercial mushroom-based products that are on the market have been surveyed. The challenges facing the use of mushroom and mushroom products as foods, functional foods and nutraceuticals have been presented. The need to seek options to troubleshoot the current limitations has also been discussed.
... Since ancient times, mushrooms have been consumed by human as normal diet and also as delicious foods due to its highly desirable taste and aroma [21] . Mushrooms contain high moisture percentage based on harvest, growth and storage conditions [13]. Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom; WBM) contains high level of dietary fibers and antioxidants including vitamin C, D, and B12, folates and polyphenols. ...
... Mushrooms in daily diet could significantly decrease (*p < 0.05) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and significantly increase (*p < 0.05) high density lipoprotein (HDL) level [4]. Mushrooms intake creates an effective influence on some metabolic markers (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, blood pressure, homeostatic function and oxidative inflammatory damage) that potentially reduce the risk of heart diseases [13]. Edible mushrooms reduce cardiovascular risk factors such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high total cholesterol (TC), atherosclerosis, high blood pressure and oxidative and inflammatory damage [8]. ...
Article
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Mushrooms are considered as a valuable source of important nutrients having hepatoprotective and anti-hyperlipidemic actions. Present experimental research was done to explore the beneficial role of mushroom on health in hypercholesterolemia. Total thirty Swiss albino mice were taken and randomly divided into three groups: control A, group B and group C. Each group consisted of ten mice. The control A group was fed with normal mice pellet and fresh water. Group B was fed with hypercholesterolemic diet and group C was supplied hypercholesterolemic diet with mushroom powder (500g/kg/mice body weight) for 60 days. After the experimental tenure, mice of each group were sacrificed ethically and the samples (liver and blood) were collected for gross, histological study and lipid profile analysis. Increased liver weight, pale and hemorrhagic liver in gross observation along with some histological changes including dilation and congestion of central and portal vein, fat accumulation in hepatocyte and marked lymphocytic infiltration were found in group B, while mushroom supplementation recovered this gross and histological changes and reduced liver weight in group C. Just mild congestion and dilation was in the portal vein of group C. In lipid profile analysis, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) level significantly reduced respectively by 10%, 38% and 17% in group C than group B. High density lipoprotein (HDL) level also significantly increased by 20% in group C compared to group B. Therefore, it can be concluded that mushrooms might have potentially beneficial actions in recovering of some complications in hypercholesterolemia.
... The protein content of mushrooms varies from 4-44% according to the species (Oei, 2003;Okoro and Achuba, 2012). Mushrooms have antineoplastic, antibacterial, antiviral, hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolemic, antiinflammatory and anti-oxidative properties Guillamon et al., (2010); (Wasser, 2011(Wasser, , 2014. Many of the agro-industrial residues are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, being called lignocellulosic materials. ...
... The protein content of mushrooms varies from 4-44% according to the species (Oei, 2003;Okoro and Achuba, 2012). Mushrooms have antineoplastic, antibacterial, antiviral, hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolemic, antiinflammatory and anti-oxidative properties Guillamon et al., (2010); (Wasser, 2011(Wasser, , 2014. Many of the agro-industrial residues are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, being called lignocellulosic materials. ...
Research Proposal
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Among the various mushrooms widely found in India, Pleurotus florida is gaining its popularity due to its vigorous growing and aggressive nature. This creamy white colored mushroom is popularly known as 'White oyster mushroom'. The addition of the supplements with basal substrate has been a common practice for optimization of the C:N ratio, enhance the yield, nutritional and medicinal values. The present investigation was carried out to find the best supplement combination for the cultivation of Pleurotus florida. Two supplements namely rice bran and soybean flour in different composition were mixed with the wheat straw to enhance the mushroom yield. Spawning was done @ 3% wet weight of wheat straw. The results of the present investigation revealed that supplemental combination (20% rice bran + 5% soybean flour) used in T 4 recorded significantly less time for spawn run (10.66 days), pinhead initiation (12.66 days), formation of the mature fruiting body (14.83 days). Supplementation with 20% rice bran + 5% soybean flour (T 4) resulted into the significant increase in average width of pileus (7.67 cm), average length of stipe (6.54 cm) and number of fruiting bodies (42.5). Use of 20% rice bran + 5% soybean flour (T 4) in the wheat straw enhanced the yield significantly in all three flushes (394.73 g) and biological efficiency (173.38%) as compared to control.
... Some reports explain its antitumor action by their stimulation of the immune system through the action of their polysaccharides [13,26] and immunomodulatory action [27], for which they have been used in complementary and alternative medicine as a drug against cancer [28]. Mushrooms are also considered to help prevent atherosclerosis because they are rich in derivatives of ergosterol, eritadenine, β-glucans, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors [29]. ...
Article
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The production and consumption of fresh mushrooms has experienced a significant increase in recent decades. This trend has been driven mainly by their nutritional value and by the presence of bioactive and nutraceutical components that are associated with health benefits, which has led some to consider them a functional food. Mushrooms represent an attractive food for vegetarian and vegan consumers due to their high contents of high-biological-value proteins and vitamin D. However, due to their high respiratory rate, high water content, and lack of a cuticular structure, mushrooms rapidly lose quality and have a short shelf life after harvest, which limits their commercialization in the fresh state. Several traditional preservation methods are used to maintain their quality and extend their shelf life. This article reviews some preservation methods that are commonly used to preserve fresh mushrooms and promising new preservation techniques, highlighting the use of new packaging systems and regulations aimed at the development of more sustainable packaging.
... This implies that the stalk meals may be kept for a longer period of time and it will be less prone to microbial spoilage, as the content of moisture in a sample is an important indicator of its shelf life. In mushrooms, the moisture content depends on the species, maturity of fruiting body, growing environment, postharvest environment and processing method (Guillamon et al., 2010). ...
... More than 2,000 species of mushrooms exist in nature, but around 25 are widely accepted as food and few are commercially cultivated. Mushrooms are considered as a delicacy with high nutritional and functional value, and they are also accepted as nutraceutical foods; they are of considerable interest because of their organoleptic merit, medicinal properties, and economic significance [3]. However, there is not an easy distinction between edible and medical mushrooms because many of the common edible species have therapeutic properties and several used Elkhateeb for medical purposes are also edible [4]. ...
Article
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Mushrooms are generous source of nutritional and medicinal compounds, and medicinal uses of the mushrooms still need to be worked out for their biological activities. This review aims to put golden mushroom Cantharellus and shaggy ink cap mushroom Coprinus and smoky bracket mushroom Bjerkandera under light spot through describing their morphology and ecology especially of the most common species, Cantharellus cibarius; Coprinus comatus and Bjerkandera adusta. Moreover discussing important secondary metabolites and biological activities exerted by ever one. Cantharellus cibarius; Coprinus comatus and Bjerkandera adusta are able to produce many novel and potent secondary metabolites that exerted different bioactivities especially as antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammation activities and others. Further studies and investigations are fortified in order to find more about these interesting mushrooms.
... This implies that the stalk meals may be kept for a longer period of time and it will be less prone to microbial spoilage, as the content of moisture in a sample is an important indicator of its shelf life. In mushrooms, the moisture content depends on the species, maturity of fruiting body, growing environment, postharvest environment and processing method (Guillamon et al., 2010). ...
Article
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The potentials of mushroom stalks as supplements in aqua-feeds have been grossly underutilised. Stalk meals of two Pleurotus species were analysed for proximate composition, fibre fractions, mineral and phytochemical constituents. In vitro digestibility and fermentability were assessed using caecal digesta from Clarias gariepinus (n = 108; weight: 138 ± 10.8 g). Stalks of Pleurotus pulmonarius and Pleurotus ostreatus were air-dried at ambient room temperature and milled. Pleurotus ostreatus contained higher (P < 0.05) moisture, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre than P. pulmonarius stalks which had higher (P < 0.05) nitrogen-free extract. Pleurotus ostreatus had higher (P < 0.05) neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin and cellulose but lower (P > 0.05) hemicellulose than P. pulmonarius. Except in manganese and iron content, P. ostreatus contained higher (P < 0.05) sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, copper and zinc than P. pulmonarius. Both stalks contained flavonoids, phlobatannin, terpenoid, cardiac glycosides, steroids and antraquinone. Substrate loss was higher (P < 0.05) in P. pulmonarius (0.20 g) than P. ostreatus (0.15 g). Maximum rate of gas production was more (P < 0.05) for P. pulmonarius (0.16 mL/h) at 4.96 hours compared to 0.04 mL/h at 6.04 hours for P. ostreatus. Both stalk meals were partially resistant to in vitro digestibility and were fermentable. Hence, they possess favourable prebiotics characteristics and can be used as supplement in aqua feed.
... Mushrooms have important antioxidant effects [4]. The water extract and alcohol extract of Coprinus comatus have certain clear ability to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, etc. [5] and also have hypoglycemic [6], antitumor and immunomodulatory effects [7], protective effects on the cardiovascular system [8], antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, weight loss and other medical care functions [9]. ...
... Some think all food that has been consumed in our daily life traditionally is functional food because it has performed many physiological functions (Hasler & Brown, 2009;Kwak & Jukes, 2001). These foods can be used in blood pressure lowering, cholesterol lowering Hodgson, 2006) and anticancer agent (Yu et al., 2009), help to recover GIT infection (Rahmatullah et al., 2010), joint problems and cardiovascular disorders (Guillamón et al., 2010;Pal & Suresh, 2016). Antioxidants, prebiotics and probiotics are also considered as functional food (Grajek et al., 2005). ...
... Therefore, it is probable that the type of substrate and inoculum in uence the nutritional composition of the fruiting bodies (Bellettini et al. 2019). Also the percentage of moisture depends on the strain, substrate, and growing environment (temperature, relative humidity) (Guillamón et al. 2010). The moisture percentages for this species indicate 85-90.9% ...
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The objective of the present study was to use molecular techniques to identify a wild mushroom isolated from A. salmiana , and then evaluate its biological efficiency, production rate, and nutritional and morphological characteristics when grown on A. salmiana bagasse with various concentrations of urea as a source of nitrogen. Two types of inoculum were employed: in grain (WG) and pellet (WP) form. The substrate was supplemented with total nitrogen concentrations (TN) of 0.77, 0.95, 1.14, 1.32, and 1.5% to evaluate its effect on the biological efficiency (BE), production rate (PR), and morphological and nutritional characteristics of the fruiting bodies. The molecular analysis of the ITS region permitted the amplification of a product of 750 pb. The mushroom was identified as Pleurotus djamor . After supplementing the substrate with urea, a BE of 70% was obtained in the sample inoculated with WG at 1.32% TN. Observations found that the TN concentration of 1.5% produced malformations in the fruiting bodies. The analysis of the sporocarps indicated a raw protein content (RP) of 15–26% and that the mushroom’s nutritional composition changed according to the inoculum utilized and the percentage of nitrogen in the substrate. This is the first report on the isolation of P. djamor on A. salmiana as an atypical substrate, and so represents an opportunity for further study and commercialization. To its chemical composition and high availability, A. salmiana bagasse is a suitable alternative substrate for cultivating edible mushrooms, specifically P. djamor.
... Various studies have indicated the ability of some mushrooms and their bioactive constituents to lower elevated blood sugar, in vitro and in vivo (Guillamon et al. 2010;Phan et al. 2015;Zhang et al. 2016). For instance, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids from mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus ostreatus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, Auricularia auricula-judae have been shown to display hypoglycemic effects by inhibiting certain therapeutic targets in diabetes such as protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, aldose reductase and a-glucosidase (Kim et al. 2007;Ding et al. 2010;Jeong et al. 2010;Ghaly et al. 2011;Ma et al. 2015;Martel et al. 2017;Vetter 2019). ...
Article
Termitomyces species are known edible mushrooms in Nigeria, believed to have exceptional culinary and nutraceutical properties. Methanol extract from fruiting bodies of Termitomyces robustus was evaluated for antidiabetic activity using in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase assays. The isolation and structural elucidation of metabolites from the T. robustus extract afforded five compounds including a new natural product γ-glutamyl-β-phenylethylamine 3 and four known phenyl derivatives: tryptophan 1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid 2, 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid 4, and phenyllactic acid 5. Structures were elucidated from analyses of spectroscopic data (1 D and 2 D NMR, HRESIMS) and all isolated compounds were tested for α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity. The in vitro assay established crude extract to possess α- amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 of 78.05 µg/mL and 86.10 µg/mL, respectively. The isolated compounds compared favourably with the standard drug, acarbose with IC50 ranging from 6.18-15.08 µg/mL and 18.28-44.63 µg/mL for α-amylase and glucosidase, respectively.
... Adicional a su valor nutrimental, muchos hongos silvestres presentan compuestos biológicamente activos tales como los compuestos fenólicos con propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas, antivirales, anticancerosas, entre otras (Golak-Siwulska et al. 2018;Gebreyohannes et al. 2019). También se sabe que la composición química de los hongos varia de una especie a otra, así como del sustrato donde crecen, de su estadio de desarrollo, temperatura, humedad, entre otras variables geográficas y ambientales e incluso de la forma en que se preparan para su consumo (Guillamón et al. 2010;Sánchez 2017). Se estima que en el mundo hay 2300 especies de hongos silvestres comestibles y medicinales (Islam et al. 2019;Martínez-Medina et al. 2021). ...
Article
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Antecedentes: Los hongos comestibles silvestres representan una valiosa fuente de alimento por su alto contenido de proteínas, vitaminas, fibra y bajos niveles de grasa. Además presentan compuestos bioactivos que incluyen compuestos fenólicos relacionados con propiedades antioxidantes. Objetivos: Determinar la composición química, cuantificar el contenido de fenoles totales y evaluar la actividad antioxidante de seis especies de hongos comestibles silvestres consumidos tradicionalmente en el centro de México. Métodos: Se obtuvieron extractos con agua, metanol, hexano y acetato de etilo a partir de los cuales se realizó un ensayo preliminar micoquímico. Posteriormente, se cuantificó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales por el método de Folin-Ciocalteu y finalmente, se evaluó la actividad antioxidante frente al radical DPPH. Resultados y conclusiones: En los extractos fúngicos (Amanita rubescens, Flammulina mexicana, Floccularia aff. luteovirens, Gyromitra sp., Morchella sp., Turbinellus floccosus) se detectaron flavonoides, saponinas, taninos, quinonas, cumarinas y azucares reductores. En extractos acuosos se encontró la mayor concentración de compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante, mientras que en extractos con acetato de etilo la menor. Los datos aquí obtenidos son el primer reporte para las especies de estudio, contribuyendo al conocimiento de la composición química y la actividad biológica de los hongos silvestres de México.
... There is not so high distinction among edible, economical and medical mushrooms because they have pharmacological properties and many of them have been used for medicinal as well as for edible purposes (Guillam on et al., 2010). All over the world, Agaricus bisporus is a commonly cultivated mushroom, followed by Pleurotus spp., Lentinus edodes and Flammulina velutipes. ...
Article
Dietary fibres and high fibre‐containing foods have been a huge attraction among researchers and nutraceutical industries due to their health‐promoting benefits. From Greek and Roman times, edible mushrooms are considered the “elixir of life” and are often stated as a new source of dietary fibre. Containing rich sources of essential amino acids and polysaccharides, mushrooms are viewed as an advantage over protein sources of both animal and plant origin. Additionally, the ability of mushrooms to grow under controlled conditions and attain high yield in a short span has made this added‐value food of extreme interest. Nowadays, mushrooms and their by‐products have been used to fortify various food products as well as for use in animal feed owing to their bioactive, therapeutic and nutritional value. Hence, this review intends to highlight the current knowledge on edible mushrooms and their waste for food and feed enrichment and nutritional purposes, along with their role in human and animal diet.
... Además, los efectos hipocolesterolémicos pueden atribuirse a los α-glucanos y β-glucanos de G. lucidum que promueven sinérgicamente el efecto reductor del colesterol . Un mecanismo de acción para una menor absorción de colesterol es la baja solubilidad y viscosidad de los β-glucanos en el intestino (Theuwissen & Mensink, 2008), así como la capacidad antioxidante de G. lucidum para mejorar el perfil lipídico en plasma y evitar la aterogénesis al disminuir la oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad y la peroxidación lipídica (Wachtel-Galor et al., 2004;Guillamon et al., 2010). Los polisacáridos y triterpenoides en G. lucidum se han propuesto como responsables de las actividades protectoras contra la lesión hepática inducida por toxinas (Gao et al., 2003a). ...
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Actualmente, se ha incrementado la producción de alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos como una estrategia para disminuir y prevenir enfermedades. En este contexto, los hongos son valorados por su aporte nutrimental a la dieta humana y propiedades funcionales. G. lucidum, hongo no comestible funcional contiene compuestos bioactivos como terpenoides, polisacáridos y proteínas que muestran efectos positivos a la salud. La ingesta de extractos de G. lucidum ha mostrado efectos hipocolesterolemiantes, hipoglucémicos y prebióticos que disminuyen el riesgo de padecer diversas patologías. En México, no se han realizado trabajos acerca de la toxicidad de los extractos mexicanos de G. lucidum (cepa CP-145), además, la escasa información existente que hay a nivel internacional es de especies extranjeras y no puede extrapolarse a las especies mexicanas debido a las diferentes condiciones de crecimiento que modifican las propiedades y contenido del extracto. Por tanto, en el presente estudio se evaluó la toxicidad aguda del extracto de G. lucidum en ratas Wistar acorde al protocolo 423 de la OECD/OCDE. Se formaron 5 grupos experimentales con 6 ratas (3 hembras y 3 machos) cada uno. Se utilizaron dosis orales crecientes del extracto de G. lucidum (300, 1000, 2000 y 5000 mg/kg de peso corporal). Se llevó un registro de la ingesta, peso y comportamiento durante 14 días. Se analizaron parámetros bioquímicos en sangre y orina complementándose con un examen histopatológico de las secciones hepáticas y renales. No se observaron cambios en el comportamiento, ingesta y peso corporal de las ratas. Las concentraciones de glucosa y perfil lipídico en plasma se mantuvieron estables. Los parámetros relacionados con daño hepático (transaminasas) e inflamación (proteína C reactiva) no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos experimentales. Asimismo, en los valores asociados a daño renal (albúmina, creatinina, urea, glucosa en orina y nitrógeno uréico) obtenidos no se observaron cambios significativos que indiquen una lesión o inflamación renal en las ratas. Las histopatologías mostraron citoarquitectura normal, sin daños en los tejidos. Por lo que, la ingesta aguda del extracto de G. lucidum no causó muerte, toxicidad y daño en la función hepática y renal en las ratas en ninguna de las dosis empleadas.
... These activities are thought to be due to compounds that they contain (Gargano et al. 2017;Paterson and Lima 2014;Phan et al. 2015;Plassard et al. 2011). Therefore, it is thought that mushrooms have a high potential to be used in the treatment of some diseases such as cancer, obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, which threaten human beings and have a high prevalence (Guggenheim et al. 2014;Guillamon et al. 2010). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine Fe, Cd, Cr, Se, P, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al, Ca, Mg, and K contents of some edible (Chlorophyllum rhacodes, Clavariadelphus truncatus, Clitocybe nebularis, Hydnum repandum, Hygrophorus pudorinus, Infundibulicybe gibba, Lactarius deliciosus, L. piperatus, L. salmonicolor, Macrolepiota mastoidea, Russula grata, Suillus granulatus, and Tricholoma imbricatum), inedible (Amanita pantherina, Geastrum triplex, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Hypholoma fasciculare, Phellinus vorax, Pholiota limonella, Russula anthracina, and Tapinella atrotomentosa), and poisonous mushroom species (Amanita pantherina and Hypholoma fasciculare) collected from Ilgaz Mountain National Park (Western Black Sea, Turkey). The element contents of the mushrooms were determined to be 18.0–1239.1, 0.2–4.6, 0.1–3.4, 0.2–3.2, 1.0–8.9, 3.3–59.9, 3.7–220.4, 21.3–154.1, 6.4–754.3, 15.8–17,473.0, 413.0–5943.0, and 2803.0–24,490.0 mg·kg⁻¹, respectively. In addition to metal contents, the daily intakes of metal (DIM) and Health Risk Index (HRI) values of edible mushrooms were also calculated. Both DIM and HRI values of mushroom species except L. salmanicolor, M. mastoidea, and R. grata were within the legal limits. However, it was determined that the Fe content of L. salmanicolor and M. mastoidea and Cd content of R. grata were above the legal limits.
... Most mushrooms are known to produce certain bioactive substances such as lovastatin and eritadenine. These substances were investigated as potential treatment strategies against cardiovascular diseases [39]; however, the mechanism of action of fungi extracts remains to be fully elucidated. Possible mechanisms include the reduction in serum lipid pro ile, increase in bile acid excretion and LDL receptor expression, change in phospholipid metabolism, and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase inhibition [40][41][42]. ...
Article
In recent decades, the chemical, nutritional, and functional properties of edible mushrooms have attracted considerable attention, resulting in numerous reports on their health-associated benefits. One among such edible mushrooms, Agaricus brasiliensis, is native to Brazil and is an important food supplement. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of Agaricus brasiliensis and summarizes the current studies on this edible mushroom.
... As part of our daily diet, mushrooms can easily provide recommended dietary fiber intake daily (25%) (Cheung, 2010). According to International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI Europe), edible mushrooms have been classified as an efficient food [15]. ...
... Mushrooms contain about 90% water as well as 10% dry matter (Morais et al., 2000;Sánchez, 2010). This was confirmed by Ahmed et al. (2013) who reported that P. ostreatus grown on wheat bran and sawdust produced fruiting bodies with 90% moisture content (Guillamón et al., 2010). The moisture content of P. ostreatus ranged from 88.51 % to 89.88% (Manzi et al., 1999). ...
... Mushrooms are a good source of complex and non-digestible carbohydrates; for this reason, they can act as prebiotics [2]. Taking into consideration their valuable compounds, such as high-biological-value proteins, vitamin D, β-glucans, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, ergosterols, tocopherols, lectins, and dietary fibres, mushrooms become an attractive functional food [3]. Moreover, mushrooms contain a low level of fat, carbohydrates, sodium, and calories and they are cholesterol-free [1]. ...
Article
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There is scarce data on the influence of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the quality and safety of edible mushrooms. The aim of this study was to ferment Suillus luteus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, and Rozites caperata with LAB strains (Lacticaseibacillus casei LUHS210 and Liquorilactobacillus uvarum LUHS245) and to evaluate the influence of this technology on colour characteristics, pH, mould/yeast count, liking, emotional response, volatile compound (VC) profile, and the formation of biogenic amines (BA). Additionally, ultrasonication or prolonged thermal treatment were applied before fermentation. The LUHS245 strain showed better preservation properties in the case of fungal inhibition; however, prolonged thermal treatment and/or ultrasound pre-treatment ensure safer fermentation. Mushroom species and type of pre-treatment had a significant effect on colour coordinates and pH (p ≤ 0.0001). A greater variety of VC was identified in pre-treated and fermented samples. Significant differences were found between the emotions induced in consumers. The lowest sum of BA was found in thermally pre-treated and fermented R. caperata, while the highest was in ultrasonicated and fermented B. edulis. Finally, despite good overall acceptability, it is important to select appropriate LAB strains for the fermentation of edible mushrooms to ensure their safety in the case of BA formation.
... PUFAs are the most prevalent lipids in mushrooms which contribute to the lowering of serum cholesterol (Valverde et al. 2015). Ergosterol, the main sterol produced by mushrooms demonstrates the substantial antioxidant properties (Guillamón et al. 2010). Bok et al. (1999) reported glycosylated ergosterol peroxide from methanolic extracts of Cordyceps sinensis inhibited proliferation of WM-1341, K562, HL-60, Jurkat, and RPMI-8226 tumor cell lines. ...
Chapter
Considerable elucidations and intensive research attempted on the immense nutritional values and effective health augmenting properties of mushrooms are dynamically extending as per present day needs. Mushrooms have been acknowledged as the treasure trove of nutrients including high quality proteins, polysaccharides, triterpenes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, sterols, secondary metabolites, mineral substances, and vitamins. These constituents play a significant role in significantly preventing and curing various health problems, ailments and dreaded diseases such as immunodeficiency, inflammation, cancer, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hypertension, fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. The present review article endeavors to provide the information and correlate the health effects with underlying biological mechanisms of mushroom nutraceuticals. It tends to be affirmed that augmentation of a dietary composition by inclusion of mushrooms possesses the potential of being a natural adjuvant for the alleviation of multiple chronic diseases.
... Ergosterol is one of the major sterols produced by mushrooms and has shown important antioxidant properties (Guillamon et al., 2010). It also plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (Kalac, 2013). ...
Article
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Background: Mushrooms exist as an integral and vital component of the ecosystem and are very precious fungi. Mushrooms have been traditionally used in herbal medicines for many centuries. Scope and approach: There are a variety of medicinal mushrooms mentioned in the current work such as Agaricus, Amanita, Calocybe, Cantharellus, Cordyceps, Coprinus, Cortinarius, Ganoderma, Grifola, Huitlacoche, Hydnum, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Rigidoporus, Tremella, Trametes sp., etc., which play a vital role in various diseases because of several metabolic components and nutritional values. Medicinal mushrooms can be identified morphologically on the basis of their size, color (white, black, yellow, brown, cream, pink and purple-brown, etc.), chemical reactions, consistency of the stalk and cap, mode of attachment of the gills to the stalk, and spore color and mass, and further identified at a molecular level by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of gene sequencing. There are also other methods that have recently begun to be used for the identification of mushrooms such as high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), microscopy, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), DNA sequencing, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), chemical finger printing, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-TOF) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Lately, the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique is also used for the identification of fungi. Key finding and conclusion: Medicinal mushrooms possess various biological activities like anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, anti-HIV, anti-diabetic, and many others that will be mentioned in this article. This manuscript will provide future direction, action mechanisms, applications, and the recent collective information of medicinal mushrooms. In addition to many unknown metabolites and patented active metabolites are also included.
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Since mushrooms are a rich source of nutrients, they are among the food products that are in demand today. In terms of their nutritional content, mushrooms are low in energy and fat, but high in protein, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber. It is especially preferred by people with a vegan and vegetarian diet, thanks to its balanced amino acid content. Within the scope of the review, the taxonomic nomenclature of the most grown and consumed mushrooms in the world and in Turkey, their characteristics in terms of species and their nutritional content, are presented by supporting the studies in the literature. In addition, alternative mushroom species were introduced and the importance of using them as an alternative food was emphasized. In line with this study, it is aimed to contribute to the increase of mushroom consumption per capita in terms of nutritional content and health benefits.
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The mushroom is an important food for the rural tribal populations in Manipur, because of its high nutritional contents. In this study, we report on the nutritional profile of three wild edible mushrooms consumed by the tribal populations of Manipur viz.: Macrocybe gigantea J124; Lactifluus leptomerus J201 and Ramaria thindii J470. The studied mushrooms possess a high protein content of 37.6%, 20.8% and 16.4%, respectively. They have a high vitamin C content with low vitamin B1, B2 and folic acid. Among the three mushrooms, M. gigantea J124 possesses the highest mineral content, followed by R. thindii J470 and L. leptomerus J201. The total phenolic content of L. leptomerus J201, M. gigantea J124 and R. thindii J470 were 26.206, 29.23 and 30.99 mg GAE/g, with flavonoid content of 6.646, 6.854 and 9.187 mg quercetin/g, respectively. R. thindii J470 has the highest TPC and TFC content, which correlates with its DPPH radical scavenging activity. The IC50 values for R. thindii J470, M. gigantea J124 and L. leptomerus J201 are 242.0 �g/mL, 550.4 �g/mL and 689.0 �g/mL, respectively, which suggest that the higher content of phenolic compounds in R. thindii J470 contributes to its radical scavenging properties.
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Fungi is a diverse group of microorganisms with over 1.5 million species worldwide. It lives in a variety of environments and develops a variety of survival mechanisms that allow it to manufacture a wide variety of chemicals, i.e., biomolecules. Organic acids, enzymes and secondary metabolites have been shown to be useful in the production of biomolecules. They may be used in a broad range of fields, including pharmaceutical research, agricultural and food biotechnology, commodities biochemicals, agri-foods, chemical engineering, diagnostics, medicines, and medical device development. It also explores fungal macromolecules' health and healing properties, regulates phytohormone synthesis or breakdown in plant roots, improves hormone production, and supports bio-stimulant composition. There are a variety of antimicrobial/antifungal biomolecules in agriculture that may be employed to minimize crop yield-reducing pest and diseases. These biomolecules, which are useful in both the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, are the focus of this review.
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Mushrooms are universally valued for their dietary and therapeutic significance. Their importance could be attributed to numerous nutritive and dietary substances including polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolics and other light molecular bioactive compounds. These compounds offer optimal health benefits and have been identified as a potential source of nutritional and medicinal products against several debilitating and food-related disorders. Here, we present an updated synopsis of the medicinal attributes of mushrooms, while also highlighting the technological advancements in their cultivation that have led to the birth of engineered species with improved traits that could alleviate malnourishment and contribute towards food security, offer health benefits, and provide efficient ways of waste management.
Chapter
Edible mushrooms are being used as good source of food and medicinal purposes. It contains different polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, chitin, α- and β-glucans, mannans, xylans, and galactans that act as a potential source for prebiotics. Prebiotics are short-chain carbohydrates that alter the composition, or metabolism, of the gut microbiota such as bifidogenic bacteria (Bifidobacterium sp.), lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp.) in a beneficial manner. The properties of prebiotics are determined on the basis of probiotic growth stimulation, pathogenic inhibition, and gastrointestinal tolerance (in amylase, bile extract, and HCl). Edible mushroom contains high bioactive compounds and is a good source of prebiotic that contains short-chain sugars such as glucose, galactose, fructose, and N-acetylglucosamine which are nondigestible carbohydrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms. Mushroom prebiotics to stimulate the growth of gut microbiota, conferring health benefits to the host. Prebiotics are considered as an alternative strategy to prevent or control pathogens. Hence the fruiting bodies of edible mushroom extend that the prebiotics will improve the health in the same way as probiotics.
Chapter
Mushrooms are among the few natural products that have been relied upon for prophylactic and therapeutic applications in human diseases. They have been referred to as forest gems since they can be picked in the wild or better domesticated for appropriate use. Several scientific studies have been conducted to establish claimed potentials or further probe new areas into which mushrooms can find application. Many disciplines, including mycology, microbiology, physiology, chemistry, genetics, and medicine, among others, conduct research on mushrooms. These enable broad and in-depth studies of mushrooms, to include in vitro and in vivo demonstrations of their bioactivity, structural characterization, and isolation of bioactive components. This chapter highlights the bioactive composition of mushrooms by relating structure to bioactivity and demonstrating therapeutic effects on some human diseases using existing literature. The potentials of mushrooms or their products for the treatment or management of diseases, such as tropical illnesses and COVID-19 pandemic, among other issues, have been discussed. Chemistry of bioactive compounds, structure–activity relationships, patents, and analyses of data obtained have been reported and studied for interpretation of results.
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World population continues to grow; hunger and malnutrition becoming more prevalent in certain parts of the world, and the nutritional value of some commonly consumed foods declining due to nutritionally exhausted soils. Wide spread malnutrition with ever-increasing protein gap in developing countries has necessitated the search for alternative sources of protein because the production of pulses has not kept pace with our requirement due to population growth. So the people will increasingly have to look to alternative nutritionally rich food sources that may maintain good health and provide enhanced immunity to disease. Edible mushrooms have been recommended by the FAO as a food, contributing to the protein nutrition of the developing countries depending largely on cereals, as mushroom contains an ample amount of proteins, carbohydrate, vitamins, fibers and valuable salts. Mushrooms are commercially grown and considered safe for human consumption. Mushrooms can be used as a supplementary food item or for value addition in different products like pickle, jam, sweets, candy, chips and many more to the growing population of the developing countries where the population mainly depends on cereal based foods. Due to high quality nutrients and their medical and therapeutic properties, mushrooms have become popular worldwide.
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Pleurotus spp. are listed among “mushroom nutraceutical” accredited to their nutritional and medicinal attributes. In this present study, five different common edible mushrooms i.e., Pleurotus (P.) ostreatus, Pleurotus (P.) florida, Pleurotus (P.) sajor-caju, Agaricus (A.) bisporus and Lentinus (L.) edodes were screened for the highest prebiotic content. Their beneficial bioactive (eritadenine, flavonoid and polyphenol) and prebiotic (β-glucan and inulin) components were quantified by different biochemical and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The mushroom extracts were then evaluated for their compatibility with the potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (Enterococcus (E.) faecium and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum) to formulate synbiotic microcapsules. P. florida extract showed highest β-glucan and very high inulin content so it could act as a great source of prebiotics. Besides, the extract from P. florida contained the highest concentration of eritadenine and was also found to be most compatible with E. faecium, confirmed by its high prebiotic activity score in comparison with the commercial prebiotic i.e., inulin. Furthermore, the probiotics selected for the formulations of the microcapsules have high potential for therapeutic applications, antihypertensive and hypocholestromeic activity. Therefore, the formulated microcapsules as such or when incorporated into food matrices (therapeutic food) might be effective in decreasing blood pressure and blood cholesterol.
Article
Background Protease inhibitors inhibit the activity of protease enzymes, hence are essentially involved in the regulation of the metabolic processes involving protease enzymes and protection the host organism against external damage due to proteases. These inhibitors are abundantly present in all living organisms but have not been much reported in mushrooms. Mushrooms are one of the major food components of humans with delicious taste and high nutritional value. Mushrooms also have therapeutic and economic significance. The edible mushrooms with medicinal properties are much in commercial demand. To date, the presence of protease inhibitors has not been reported much in edible mushrooms. The present study reports the characterization of a protease inhibitor isolated from the common white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Objective The objective of the present study is to characterize the novel protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus to determine its nature and activity at varying environmental conditions. Method The protease inhibitor was characterized through SDS PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, and de novo sequencing to determine its molecular mass, and sequence respectively. The optimum pH and temperature, and the pH and thermal stability were studied to determine the optimum working range of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitory activity (%) was determined in presence of metal ions, surfactants, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. The kinetic parameters and the type of inhibition exhibited by the protease inhibitor were determined using casein and trypsin protease enzyme. Results The protease inhibitor was found to be a low molecular mass compound of 25 kDa. The de novo sequencing matched the inhibitor against a 227 amino acid containing peptide molecular mass of 24.6 kDa molecular mass. The protease inhibitory activity (%) was found highest at pH 7.0 and temperature 50 0C, and was stable from pH 4.0-9.0 and temperature 30-80 0C. In presence of metal ions, the residual protease inhibitory activity (%) enhanced in presence of Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+. The residual activity increased in presence of the surfactant SDS slightly in comparison to control, while decreased in the case of Triton-X and Tween 20. The presence of oxidizing agents, hydrogen peroxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide decreased the residual inhibitory activity. The protease inhibitor was unaffected by the reducing agents: dithiothreitol and β-mercaptoethanol up to 2mM concentration but decreased at higher concentrations. The inhibitor exhibited uncompetitive inhibition against trypsin with an inhibitory constant of 166 nM, indicating a strong affinity towards the protease, with a half-life of 93.90 minutes at 37 0C. Conclusion Protease inhibitors isolated from mushrooms are generally small in size, more stable, and tolerant towards varying external conditions. The protease inhibitor isolated from Agaricus bisporus also exhibited similar characteristics.
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Pleurotus ostreatus is a common cultivated edible mushroom worldwide. The fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus is a rich source of a β-glucans polysaccharide. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of β-glucans as a natural polysaccharide produced by P. ostreatus as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer. The molecular identification of P. ostreatus isolate was confirmed by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of studied ITS sequence were performed against some deposited sequences in GenBank. The analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as well as the result of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has confirmed the presence of β-glucans polysaccharide in the tested samples. The percentage of antioxidant activity of β-glucans showed a gradual increase from 8.59% to 12.36, 18.56, 23.69, 44.66 and 80.36% at the concentrations of 31.2, 64.4, 125, 250, 500, and 800 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, all concentrations of β-glucans showed higher antioxidant activities when compared with standard antioxidant (Vitamin C). The highest-antimicrobial activity of β-glucans polysaccharide was against P. aeruginosa with a zone of inhibition (45 mm), while the lowest activity was against S. aureus (13 mm) both at 100 mg/mL. The percentage of growth-inhibiting of MCF-7 a human breast cancer cell line and normal WRL-68 cell line affected by β-glucans were determined by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazol (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT assay). The results revealed that the percentage of growth inhibiting of MCF-7 and WRL-68 cells were gradually increased in both lines and was the highest with MCF-7 line, where the percentage were 18, 23, 50, 59, and 62 % compared with WRL-68 line which showed 4, 6, 9, 13, and 22% at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 μg/ml, respectively. This present paper revealed that P. ostreatus has therapeutic values that can be used as a natural medicine instead of industrial compounds. Abstract Pleurotus ostreatus is a common cultivated edible mushroom worldwide. The fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus is a rich source of a b-glucans polysaccharide. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of b-glucans as a natural polysaccharide produced by P. ostreatus as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer. The molecular identification of P. ostreatus isolate was confirmed by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of studied ITS sequence were performed against some deposited sequences in GenBank. The analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as well as the result of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has confirmed the presence of b-glucans polysaccharide in the tested samples. The percentage of antioxidant activity of b-glucans showed a gradual increase from 8.59% to 12.36, 18.56, 23.69, 44.66 and 80.36% at the concentrations of 31.2, 64.4, 125, 250, 500, and 800 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, all concentrations of b-glucans showed higher antioxidant activities when compared with standard antioxidant (Vitamin C). The highest-antimicrobial activity of b-glucans polysaccharide was against P. aeruginosa with a zone of inhibition (45 mm), while the lowest activity was against S. aureus (13 mm) both at 100 mg/mL. The percentage of growth-inhibiting of MCF-7 a human breast cancer cell line and normal WRL-68 cell line affected by b-glucans were determined by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazol (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT assay). The results revealed that the percentage of growth inhibiting of MCF-7 and WRL-68 cells were gradually increased in both lines and was the highest with MCF-7 line, where the percentage were 18, 23, 50, 59, and 62% compared with WRL-68 line which showed 4, 6, 9, 13, and 22% at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/ml, respectively. This present paper revealed that P. ostreatus has therapeutic values that can be used as a natural medicine instead of industrial compounds.
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The development of the mushroom industry in Cambodia through the production of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) and lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) species requires local knowledge about growth rates, quality control, disease management and other biological characteristics to be produced. This study compares the growth rate and yield of these 33 species in both bag and log cultures. Mushrooms were cultivated by transferring tissues from P. ostreatus and G. lucidum strains to potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. Then, these strains were multiplied through transferring their spawn to successive grain bottles. Finally, the spawn was harvested and transferred to either plastic bags filled with sawdust (rubber tree) or prepared logs. In the case of the strains grown in logs, 19 of the P. ostreatus cultures and 22 of the G. lucidum cultures were contaminated; while this occurred for only 5 and 13 of the bag cultures, respectively. Different mushroom species require different growing conditions. For instance, P. ostreatus strains thrive at a temperature between 20°C and 30°C at 70 to 90% humidity. However, G. lucidum strains thrive at a temperature between 18°C and 25°C, at a humidity of 85 to 90%. The choice of substrate also affects yield. In the Cambodian context, a sawdust substrate was found to produce higher yields, in terms of both biological efficiency and the number of fruiting bodies. It is recommended that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on a sawdust substrate is promoted to rice farmers in Cambodia.
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Cultivation of mushrooms becoming more popular all over the world because different cultivated and wild edible mushrooms possess valuable biochemical properties essential for the human health. Mushrooms have incomparable health benefits, which are considered as erich source of nutrition, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers, essential fatty acids, polysaccharides, enzymes, essential elements and antioxidants. Therefore, edible mushrooms are popular for anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anticoagulant, anti-ageing, immunological, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic activities that made them to appropriate for use in healthy foods, biomedicines, cosmetics and widely accepted as admirable source of Immune-modula-tory agent that have Immune-Stimulation activities. Nowadays, farmers are attracted towards the mushroom cultivation because it is considered as more profit-oriented enterprise that have more potential to earn attractive returns compared to field and horticultural crops per unit area. Besides, mushroom's cultivation also assists to reduce the environmental pollution raised by burning of agricultural residues such as sugarcane trashes, crops stubbles and paddy straw because its cultivation requires these raw materials, which acts as alternative way to manage such by-products and transforming agricultural waste into food of high healthy nutritional benefits, therefore considered as a naturally feasible alternative.
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Lentinula is a wood-inhabiting agaric mushroom genus in Omphalotaceae. The genus comprises eight species, several of which are edible and highly prized. Lentinula edodes, commonly known as Shiitake, is one of the most cultivated species worldwide and considered as a traditional delicacy in Southeast Asia. With proven medicinal properties, the market value of L. edodes is expected to reach $ 447.7 million in 5 years' time. In this paper, we review the nutritional content, nutraceutical properties, cultivation methods, and economic importance of Lentinula.
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For millennia, edible mushrooms have been used as a common diet for mankind based on their nutritional importance and medicinal benefits. Edible mushrooms are a rich source of carbohydrates (sucrose, xylose, rhamnose, mannose, and fructose), amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glutamate, methionine, and cysteine), proteins, fatty acids (linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, adrenic acid, and nervonic acid), vitamins (folate, riboflavin, ascorbic acid niacin, thiamine, ergocalciferol, and cyanocobalamine) mineral contents (Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mo) and phenolic compounds (gallic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and pyrogallol) that control and ameliorate multiple functions of the human body and participate for maintaining the good health by reducing the occurrence of several chronic diseases. Bioactive polysaccharides, peptides, polyphenols, and dietary fibers extracted from mushroom mycelia have health-promoting properties including a number of medicinal benefits such as anticancerous properties, antihypertensive activity, protection against DNA damage, cardiovascular effects, neurodegenerative disorders, and improvement in innate immunity. In developing countries, the utilization of mushrooms for therapeutic applications is being implemented as a boon for promoting human health and natural dietary supplements. Recently, different pharmaceutical companies and food industries have taken initial steps for patenting the medicinal value of edible mushrooms based on their antioxidant, anticancer, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, and immunomodulatory effects. The immense role of nutritional components and bioactive molecules of edible mushrooms in correlation with health problems has become a burning task in modern nutraceutical therapy. Hence, the present article deals with up-to-date knowledge of edible mushrooms as a nutritional adjuvant with emphasis on profound biological properties and potential mechanisms of action to prevent different health diseases.
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This study was carried out to analyze the effectiveness and scientific trend of publications in the academic field with content of “edible mushroom” in the Web of Science database. The data obtained in the study were analyzed using bibliometric techniques. In the study, a total of 6250 data were obtained between 1970-2021 on the investigated subject in Web of Science database without year or document limitation. The data were analyzed in terms of various bibliometric indicators such as index type, distribution by years, distribution by country and cooperation network, citation rates, authors, keywords, trending topics. The studies on edible mushrooms were increased because of their high nutritional value, and of those mushrooms consumption as an alternative food, in medicine.
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Wild edible fungi are collected for food and to earn money in more than 80 countries. There is a huge diversity of different types, from truffles to milk-caps, chanterelles to termite mushrooms, with more than 1100 species recorded during the preparation of this book. A small group of species are of economic importance in terms of exports, but the wider significance of wild edible fungi lies with their extensive subsistence uses in developing countries. They provide a notable contribution to diet in central and southern Africa during the months of the year when the supply of food is often perilously low. Elsewhere they are a valued and valuable addition to diets of rural people. Commercial harvesting is an important business in countries such as Zimbabwe, Turkey, Poland, the USA, North Korea and Bhutan. The export trade is driven by a strong and expanding demand from Europe and Japan and is predominantly from poor to rich countries. This is good for local businesses and collectors, providing important cash income that pays for children to go to school and helps to reduce poverty in areas where the options for earning money are limited. Local markets around the world reveal a widespread though smaller individual trade in an extensive range of species. Though difficult to measure compared to the more visible export of wild edible fungi, local trade is of considerable value to collectors and increases the supply of food to many areas of weak food security. Collection and consumption within countries varies from the extensive and intensive patterns of China to more restricted use by indigenous people in South America. Substantial quantities are eaten through personal collections that may go unrecorded and their contribution to diet is substantially higher than previously indicated. The nutritional value of wild edible fungi should not be under-estimated: they are of comparable value to many vegetables and in notable cases have a higher food value. Wild edible fungi play an important ecological role. Many of the leading species live symbiotically with trees and this mycorrhizal association sustains the growth of native forests and commercial plantations in temperate and tropical zones. The saprobic wild edible fungi, though less important in terms of volumes collected and money earned from local sales, are important in nutrient recycling. The saprobic species are the basis for the hugely valuable global business in cultivated mushrooms, currently valued at around US$23 billion each year. This is an increasing source of income for small-scale enterprises in developing countries. Wild edible fungi are one of a number of non-wood forest products (NWFP) that have increased in importance as logging bans and a reduction in wood-based forestry activities have declined. They are one of the most valuable NWFP with much potential for expansion of trade, but there are also challenges in the integration of their management and sustainable production as part of multiple use forests. There are concerns about the impact of excessive harvesting which require better data on yields and productivity and a closer examination of collectors and local practices. Closer cooperation between forest managers and those using wild edible fungi is needed and suggestions are made on how this might be achieved. There is a strong emphasis on subsistence uses of wild edible fungi and their importance to rural people in developing countries though this is an area where there are still significant gaps in information. There is also significant commercial harvesting in developed countries, such as the USA and Canada and in the emerging economies of eastern Europe, for example Poland and Serbia. However, countries in the North are of greater significance to wild edible fungi as a destination for exports and as a source of scientific expertise, especially in mycology (the study of fungi). This scientific expertise is increasingly being applied to help achieve the major development goals which include poverty alleviation and sustainable use of natural resources. Real progress has been and continues to be made in the roles that wild edible fungi contribute towards these goals.
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According to Spanish legislation, some of the quality parameters of canned mushroom (colour, weight and grade) have been studied. Different times of blanching treatment and two brines, with and without ascorbic acid, were used. Blanching had an important effect on the final state of mushrooms, decreasing the losses of weight and grade and improving the colour, which was clear and pleasant. A positive effect of ascorbic acid was observed. The presence of this acid in the brine improves colour stability and acceptance. It inhibited the browning process. The pH of brine plus mushroom is independent of brine composition (with or without ascorbic acid). Longer times of blanching had no significant effects on mushroom quality parameters.
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The ergocalciferol and 25-hydroxyergocalciferol contents in cultivated Agaricus bisporus and in five different wild mushroom species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using internal standard methods, and the level of previtamin D-2 was screened. The methods included saponification and extraction, purification using one or two semipreparative HPLC steps, and quantification with analytical HPLC. The contents of ergocalciferol found in different mushroom species varied significantly (0.21-29.82 mu g/100 g of fresh weight). Wild mushrooms, especially Cantharellus cibarius and Cantharellus tubaeformis, contained high amounts of ergocalciferol, 12.8 and 29.82 mu g/100 g of fresh weight; respectively. The contents of 25-hydroxyergocalciferol were below the limit of detection in all mushrooms. The contribution of previtamin D-2 to the total vitamin D activity was less than 10% of that of ergocalciferol in the mushroom species studied.
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The antimicrobial properties of phenolic extracts of Portuguese wild edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Sarcodon imbricatus and Tricholoma portentosum) against pathogens were investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were evaluated for the entire mushroom, the cap and the stipe, separately; the portion of the mushroom used proved to be influenced in the results obtained, which are directly correlated with the content of total phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. The growth of Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis,) was well inhibited by these mushrooms, while Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) was resistant. The study on the antifungal effect of these mushrooms revealed that Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were differently inhibited for the mushrooms used.
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The methanolic extracts of dried Agaricus bisporus, Polyporus squamosus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lepista nuda, Russula delica, Boletus badius, and Verpa conica were analyzed for antioxidant activity in different systems including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant activity, and metal chelating activities. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and α-tocopherol. The percentage inhibition methanolic extracts of dried Russula delica, Boletus badius, Agaricus bisporus, Polyporus squamosus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lepista nuda and Verpa conica at 100 μg/mL concentrations on peroxidation in linoleic acid system were 99.7%, 99.2%, 98.8%, 98.4%, 98.3%, 97.9% and 97.7%, respectively, and greater than those 400 μg/mL of α-tocopherol, BHA and BHT (77%, 85%, and 97%). Among methanolic extracts from seven wild edible mushrooms, the reducing power of Russula delica and Verpa conica were excellent, and were 1.32 and 1.22 at 200 μg/mL, respectively. Methanolic extract from Verpa conica, Boletus badius and Russula delica proved to be better at scavenging O2− than other mushroom species. The scavenging effects of methanolic extracts from mushroom species and standards on the DPPH radical decreased in the order of BHA>α-tocopherol>Lepista nuda>Russula delica>Polyporus squamosus>Pleurotus ostreatus>Agaricus bisporus>Verpa conica>Boletus badius and were, at the concentration of 180 μg/mL, 97.4, 95.4, 91.3, 86.1, 82.8, 81.3, 77.5, 75.7 and 68.7, respectively. The metal scavenging effect of extract of the mushroom species and standards decreased in the order of Verpa conica>Lepista nuda>Russula delica>Boletus badius>Polyporus squamosus>BHT>Pleurotus ostreatus>Agaricus bisporus>BHA>α-tocopherol. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene were determined in the methanolic extracts of dried Agaricus bisporus, Polyporus squamosus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lepista nuda, Russula delica, Boletus badius, and Verpa conica.
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The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas chromatography showed the high optical purity of (R)-(-)-1-octen-3-ol in P. ostreatus and P. djamor (the highest one) in contrast to P. citrinopileatus. Carpophores of P. djamor was characterized relatively high dry matter and protein contents.
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2nd edition of the first book on the topic published in North America. The first edition was self-published in October, 1986. An exploration of tradition, healing, and culture. Covers the history of the uses of fungi for healing, including nutritional value, summary of cultural uses, history, and science on over 100 species. Shamanistic uses of hallucinogenic fungi. Botanica Press Imprint, published by The Book Publishing Co., Summertown, TN. 251 pp. with illustrations.
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Plasma cholesterol concentration is reduced by feeding some dietary fibers and mushroom fruit body, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We examined the effects of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fiber and sugar beet fiber on serum cholesterol and hepatic LDL receptor mRNA in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 50 g/kg cellulose powder (CP), 50 g/kg mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fiber (MSF) or 50 g/kg sugar beet fiber (BF) for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in the body weight, food intake and cecum weight among the groups. The relative liver weight in the CP group was significantly greater than that in the MSF and BF groups. The cecal pH in the CP and MSF groups was significantly higher than that in the BF group. Cecal acetic acid, butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the BF group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The serum total cholesterol, VLDL + intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) + IDL cholesterol concentrations in the CP group were significantly greater than those in the MSF and BF groups. The HDL cholesterol concentration in the MSF group was significantly lower than that in the CP group. The hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level in the MSF and BF groups was significantly higher than that in the CP group. The results of this study demonstrate that mushroom fiber and sugar beet fiber lowered the serum total cholesterol level by enhancement of the hepatic LDL receptor mRNA.
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Food scientists will dig into this robust reference on mushrooms. Mushrooms as Functional Foods is a compendium of current research on the chemistry and biology, nutritional and medicinal value, and the use of mushrooms in the modern functional foods industry. Topics covered range from the agricultural production of mushrooms to the use of molecular biological techniques like functional genomics; from nutritional values of newly cultivated mushroom species to the multifunctional effects of the unconventional form of mushroom (sclerotium); from the physiological benefits and pharmacological properties of bioactive components in mushrooms to the regulation of their use as functional foods and dietary supplements in different parts of the world. With contributions from leading experts worldwide, this comprehensive reference: Reviews trends in mushroom use and research, with extensive information on emerging species. Includes coverage of cultivation, physiology, and genetics. Highlights applications in functional foods and medicinal use. Covers worldwide regulations and safety issues of mushrooms in functional foods and dietary supplements. Discusses the classification, identification, and commercial collection of newly cultivated mushroom species. Features a color insert with photographs of different types of mushrooms. This is an integrated, single-source reference for undergraduates majoring in food science and nutrition, postgraduates, and professional food scientists and technologists working in the functional food area, and medical and health science professionals interested in alternative medicines and natural food therapies.
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Foreword. Preface. Acknowledgments. Contributors. 1. Overview of Mushroom Cultivation and Utilization as Functional Foods (Shu-Ting Chang). 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 What Are Mushrooms? 1.3 Concept of Mushroom Biology and Applied Mushroom Biology. 1.4 Mushroom Cultivation. 1.5 World Mushroom Production. 1.6 Mushroom Biotechnology. 1.7 Development of World Mushroom Industry Movements. 1.8 Concluding Remarks. References. 2. Molecular Analysis and Genomic Studies of the Shiitake Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Hoi-Shan Kwan and Winnie W. Y. Chum) 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Isolation of Genes. 2.3 Molecular Genetics. 2.4 Functional Genomic Approaches for Gene Expression Analysis. 2.5 Transcriptional Regulation. 2.6 Transformation. 2.7 Process Analysis. 2.8 Conclusion. References. 3. Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Mushrooms (Peter C.K. Cheung). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Wild and Cultivated Edible Mushrooms. 3.3 Production of Cultivated Mushrooms. 3.4 Nutritional Composition. 3.5 Newly Cultivated/Nonconventional Mushrooms. 3.6 Nutritional Evaluation. 3.7 Health Benefits of Edible Mushrooms. 3.8 Conclusion. References. 4. Sclerotia: Emerging Functional Food Derived from Mushrooms (Ka-Hing Wong and Peter C.K. Cheung). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Concepts of Mushroom Sclerotia. 4.3 Ontogeny of Sclerotia. 4.4 Structure of Sclerotia. 4.5 Cultivation of Mushroom Sclerotia. 4.6 Biochemical, Nutritional, and Technological Characteristics of Mushroom Sclerotia. 4.7 Biopharmacological Values of Mushroom Sclerotia of P. tuber-regium, P. rhinoceros, and W. cocos. 4.8 Conclusion. References. 5. Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Mushroom Polysaccharides (Vincent E.C. Ooi). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Antitumor Polysaccharides from Mushrooms (Higher Fungi). 5.3 Mechanisms of Antitumor Action of Mushroom Polysaccharides. 5.4 Structure and Antitumor Activity Relationship of Polysaccharides. 5.5 Conclusions. References. 6. Regulatory Issues of Mushrooms as Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements: Safety and Efficacy (Solomon P. Wasser and Eden Akavia). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Legal and Regulatory Issues of Introducing and Controlling Dietary Supplements from Medicinal Mushrooms in Different Countries. 6.3 Safety and Diversity of Dietary Supplement Types from Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms. 6.4 Submerged Culturing as the Best Technique for Obtaining Consistent and Safe Mushroom Products. 6.5 Experiences of Seven Countries in Consolidating Their Food Safety System. 6.6 Summary. References. Index.
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Dietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharides and lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomach and small intestine. A wealth of information supports the American Dietetic Association position that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Recommended intakes, 20-35 g/day for healthy adults and age plus 5 g/day for children, are not being met, because intakes of good sources of dietary fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole and high-fiber grain products, and legumes are low. Consumption of dietary fibers that are viscous lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of fibers part of the dietary plans to treat cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by microflora in the large intestine promote normal laxation and are integral components of diet plans to treat constipation and prevent the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. A diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits. It is unclear why several recently published clinical trials with dietary fiber intervention failed to show a reduction in colon polyps. Nonetheless, a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. A fiber-rich meal is processed more slowly, which promotes earlier satiety, and is frequently less calorically dense and lower in fat and added sugars. All of these characteristics are features of a dietary pattern to treat and prevent obesity. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for the critically ill and the very old have not been clearly delineated; both may need nonfood sources of fiber. Many factors confound observations of gastrointestinal function in the critically ill, and the kinds of fiber that would promote normal small and large intestinal function are usually not in a form suitable for the critically ill. Maintenance of body weight in the inactive older adult is accomplished in part by decreasing food intake. Even with a fiber-rich diet, a supplement may be needed to bring fiber intakes into a range adequate to prevent constipation. By increasing variety in the daily food pattern, the dietetics professional can help most healthy children and adults achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes.
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Rat liver SAH-hydrolase is strongly inhibited by four stereoisomeric 4-(adenin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acids (eritadenines). D-Eritadenine, which is the most effective of the four, inactivates the catalytic activity of SAH-hydrolase at IC 50 = 1.2 .10 ⁻⁸ mol l ⁻¹ in the hydrolytic reaction. The enzyme is irreversibly inhibited (τ/2 = 1.6 min). The inactivation activity decreases in the order D- erythro (2 R , 3 R ) L- erythro (2 S , 3 S ) threo (2 S , 3 R ) threo (2 R , 3 S ) configuration.
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Selected species of wild edible mushrooms were obtained from the interior areas of East Malaysia to determine the total phenolics and antioxidant properties, including free radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating activities. The in vitro antioxidant activities of petroleum ether (PE) and methanolic extracts of the edible wild mushrooms were comparable to the cultivated oyster mushroom. The radical scavenging activity was the highest in PE extract of Pleurotus porrigens (angel's wings) (85%), while methanolic extract of Hygrocybe conica (witch's hat mushroom) exhibited the highest (94%) chelating effect at 20 mg/ml. PE extracts were more effective than methanolic extract in scavenging ability on DPPH radicals, whereas methanolic extracts were more effective in reducing power and chelating ability on ferrous ions as evidenced by their lower EC50 values. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated phenolic group was the primary factor contributing to the metal chelating ability for PE extract although phenolic was better correlated with reducing power in methanolic extracts.
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Edible mushrooms contain interesting functional components. In particular beta glucans, homo- and hetero-glucans with β(1→3), β(1→4) and β(1→6) glucosidic linkages, are supposed to be responsible for some healthy properties of mushrooms. In this research the amount of beta glucans in different edible mushroom species has been evaluated and their distribution within the soluble and insoluble fractions of dietary fibre has also been assessed. Beta glucans have been analysed by a modification of an enzymatic method originally developed for cereals and based on lichenase and β-glucosidase hydrolyses followed by a spectrophotometric determination of the released free glucose. A large variability can be observed in the studied mushroom species; the beta glucan concentration ranges from 0.21 to 0.53 g/100 g on a dry basis. Furthermore, the beta glucan in the dietary fibre fractions varies according to species of mushrooms.
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Food engineers do not often realise that drying of foods and biological materials is a problem of preserving or transforming structures rather than one of removing water. Some unique product properties depend on the structure of dried foods: rehydration and instant properties, flavour retention and sensorial attributes (including colour and texture). The role of structure extends in biochemical and pharmaceutical products to the molecular level and plays key role in viability of desiccated plants and organisms and/or specific activity of dried biomolecules. Nowadays different techniques and probes are available to visualise changes in structure down to the nanostructural level, acquire physicochemical data of micron-size regions and perform physical/mechanical testing in situ. Most novel visualisation methods are non-intrusive permitting image and data acquisition in real time under simulated or current drying conditions. An emerging field of work is that of quantification of structural features using advanced image processing techniques and fractal analysis. Meaningful structure-properties relationships of dried foods can then be derived from their analysis that might contribute to the design of new and specific structures to improve food functionality. Combination of the microstructural approach and concepts from food materials science should result in major advances in this important unit operation and in tailoring product properties.
Article
Accumulating evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) are involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. During the course of a screening program to identify natural anti-inflammatory substances, we isolated the compound 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (APO) from an extract of the edible brown mushroom Agaricus bisporus IMBACII. APO inhibited NO production by mouse peritonea[ macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-gamma(LPS/IFN-gamma) at low concentrations (IC50 =1.5 mu M) through reduced inducible NO synthase protein expression. PGE(2) production by LPS/IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages was inhibited by APO at much lower concentrations (IC50 =0.27 mu M) than those required for the inhibition of NO production. Mechanistic analysis showed that APO inhibited both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities with almost equal selectivity. Secretion of NO and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 by IFN-gamma-activated RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line, was also dose-dependently reduced by APO. Furthermore, APO increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 by antigen-stimulated T cells and promoted the polarization of CD4(+) Th cells toward the anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype at equimolar concentrations that inhibited NO production. Our results suggested that APO induced polarization toward the Th2 subset, at least in part through the down-regulation of IL-12 production. Thus, APO appears to have polent anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties that may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of T cell-mediated inflammatory autoimmune diseases as well as for bacteria-induced chronic-inflammatory diseases.
Article
The hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary supplementation with eritadenine, a hypocholesterolemic factor present in the Lentinus edodes mushroom, was investigated in relation to its effect on hepatic phospholipid metabolism in rats. The plasma total cholesterol level was significantly decreased by eritadenine supplementation at levels above 8 μmol/kg of diet in a dose-dependent manner, accompanying decreases in both VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Eritadenine supplementation significantly increased the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content and inversely decreased the phosphatidylcholine (PC) content of liver microsomes in a dose-dependent manner. There was a highly significant correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and the content or proportion of PC and PE of liver microsomes. Eritadenine supplementation did not decrease the activity of PE N-methyltransferase in liver microsomes but rather increased the activity, possibly because of the increased PE content of liver microsomes. On the one hand, eritadenine had no direct inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity when added to the assay mixture. On the other hand, eritadenine supplementation increased the hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) level and decreased the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to SAH in a dose-dependent manner. The in vivo incorporation of radioactivity of [methyl-3H]methionine into the PC of liver microsomes and blood plasma was also markedly depressed by dietary eritadenine supplementation at a level of 200 μmol/kg of diet. These results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action of eritadenine might be elicited through an alteration of the hepatic phospholipid metabolism that resulted from an inhibition of PE N-methylation due to a decreased SAMSAH ratio in the liver.
Article
The flavor chemistry of various mushroom species is reviewed with primary emphasis on the volatiles that have been identified in mushrooms. Also considered is the influence of processing and preservation on volatile compound formation and the organoleptic properties associated with the major mushroom volatiles.
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An antitumour-promoting activity in two-stage carcinogenesis, was found in the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the Japanese edible mushroom ‘Buna-shimeji’, Hypsizigus marmoreus (Tricholomataceae). From the active fractions of the extracts, two sterols, ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide, were isolated. The isolates showed inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced ear inflammation in mice, and ergosterol markedly inhibited tumour promotion in a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment. These sterols may be useful in developing an effective method of cancer prevention.
Article
Four strains of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)—U3, hybrids of U3 (3/1, M-300), and in-between strain No. 200—were treated before freezing: washed in water, washed in water containing sodium metabisulfite (3g·L-1), and washed in water containing sodium metabisulfite (5g·L-1) then immersed in boiling water for 20 s. Appearance and whiteness of frozen mushrooms were most affected by the washing in water containing sodium metabisulfite. The residue of sulfur dioxide changed from 52 mg·kg-1 after 1 d to 27 mg·kg-1 after 90 d of storage. The whitest mushrooms (fresh and frozen) were for No. 200 strain. Short-time immersion in boiling water markedly increased toughness of stored frozen mushrooms.
Article
Ergosterol peroxide, the steroidal derivative with cytotoxic activity, has been isolated for the first time from the mycelium of edible and medicinal mushroom Hericiumerinaceum (lion’s mane mushroom) together with erinacine A. The new densitometric method was applied for the quantitative determination of ergosterol peroxide in n-hexane extracts of H. erinaceum, Laetiporus sulfureus (chicken mushroom), and Morchella esculenta (common morel) mycelia, as well as in Boletus edulis (king bolete), Suillus bovinus (Jersey cow mushroom), and B. badius (bay bolete) fruiting bodies. The ergosterol peroxide content reached 15.98 ± 0.78, 10.07 ± 0.75, 13.37 ± 0.56, 29.32 ± 1.43, 17.27 ± 0.84, and 12.60 ± 0.59 mg per 100 g, respectively. What is significant was that ergosterol peroxide was identified for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in edible mushrooms mentioned above.
Article
Wistar rats fed a semisynthetic diet containing 0.3% cholesterol and supplemented with 5% dried whole oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) had reduced serum and liver cholesterol levels by 32 and 55%, respectively, at the end of 8th week of the experiment. The reduction of cholesterol was due to the decreased cholesterol content in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Cholesterol concentration in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) increased significantly by 34%. Animals fed the oyster mushroom diet had elevated level of fecal excretion of neutral sterols by 32% and the excretion of bile acids by 55%. Activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (a rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol catabolism) was enhanced by 33% and the activity of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase was also increased by 13%.
Article
A comparative study on various components of nutritional interest, such as water, protein, total amino acids, ash and minerals, in mushrooms of different species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus pulmunarius and Lentinula edodes) was carried out. Mushrooms were cultivated on the same compost (wheat straw added with 15% of sugar beet) and analysed immediately after harvest to avoid any interfering parameters. The limiting amino acid was also evaluated and the relevant protein chemical score was calculated. The moisture content of the edible mushrooms studied is high (ranging from 85.2 to 94.7%) and the ash contents range from 6.9 to 10.5% on a dry basis. Potassium is the most abundant mineral element followed by magnesium. Total nitrogen varies from 3.47 to 7.93% (dry basis), and P. ostreatus species has the largest variability among the samples analysed. The most abundant amino acids in mushrooms, expressed as percentages of total amino acids, are glutamic acid (12.8–20.9%), aspartic acid (9.1–12.1%) and arginine (3.7–11.7%), but in the analysed P. pulmunarius and L. entinus edodes a particularly low percentage of arginine (3.7 and 5.7%) has been detected. The chemical score generally ranges from 96 to 110%, the limiting amino acid being leucine or/and lysine. ©
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effect of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes on serum oxidative status and expression of VCAM-1mRNA of thoracic aorta endothelial cell in high-fat-diet rats. Forty male rats received two different diets during 40 days: standard chow (SC) and high-fat-diet (HF). The result indicates that the administration of polysaccharides from L. edodes significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and enhanced serum antioxidant enzyme activity and thymus and liver index in high-fat rats. In addition, the administration of polysaccharides from L. edodes significantly decreased the in