Influence of Limit-Setting and Participation in Physical Activity on Youth Screen Time

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA 30345, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 07/2010; 126(1):e89-96. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-3374
Source: PubMed


To examine the associations of demographics, rules associated with television-viewing, and physical activity with daily screen time (including television, non-school-related computer use, and video games) in children and adolescents.
We analyzed data from a telephone survey of 7415 youth aged 9 to 15 years from the Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds of exceeding recommended screen-time limits (>120 minutes/day) according to demographics, rules, and physical activity.
Odds that children would exceed recommended screen-time limits were positively associated with age and black race/ethnicity and negatively associated with income level. Children and adolescents who reported that they really agreed that their parents had rules about time spent watching television and playing video games were less likely to exceed recommended limits than those who strongly disagreed that their parents had rules. Similarly, when parents reported always or very often having limits on television watching (versus rarely or never) and when parents correctly identified the recommended limits, children were less likely to exceed recommended limits. Children whose parents reported consistent limits and who themselves reported consistent rules about time spent watching television had the lowest prevalence of exceeding recommended limits. Odds that children would exceed recommended limits decreased as physical activity in the previous week increased.
Parental rules regarding screen time and participation in physical activity play a role in the amount of screen time among children and adolescents. Programs that encourage limit-setting by parents and promote physical activity may reduce screen time among youth.

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    • "into question the hypothesis on displacement behaviour (Carlson et al. 2010). Furthermore, given that we were unable to confirm that involvement in PA moderates the association between high involvement in SB behaviour and health problems, our findings do not support the hypothesis on compensation for negative health consequences (Ferrar et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association between screen-based (SB) behaviour and selected health complaints in adolescents and whether physical activity (PA) moderates this association. Methods: Data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour of School-aged Children study collected in 2010 among Slovak adolescents (age 11-15 years, N = 8,042, 48.6% boys) were used. Logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender were used to analyse the associations between watching TV, working with a computer or playing computer games and headache, backache, sleep difficulties, feeling low, irritability and feeling nervous. Next, we assessed the interactions of SB behaviours and PA regarding health complaints. Results: Watching TV more than 3 h is associated with increased chance of reporting headache, feeling low, being irritable or feeling nervous, while working with computer or playing computer games for more than 3 h does so in all of the explored health complaints. Being physically active does not moderate the associations of SB activities with health complaints. Conclusions: SB behaviours are associated with health complaints among adolescents, and these associations are not moderated by PA.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · International Journal of Public Health
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    • "In addition, media rules set by parents were related to lower sedentary behavior. Similar to previous studies, the home environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior were not simply inverses of the same factor (Jimenez-Pavon et al., 2012; Joe and Carlson, 2010). Given our finding that a large proportion of children's daily physical activity and sedentary behavior occur at home, and that home activity behaviors are highly correlated with overall daily sedentary time and MVPA, focusing efforts on modifiable home physical and social environment factors represents a promising possibility for intervention. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Given the obesity epidemic, it is critical to understand factors associated with youth physical activity and sedentary behavior at home, where youth spend significant time. We examined relationships between these child behaviors and home environment factors. Methods: Data were obtained from 713 children aged 6 to 11 in Washington and California 2007-2009. Multivariate regression analyses controlling for socio-demographics examined associations between parent-reported home environment factors and child's accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time, overall and at home, and parent-reported child screen time. Results: Children averaged 47.2% of time at home, which included 43.6% and 46.4% of overall MVPA and sedentary behavior, respectively. Parental support for physical activity and having a basketball hoop were positively associated with MVPA and negatively associated with sedentary behavior. Combined parental support and a basketball hoop was associated with even higher MVPA. Children with fewer bedroom media devices and more fixed play equipment had lower overall sedentary behavior and screen time than either factor alone. Findings were similar regardless of weight status. Conclusions: Physical and social home environment variables, especially when combined, were related to more child MVPA and less sedentary behavior. Results support addressing multiple home environment factors in childhood obesity prevention.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Preventive Medicine
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    • "Parental rules regarding school children's sleep have been associated with time spent in bed (Meijer et al., 2001); and household rules (including amount of televisionviewing , eating sweets, bedtimes) were associated with longer weekday sleep (Adam et al., 2007). Children whose parents set limits on various activities and food habits are less likely to engage in obesity-promoting behaviours; for example rules restricting television-viewing are associated with less screen time (Carlson et al., 2010), a known risk factor for obesity in pre-schoolers (te Velde et al., 2012). Consumption of 'fat foods' (including chips, biscuits, cakes, pies, chocolate and crisps) predicted weight gain in 1379 American pre-schoolers (Newby et al., 2003); parental rules limiting consumption of such foods are likely to be protective against obesity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Short sleep duration is associated with obesity in young children. This study develops the hypothesis that parental rules play a role in this association. Participants were 3-year-old children and their parents, recruited at nursery schools in socioeconomically deprived and non-deprived areas of a North-East England town. Parents were interviewed to assess their use of sleep, television-viewing and dietary rules, and given diaries to document their child's sleep for 4 days/5 nights. Children were measured for height, weight, waist circumference and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. One-hundred and eight families participated (84 with complete sleep data and 96 with complete body composition data). Parental rules were significantly associated together, were associated with longer night-time sleep and were more prevalent in the non-deprived-area compared with the deprived-area group. Television-viewing and dietary rules were associated with leaner body composition. Parental rules may in part confound the association between night-time sleep duration and obesity in young children, as rules cluster together across behavioural domains and are associated with both sleep duration and body composition. This hypothesis should be tested rigorously in large representative samples.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Biosocial Science
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