Article

Efficacy of Sanitized Ice in Reducing Bacterial Load on Fish Fillet and in the Water Collected from the Melted Ice

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PRO-SAN (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PRO-SAN and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of < 1 log CFU was obtained for the fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for cross-contamination.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... An additional indirect effect that chemical treatments may have on the microbiological quality of seafood products is the one exerted by the application of such treatments in ice used for chilling of these products. Seafood products are usually chilled with ice, aiming at delay of autolysis and quality retention and retardation of bacterial growth during storage, with melting ice, however, constituting a potential source of cross-contamination if not discarded properly (Feliciano et al., 2010). Research findings indicate that the above cross-contamination prospect could be substantially reduced via the use of chemically treated ice (Feliciano et al., 2010; Phuvasate and Su, 2010), suggesting an alternative decontamination technology of potential value for the seafood industry. ...
... Seafood products are usually chilled with ice, aiming at delay of autolysis and quality retention and retardation of bacterial growth during storage, with melting ice, however, constituting a potential source of cross-contamination if not discarded properly (Feliciano et al., 2010). Research findings indicate that the above cross-contamination prospect could be substantially reduced via the use of chemically treated ice (Feliciano et al., 2010; Phuvasate and Su, 2010), suggesting an alternative decontamination technology of potential value for the seafood industry. More specifically, Phuvasate and Su (2010) demonstrated that a treatment of electrolyzed oxidizing ice (100 ppm chlorine) for 24 h resulted in considerable reductions of histamine-producing bacteria on tuna skin and that, consequently, electrolyzed oxidizing ice may be regarded as a promising post-harvest decontamination treatment for fish. ...
... More specifically, Phuvasate and Su (2010) demonstrated that a treatment of electrolyzed oxidizing ice (100 ppm chlorine) for 24 h resulted in considerable reductions of histamine-producing bacteria on tuna skin and that, consequently, electrolyzed oxidizing ice may be regarded as a promising post-harvest decontamination treatment for fish. According to the results of another study, although sanitized ice appeared not to significantly reduce the bacterial load on Tilapia fish fillets, addition of sanitizers (i.e., a neutral electrolyzed water sanitizer or an organic acid formulation) to ice used to store seafood holds promise for reducing the bacterial load of melting water (Feliciano et al., 2010). ...
... However, the bacteria in shrimp can't be inactivated generally in TW ice. Once shrimp are removed from TW ice and exposed to temperature-abused environments before consumption, the bacteria can multiply and cause spoilage (Feliciano, Lee, Lopes, & Pascall, 2010;Phuvasate & Su, 2010). Thus, if ice made with sanitized water is used to store the shrimp, it not only has the advantages of TW ice but also the potential to be bactericidal to the microorganisms (Feliciano et al., 2010). ...
... Once shrimp are removed from TW ice and exposed to temperature-abused environments before consumption, the bacteria can multiply and cause spoilage (Feliciano, Lee, Lopes, & Pascall, 2010;Phuvasate & Su, 2010). Thus, if ice made with sanitized water is used to store the shrimp, it not only has the advantages of TW ice but also the potential to be bactericidal to the microorganisms (Feliciano et al., 2010). ...
... Animal products (for example, shrimp, meat) are foods rich in proteins and/ or lipids whereas vegetable and fruits are foods rich in carbohydrates (Vandekinderen et al., 2009). It has been reported that even low amounts of proteins or fats can react with the free chlorine of AEW, which are capable for reducing the bactericidal efficacy of sanitizers (Feliciano et al., 2010;Oomori, Oka, Inuta, & Araka, 2000). Therefore, compared with AEW ice under light condition, AEW ice in dark condition might possess stronger bactericidal efficiency. ...
... Chlorine-based sanitisers that are widely used in the fish processing industry include calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO) 2 ] (granular or powdered form) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) (liquid form) (Codex Alimentarius Commission 2000;FAO 2008). Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite have hypochlorite ions ( -OCl) while the major active antimicrobial and sporicidal agent in neutralised E.O. water is HOCl. ...
... HOCl is the strongest oxidant due to its higher ORP and has 80 times more antimicrobial activity compared to -OCl (Cao et al. 2009). As a result HOCl is the main bactericidal agent in aqueous chlorine solutions (Codex Alimentarius Commission 2000;FAO 2008). Bacteria can be killed by high oxidising potentials that impact adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production through membrane rupture disturbing electron flow and creating disruption in cellular metabolic processes (Liao et al. 2007;McPherson 1993). ...
... In seafood processing, chlorine-based compounds are mainly used as disinfectants/sanitisers before packaging and distribution. Its use on the edible portions of fish and shellfish is limited (FAO 2008). The recommendations allow up to 200 mg/l chlorine in water for washing of slaughtered fish pre-processing with an exposure time of up to 8 h if transport is needed (FAO 2008). ...
Article
Electrolysed oxidising water (E.O. water) is produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride to yield primarily chlorine based oxidising products. At neutral pH this results in hypochlorous acid in the un-protonated form which has the greatest oxidising potential and ability to penetrate microbial cell walls to disrupt the cell membranes. E.O. water has been shown to be an effective method to reduce microbial contamination on food processing surfaces. The efficacy of E.O. water against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus has also been extensively confirmed in growth studies of bacteria in culture where the sanitising agent can have direct contact with the bacteria. However it can only lower, but not eliminate, bacteria on processed seafoods. More research is required to understand and optimise the impacts of E.O. pre-treatment sanitation processes on subsequent microbial growth, shelf life, sensory and safety outcomes for packaged seafood products.
... An additional indirect effect that chemical treatments may have on the microbiological quality of seafood products is the one exerted by the application of such treatments in ice used for chilling of these products. Seafood products are usually chilled with ice, aiming at delay of autolysis and quality retention and retardation of bacterial growth during storage, with melting ice, however, constituting a potential source of cross-contamination if not discarded properly (Feliciano et al., 2010). Research findings indicate that the above cross-contamination prospect could be substantially reduced via the use of chemically treated ice (Feliciano et al., 2010;Phuvasate and Su, 2010), suggesting an alternative decontamination technology of potential value for the seafood industry. ...
... Seafood products are usually chilled with ice, aiming at delay of autolysis and quality retention and retardation of bacterial growth during storage, with melting ice, however, constituting a potential source of cross-contamination if not discarded properly (Feliciano et al., 2010). Research findings indicate that the above cross-contamination prospect could be substantially reduced via the use of chemically treated ice (Feliciano et al., 2010;Phuvasate and Su, 2010), suggesting an alternative decontamination technology of potential value for the seafood industry. More specifically, Phuvasate and Su (2010) demonstrated that a treatment of electrolyzed oxidizing ice (100 ppm chlorine) for 24 h resulted in considerable reductions of histamine-producing bacteria on tuna skin and that, consequently, electrolyzed oxidizing ice may 43 be regarded as a promising post-harvest decontamination treatment for fish. ...
... More specifically, Phuvasate and Su (2010) demonstrated that a treatment of electrolyzed oxidizing ice (100 ppm chlorine) for 24 h resulted in considerable reductions of histamine-producing bacteria on tuna skin and that, consequently, electrolyzed oxidizing ice may 43 be regarded as a promising post-harvest decontamination treatment for fish. According to the results of another study, although sanitized ice appeared not to significantly reduce the bacterial load on Tilapia fish fillets, addition of sanitizers (i.e., a neutral electrolyzed water sanitizer or an organic acid formulation) to ice used to store seafood holds promise for reducing the bacterial load of melting water (Feliciano et al., 2010). ...
Chapter
Decontamination of food products using organic acids and other chemical treatments has been and continues to be one of the most important interventions for controlling their microbiological safety and quality. This chapter first covers aspects pertinent to the principles and technology of decontamination with chemical agents, and then reviews food decontamination applications of chemical treatments, with a particular emphasis on organic acids, as well as information regarding their mode of action and effectiveness against spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria. Additional topics discussed in the chapter include potential effects of chemical decontamination on food quality, concerns and risks other than food quality associated with this type of intervention, and regulatory aspects of its implementation.
... It not only has the advantage of tap water ice but also has the potential to be bactericidal (Lin et al. 2013a, b). Feliciano et al. (2010) investigated the efficacy of EW ice for inhibiting the microbial growth on whole tilapia, tilapia fillet and water during storage. The result showed that EW ice has the ability to reduce the numbers used EW ice to preserve the quality of Pacific saury and their results showed that EW ice could markedly decrease the growth of aerobic and psychrotrophic bacteria. ...
... EW and EW ice should be suggested as a measure of post-harvest treatment on food contact surfaces and on the skin to reduce histamine-producing bacteria. Feliciano et al. (2010), Xuan et al. (2017) indicated that SAEW-ice treatment delayed the appearance of browning and softening and inhibited the increase of peroxide value (POV) and maintained relatively low thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) contents. EW ice has the potential to inhibit the deterioration of seafood and guarantee the food safety during storage, which could be a new approach worthy of further investigation. ...
Chapter
Foods of animal origin, such as red meat and poultry products, are primary sources of superior protein for humans. With the production and consumption of these products increasing rapidly in recent decades, microbial safety and food quality are vital issues. Electrolyzed water (EW) as a sanitizer has awakened high interest in the food industry of many countries. The use of EW to decontaminate fresh red meat, ready-to-eat meat, poultry and shell eggs has been effective in reducing pathogenic microorganisms. Moreover, EW presents many advantages over traditional decontaminants; it provides effective antimicrobial activity and is environmentally friendly, simple to handle and relatively inexpensive. However, no complete elimination of pathogens on red meat and chicken meat was obtained after treatment of the meats with EW. This result probably occurs because organic matter and blood residue were present. This chapter provides a brief overview of how EW treatment affects foods of animal origin, especially the microbial safety and the physicochemical and sensory qualities of the food.
... EW has been investigated either as EW alone or combination with other sanitizers (Huang et al. 2006a,b;Ozer and Demirci 2006;Feliciano et al. 2010). Forgháni and Oh (2013) evaluated the efficacy of SAEW when combined with ultrasound. ...
Article
Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and ebony-bamboo leaves complex extracts (EBLCE) were applied to extend the shelf life of the Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus). The changes of quality indicators, including total viable count, total volatile basic nitrogen, peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid, pH values, whiteness and the sensory scores demonstrated that combination of SAEW and EBLCE had the strongest antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. Use of the combined pretreatment extended the shelf life for approximately 12 days, while pretreatment with SAEW or EBLCE alone resulted in 8-day extension when compared with the control group. Therefore, combined pretreatment with SAEW and EBLCE could effectively keep the freshness and prolong the shelf life of the Bombay duck.
... Importantly, bacteria which have contaminated products cannot be completely destroyed by the water ice-glazing and/or freezing processes (Wang et al., 2014). Once the water ice-glazing are removed from shrimp products and the shrimp experiences temperature abuse, the bacteria multiply very quickly and further exacerbate the spoilage (Feliciano, Lee, Lopes, & Pascall, 2010). ...
Article
The combined effect of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW) ice-glazing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) treatment on the quality of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during frozen storage was investigated in terms of microbiological activity, TVBN, TMA and TBARS content, texture, color and volatile flavor analysis. As a result, significantly (p < 0.05) higher inhibitor effects on total aerobes and Staphylococcus aureus were observed in WAEW ice-glazed shrimp packaged in 40% CO2 + 10% O2 + 50% N2 or in 30% CO2 + 20% O2 + 50% N2 than the water- and WAEW ice-glazed batches. Additionally, chemical analysis results showed that WAEW ice-glazing combined with MAP was highly effective in maintaining lower TVBN, TMA and TBARS values in frozen shrimp, perhaps due to the synergistic effect of antibacterial and antioxidant abilities. On the other hand, the texture, L*, and a* results also confirmed that this combined treatment effectively retarded the degradation of the physical structure of shrimp muscle and showed a positive effect on the stability of color during frozen storage. However, the presence of WAEW ice-glaze showed a negative effect on the volatile flavor of thawed shrimp due to the volatile chlorine and chlorine dioxide, but no significant effect in the cooked samples. Overall, the application of WAEW ice-glazing combined with MAP on peeled frozen shrimp is advisable to achieve better quality maintenance and extend the shelf-life of refrigerated products.
... ective to reduce bacteria on fish skin. This result suggested that EW ice treatment, reducing microbial load on fish skin, can reduce the possibility of cross-contamination when fish fillet is prepared. In the same study, EW containing 50 ppm of chlorine resulted in a good sanitiser to eliminate histamine-producing bacteria on food-contact surface. Feliciano et al. (2010) evaluated the efficacy of sanitised ice in reducing bacterial load on fish fillet and in the water collected from the melted ice. The results of this study showed that the sanitised ice allows to reduce the microbial load on raw fish fillet and minimise the microbial growth in water collected from the melted ice. In fact, melting ice ma ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Food safety is a priority for the food industry and to achieve this result a correct plant sanitation programme is of the utmost importance. Among various disinfection techniques, an emerging one is represented by the use of electrolysed water (EW) as the disinfecting agent. The use of EW is compliant with the desire to find alternatives to chlorination and heat treatments, representing a green cleaning alternative to toxic disinfectants. EW is an activated liquid, obtained by passing a diluted saline solution (NaCl, KCl or MgCl2) through an electrolytic cell, thus causing the production from the anode side of electrolysed oxidising water, containing high dissolved oxygen, free chlorine and characterised by a low pH (2.3–2.7) and a high oxidation–reduction potential (ORP>1,000 mV). At the same time from the cathode side electrolysed reduced water is produced, with high pH (10.0–11.5), high dissolved hydrogen and low ORP (�800 to �900 mV). Unlike other chemical disinfectants, EW is not harmful for skin and mucous membranes and is quite easy to handle. Furthermore, the use of EW is relatively inexpensive and, above all, is a sustainable technique. Currently used sanitisers (e.g. glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, etc.) are effective, but their adverse effects on the environment are well known. Differently from these chemicals, the use of EW has a reduced impact on the environment and because of its properties, it may find several applications in the food industry. In this work, the characteristics and some EW applications as sustainable sanitation technique applied in the food industry are reported and discussed.
... However, bacteria cannot be inactivated effectively in tap water ice. In contrast to tap water ice, ice made from sanitized water such as electrolyzed water holds the potential to serve as bactericidal against microorganisms (Feliciano, Lee, Lopes, & Pascall, 2010). ...
... Furthermore, EW ice has demonstrated good preservation of the freshness and microbial quality of seafoods such as shrimps [32,33,34 ,35,36]. Feliciano et al. [32] reported that when fish fillet was stored with crashed neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) ice, the NEW ice considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice, thus lowering the potential risks of cross-contamination. Slightly acidic EW ice illustrated moderate effect of shelf life extension of squids [37 ], brown soles [38], and pomfrets [39]. ...
Article
Ice refrigeration is one of the most widely used methods for food preservation with the use of a low temperature to delay the growth of any microbial contaminants. The production of safe edible ice with antimicrobial properties is of importance to food safety and human health, and has attracted increasing interest in recent years. This manuscript summarizes the advancements of the recent technologies to produce activated ice containing bactericidal agents, which can be potentially applied for the microbial decontamination and freshness retention of raw foods, such as fresh vegetables, seafood and fisheries. Cold atmospheric plasma and acidic electrolysis of water are two technologies that have been recently proposed for the treatment of water that is intended for the production of safe ice. Additionally, the application of ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UVC-LED) irradiation for the efficient disinfection of the edible ice is also discussed.
... TBARS is a popular method to evaluate lipid oxidation and subsequently the quality of foods. It measures the amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) as a secondary product of the oxidation of PUFAs (Bremner 2003) in which modification of peroxide occurs that results in the production of materials such as aldehydes and ketones (Feliciano et al. 2010). Oxidative rancidity may be the primary concern for MA packaged fish's shelf life, especially for fatty fishes (Sivertsvik et al. 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of ready-to-cook (RTC) hilsa curry under not sealed pack as control, vacuum as T1, MAP-1 (50% CO2 & 50% N2) as T2, and MAP-2 (40% CO2 , 30 N2 & 30% O2) pack as T3 during storage at 4±1°C. For this purpose, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aerobic plate count (APC) of three samples from each treatment were analyzed at four days interval during 28 days of storage. The pH and TVB-N values of RTC hilsa curry were within the standard limit in all samples during the storage period. However, significantly (p <0.05) lower values were observed on and after the 12th day for pH and 16th day for TVBN in all samples compared to the control. TBARS gradually increased from the 4th day for all samples except vacuum packaged sample. However, significantly (p <0.05) lower TBARS were observed in the vacuum and MAP-1 samples on and after the 8th day of storage compared to the control and MAP-2 samples. APCs gradually increased from the initial value of 5.25 log CFU/g with time in all samples. However, significantly (p <0.05) lower APCs were observed on and after the 16th day of storage in all samples compared to the control sample. The APCs exceeded the 7 log CFU/g, which is considered as the upper acceptable limit on approximately 16th day for the control, 24th day for vacuum, 22nd day for MAP-1, and 20th day for MAP-2 sample. Therefore, the vacuum packaging demonstrated the better results, which the superstores can utilize conveniently to display RTC hilsa curry with prolonged shelf life. J. Bio-Sci. 29(2): 71-79, 2021 (December)
... The speed of melting was determined for each of the ice treatments according to the method of Feliciano et al. (2010) with a slight modification. Ice cubes (dimensions: 1.5 × 1.5 × 2 cm; volume: 1 l) were placed into plastic trays (20 × 35 cm) that were left uncovered at 25ºC. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of ice containing thyme (0.04% w/v), oregano (0.03% w/v) and clove (0.02% w/v) extracts on formation and accumulation of biofilm on high density polyethylene coupons during chilling storage of anchovy was investigated. The results showed that ice containing plant-extracts had no antibiofilm activity (p>0.05) against adherent mesophilic and Pseudomonas spp. bacteria during the early stages (<3 days) of film formation and did not prevent biofilm adhesion. After 6 days of storage, significant inhibition on biofilm formation and accumulation (p<0.05) on high density polyethylene coupons was observed in the presence of plant extracts in ice; however, none of these plant extracts was able to inhibit cell adhesion completely. A lower biofilm inhibition (p<0.05) was observed with ice incorporated with thyme and clove-extracts after 9 and 12 days of storage compared to biofilm control, when a biofilm-reduction in adherent cell number (0.4 to 0.9 log cfu per coupon) was obtained for both microorganism indicators. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the effect of ice containing oregano-extract on biofilm formation and accumulation.
... Several forms of interventions have thus been recommended to reduce the risks from L. monocytogenes in these products: (1) elimination or reduction of L. monocytogenes on the outside surface of frozen or fresh fish before filleting, (2) prevention of recontamination and growth of L. monocytogenes during all stages of processing, and (3) the inhibition of any possible survivors or recontamination during processing and distribution [44]. Numerous papers have been published on the inhibition of L. monocytogenes in cold smoked fish using physical interventions including gamma irradiation [47], X-ray irradiation [48], E-beam [49], highpressure processing [50], chemical preservatives [51][52][53], natural antimicrobials [54,55], and protective cultures [56,57]. Extensive research has also been performed in the last decade on the application of antimicrobial packaging to specifically enhance the safety and extend the shelf life of fish and fish products. ...
Article
Full-text available
The relatively high incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in cold smoked salmon (CSS) is of concern as it is a refrigerated processed food of extended durability (REPFED). The objectives of this study were to compare and optimize the antimicrobial effectiveness of films and coatings incorporating nisin (Nis) and sodium lactate (SL), sodium diacetate (SD), potassium sorbate (PS), and/or sodium benzoate (SB) in binary or ternary combinations on CSS. Surface treatments incorporating Nis (25000 IU/mL) in combination with PS (0.3%) and SB (0.1%) had the highest inhibitory activity, reducing the population of L. monocytogenes by a maximum of 3.3 log CFU/cm(2) (films) and 2.9 log CFU/cm(2) (coatings) relative to control samples after 10 days of storage at 21°C. During refrigerated storage, coatings were more effective in inhibiting growth of L. monocytogenes than their film counterparts. Cellulose-based coatings incorporating Nis, PS, and SB reduced the population of L. monocytogenes, and anaerobic and aerobic spoilage flora by a maximum of 4.2, 4.8, and 4.9 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, after 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. This study highlights the effectiveness of cellulose-based edible coatings incorporating generally regarded as safe (GRAS) natural and chemical antimicrobials to inhibit the development of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microflora thus enhancing the safety and quality of CSS.
... Mandal et al. [27] also detected E. coli in Nile tilapia muscle samples, but many authors believe that the muscle is a relatively innocuous tissue [28][29][30]. Nevertheless, the muscle may be contaminated during harvesting, a stressful process which often causes injury to the body surface, and/or during storage on contaminated ice [31,32]. Molinari et al. [33] add that E. coli is commonly found in the gut of the tilapia; thus, to these authors, its presence in the muscle is an indication of poor handling practices. ...
Article
Full-text available
The contamination of seafood by bacteria of fecal origin, especially Escherichia coli, is a widely documented sanitary problem. The objective of the present study was to isolate E. coli strains from the gills, muscle, and body surface of farmed Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) fresh-marketed in supermarkets in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil), to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics of different families (amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim), and to determine the nature of resistance by plasmid curing. Forty-four strains (body surface = 25, gills = 15, muscle = 4) were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Gill and body surface samples yielded 11 isolates resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, 4 of which of plasmidial nature. The multiple antibiotic resistance index was higher for strains isolated from body surface than from gills. The overall high antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli strains isolated from fresh-marketed tilapia was satisfactory, although the occasional finding of plasmidial resistance points to the need for close microbiological surveillance of the farming, handling, and marketing conditions of aquaculture products.
... Although E. coli is a commensal species in humans and animals, pathogenic variants, for example Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), exist. Previous studies on different food types such as milk, vegetables, or fish, have also used P. putida as an example of spoilage organisms and E. coli as an example of pathogenic bacteria (Gunasekera et al., 2002;Feliciano et al., 2010;Settanni et al., 2013). ...
Article
Biofilms represent a substantial problem in the food industry, with food spoilage, equipment failure and public health aspects to consider. Besides, biofilms may be a hot-spot for plasmid transfer, by which antibiotic resistance can be disseminated to potential foodborne pathogens. This study investigated biomass and plasmid transfer in dual-species (Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli) biofilm models relevant for the food industry. Two different configurations (flow through and drip flow) and two different inoculation procedures (donor-recipient and recipient-donor) were tested. The drip flow configuration integrated stainless steel coupons in the setup while the flow through configuration included a glass flow cell and silicon tubing. The highest biomass density (10 log (cells cm(-) ²)) was obtained in the silicone tubing when first the recipient strain was inoculated. High plasmid transfer ratios, up to 1/10 (transconjugants/total bacteria), were found. Depending on the order of inoculation, a difference in transfer efficiency between the biofilm models could be found. The ease by which the multiresistance plasmid was transferred highlights the importance of biofilms in the food industry as hot spots for the acquisition of multiresistance plasmids. This can impede the treatment of foodborne illnesses if pathogens acquire this multiresistance in or from the biofilm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... This study established that agitation helps EW to react with bacterial cells more efficiently [57]. Feliciano evaluated the combination of NEW and an organic acidic sanitizer PRO-SAN [58], both as ice flakes on filleted tilapia fish. Fillets were inoculated with Listeria innocua, E. coli K-12, and Pseudomona putida. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food demand is increasing every year and, usually animal-derived products are generated far from consumer-places. New technologies are being developed to preserve quality characteristics during processing and transportation. One of them is electrolyzed water (EW) that helps to avoid or decrease the development of foodborne pathogens, or losses by related bacteria. Initially, EW was used in ready-to-eat foods such as spinach, lettuce, strawberries, among others; however, its application in other products is under study. Every product has unique characteristics that require an optimized application of EW. Different sanitizers have been developed; unfortunately, they could have undesirable effects like deterioration of quality or alterations in sensory properties. Therefore, EW is gaining popularity in the food industry due to its characteristics: easy application and storage, no corrosion of work surfaces, absence of mucosal membrane irritation in workers handling food, and it is considered environmentally friendly. This review highlights the advantages of using EW in animal products like chicken, pork, beef, eggs and fish to preserve their safety and quality.
... Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) is a popular method to evaluate lipid oxidation, and thus the quality of food. TBARS index is used to measure the amount of malonaldehyde, a secondary product of the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Bremner, 2002), in which, modification of peroxide occurs, thus resulted in the production of materials such as aldehydes and ketones (Feliciano et al., 2010). For TBARS value, the acceptable limit is 2 mg malonaldehyde/kg fish sample, and when this limit is exceeded, an obnoxious odour and taste build up will be observed in fish (Connell, 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
Vacuum packaging and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) are important techniques used for the extension of shelf life of fish and its products. This study evaluated the quality and shelf life of Rohu fish (Labeo rohita) by biochemical and microbiological analysis under different packaging types such as not sealed pack (control), vacuum pack, MAP-1 (50% CO2 and 50% N2) and MAP-2 (50% CO2 and 50% O2) at three days interval during 18 days of refrigerated storage (4°C). In this study, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value for all packaging conditions were within the acceptable limit during the storage period except TBARS value in MAP-2 sample. The total viable count (TVC) gradually increased with the progress of time in all packaging conditions. However, the TVC values were significantly (p < 0.05) lower on 9th and 12th day of storage in MAP samples compared to that of the control sample. Considering the total bacterial counts, 7 log CFU/g, the shelf life was determined at approximately 8, 11, 13, and 16 days for control, vacuum pack, MAP-2 and MAP-1 sample, respectively. Therefore, the MAP is recommended to display and preserve fishes in the superstores.
... The speed of melting was determined for each of the ice treatments according to the method of Feliciano et al. (2010) with a slight modification. Ice cubes (dimensions: 1.5 × 1.5 × 2 cm; volume: 1 l) were placed into plastic trays (20 × 35 cm) that were left uncovered at 25ºC. ...
Article
Full-text available
accumulation of biofilm on high density polyethylene coupons during chilling storage of anchovy was investigated. The results showed that ice containing plant-extracts had no antibiofilm activity (p>0.05) against adherent mesophilic and Pseudomonas spp. bacteria during the early stages (< 3 days) of film formation and did not prevent biofilm adhesion. After 6 days of storage, significant inhibition on biofilm formation and accumulation (p<0.05) on high density polyethylene coupons was observed in the presence of plant extracts in ice; however, none of these plant extracts was able to inhibit cell adhesion completely. A lower biofilm inhibition (p<0.05) was observed with ice incorporated with thyme and clove-extracts after 9 and 12 days of storage compared to biofilm control, when a biofilm-reduction in adherent cell number (0.4 to 0.9 log cfu per coupon) was obtained for both microorganism indicators. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the effect of ice containing oregano-extract on biofilm formation and accumulation. Keywords: Antibiofilm activity, Fish, Icing, Plant extracts, Total phenolic content
Article
The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) fish products is well documented and represents an important food safety concern. Contamination of this pathogen in vacuum-packed (VP) smoked fish products at levels greater than the RTE food limit (100 CFU/g) has been traced to factors such as poor sanitary practices, contaminated processing environments, and temperature abuse during prolonged storage in retail outlets. Intervention technologies including physical, biological, and chemical techniques have been studied to control transmission of L. monocytogenes to these products. High-pressure processing, irradiation, and pulsed UV-light treatment have shown promising results. Potential antilisterial effects of some sanitizers and combined chemical preservatives have also been demonstrated. Moreover, the concept of biopreservation, use of bioactive packaging, and a combination of different intervention technologies, as in the hurdle concept, are also under consideration. In this review, the prevalence, routes of contamination, and potential intervention technologies to control transmission of L. monocytogenes in VP smoked fish products are discussed.
Article
The combined effects of a sanitizer mixture solution and antimicrobial ice on the quality of salted Chinese cabbages were examined. Salted Chinese cabbages were treated with a sanitizer mixture (comprised 50 ppm aqueous ClO2and 0.5% citric acid), packed in 2% brine and antimicrobial ice, and stored for 12 days at 4 and 10°C. Microbiological data on the salted Chinese cabbages after washing with the sanitizer mixture indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria, and yeast and molds decreased by 2.20 and 1.28 log CFU/g after treatment with the sanitizer mixture. In addition, coliforms population of salted Chinese cabbage after 12 days storage at 4°C in the combined mixture of the sanitizer and antimicrobial ice was 3.22 log CFU/g, which was a significantly different from that of control (5.46 log CFU/g). The combined treatment of sanitizer mixture, antimicrobial ice, and low temperature at 4°C suppressed reduction of pH and elevation of titratable acidity, resulting in delaying the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Differences in salinity, hardness, and Hunter's L*, a*, and b* values among treatments were negligible during storage at 4°C. Therefore, this study suggests that a combination of sanitizer mixture, antimicrobial ice treatment, and low temperature storage could improve the microbial safety and quality of salted Chinese cabbages during storage. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
Article
In this study, a biofilm growth reactor system is used to study dual-species biofilms and the efficacy of plasmid transfer within biofilms. The finding that high-efficient plasmid transfer could easily take place within biofilms could be of great importance for addressing the issue of potential problems with biofilms in food industry. Abstract Biofilms represent a substantial problem in the food industry, with food spoilage, equipment failure, and public health aspects to consider. Besides, biofilms may be a hot spot for plasmid transfer, by which antibiotic resistance can be disseminated to potential foodborne pathogens. This study investigated biomass and plasmid transfer in dual-species (Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli) biofilm models relevant to the food industry. Two different configurations (flow-through and drip-flow) and two different inoculation procedures (donor–recipient and recipient– donor) were tested. The drip-flow configuration integrated stainless steel coupons in the setup while the flow-through configuration included a glass flow cell and silicone tubing. The highest biomass density [10 log (cells cm-²)] was obtained in the silicone tubing when first the recipient strain was inoculated. High plasmid transfer ratios, up to 1/10 (transconjugants/total bacteria), were found. Depending on the order of inoculation, a difference in transfer efficiency between the biofilm models could be found. The ease by which the multiresistance plasmid was transferred highlights the importance of biofilms in the food industry as hot spots for the acquisition of multiresistance plasmids. This can impede the treatment of foodborne illnesses if pathogens acquire this multiresistance in or from the biofilm.
Chapter
The growing demand for safe, minimally processed food and the disadvantages of traditional chemical- and heat-based methods of microbial decontamination have meant that new technologies are emerging for high quality, effective decontamination of food. Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) is electrolyzed soft tap water with sodium chloride added. The user- and environmentally-friendly status of this method, coupled with its low cost, makes it an effective and suitable method for microbial decontamination. This chapter provides an overview of the production, properties and applications of EOW, as well as a section on potential future trends.
Article
Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice is a novel technique for prolonging the shelf-life of foods, but there is limited knowledge of its preservation mechanism. A proteomics approach and 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing were employed to investigate the changes of key proteins and bacterial communities in shrimps stored in AEW ice and tap water ice (TW ice) for 7 days. Compared with TW ice, AEW ice markedly retards the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in shrimps, including myosin, actin and tropomyosin. Besides, sarcoplasmatic proteins which participate in carbohydrate catabolic process and amino acid metabolism were also influenced. Furthermore, the growth of spoilage bacteria which includes the genera Psychrobacter, Shewanella and Flavobacterium was significantly inhibited by AEW ice, and the inhibition rate at day 7 was 71.6%, 47.8% and 100% respectively (p<0.05). Further correlation analysis showed the links between spoilage bacteria and protein changes can be broken by AEW ice treatment. Collectively, our findings indicated AEW ice can improve the quality of shrimps via previously undescribed mechanisms, which retarded the degradation of myofibrillar proteins and inhibited the growth of spoilage bacteria.
Chapter
The aquaculture industry has witnessed a continuous rapid growth over the last two decades from a combination of increased seafood consumption and production. These aquatic products filled a niche in the modern demand for alternate sources of protein. Electrolyzed water (EW), a novel non-thermal technique, is currently being used as an environmental-friendly sanitizer, and frozen electrolyzed water ice (EW ice) has emerged as an alternative method for improving the safety and quality of seafood. EW and EW ice whilst reducing microbial contamination also contribute to extending the shelf life of aquatic products compared to conventional sanitizers. This present chapter provides a comprehensive guide to the application of EW and EW ice on aquatic products and offers clear perspectives for a global adoption of EW in the seafood industry.
Article
Electrolyzed water ice is a relatively new concept developed in food industry in recent years. The effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice on preserving the quality of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Physical, chemical and microbiological changes of the shrimp were examined during the storage. The results showed that compared with tap water (TW) ice, AEW ice displayed a potential ability in limiting the pH changes of shrimp flesh, significantly (p<0.05) retarded the changes of color difference and the formation of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN). And AEW ice treatment had no adverse effects on the firmness of shrimp. Conventional plate count enumeration and PCR-DGGE demonstrated that AEW ice had a capability to inhibit growth of bacteria on raw shrimp, and the maximum reductions of population reached at >1.0 log CFU/g (>90%) at the 6th day. Moreover, AEW ice was clearly more efficient in maintaining the initial attachments between muscle fibers in shrimp according to histological section analysis. Based on above analysis, AEW ice can be a new alternative of traditional sanitizer to better preserve the quality of seafood in the future.
Article
Full-text available
Raman spectroscopic analysis has been used to identify the chemical species that exist in aqueous chlorine solution. The pH dependence of the Raman spectra obtained indicates that there :is an equilibrium among hypochlorite ion, hypochlorous acid and chlorine. Bactericidal activities of the acidic electrolyzed water, which is generated by electrolysis of an aqueous NaCl solution, were evaluated in the pH range 2-9 against Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis PCI219 by a semi-quantitative bioassay. The maximum activity was observed between pH 4 and 5 in both bacteria. The Raman and the ultraviolet spectroscopic data, along with chemical analysis data, were used to conclude that the bactericidal activity is quantitatively correlated to the concentration of hypochlorous acid in solution.
Article
Full-text available
Water of high quality is or will become a scarce commodity in many areas. Food production and processing require large amounts of water of varying quality. Water reuse during food production and processing occurs and will likely increase in the future. Wastewater has been used for food production for many years in some locations. Awareness of the close association between water and food-borne disease is growing and thus there is a need to develop rational water use management plans within the food industry that maximize health protection. The food processing industry has long used hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) programmes to make their products safer. There is a trend in water supply to implement similar programmes. This article will focus on water quality and quantity issues in food production and in the factory. For food production, it is important to understand how water demand, sources of pollution, water reuse and contamination of food through water affect food safety.
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7, S. enteritidis, or L. monocytogenes of approximately 10(8) CFU/ml was inoculated in 9 ml of electrolyzed oxidizing water (treatment) or 9 ml of sterile, deionized water (control) and incubated at 4 or 23 degrees C for 0, 5, 10, and 15 min; at 35 degrees C for 0, 2, 4, and 6 min; or at 45 degrees C for 0, 1, 3, and 5 min. The surviving population of each pathogen at each sampling time was determined on tryptic soy agar. At 4 or 23 degrees C, an exposure time of 5 min reduced the populations of all three pathogens in the treatment samples by approximately 7 log CFU/ml, with complete inactivation by 10 min of exposure. A reduction of >/=7 log CFU/ml in the levels of the three pathogens occurred in the treatment samples incubated for 1 min at 45 degrees C or for 2 min at 35 degrees C. The bacterial counts of all three pathogens in control samples remained the same throughout the incubation at all four temperatures. Results indicate that electrolyzed oxidizing water may be a useful disinfectant, but appropriate applications need to be validated.
Article
Full-text available
To better quantify the impact of foodborne diseases on health in the United States, we compiled and analyzed information from multiple surveillance systems and other sources. We estimate that foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the United States each year. Known pathogens account for an estimated 14 million illnesses, 60, 000 hospitalizations, and 1,800 deaths. Three pathogens, Salmonella, Listeria, and Toxoplasma, are responsible for 1,500 deaths each year, more than 75% of those caused by known pathogens, while unknown agents account for the remaining 62 million illnesses, 265,000 hospitalizations, and 3,200 deaths. Overall, foodborne diseases appear to cause more illnesses but fewer deaths than previously estimated.
Article
Full-text available
On average, only 30-40% of the global fishery production is consumed fresh and the rest 60-70% is processed for human consumption and other purposes. Although the proportion of the total fishery production that are processed remained relatively stable over the last decade, the total bulk of processed fishery commodity increased due to the steady increase in the total fishery production. Processing of large bulk of fish, shrimp and other aquatic organisms produces a corresponding large bulk of by-products and wastes. Although recent trend shows that much of these wastes are made into various value added products, considerable quantities are discharged as the processing effluents with large volume of waters used in processing. Reports suggest that fish and shrimp processing effluents are very high in biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), fat-oil-grease (FOG), pathogenic and other microflora, organic matters and nutrients, etc. Fish and shrimp processing effluents are, therefore, highly likely to produce adverse effects on the receiving coastal and marine environments. Although substantial reduction of the waste loads is possible by applying available simple techniques, this is not in practice in most part of the world due to lack of proper managerial and regulatory approach. The present paper reviews the characteristics of fish and shrimp processing effluents as a potential source of coastal and marine pollution and, using the existing data, analyzes the global production and discharge of waste loads from the processing plants and discusses available options for waste treatment and management.
Article
Full-text available
Chlorine is widely used as a sanitizer to maintain the microbial quality and safety of fresh-cut produce; however, chlorine treatment lacks efficacy on pathogen reduction, especially when the fresh-cut processing water contains heavy organic loads. A more efficacious sanitizer that can tolerate the commercial processing conditions is needed to maintain microbial safety of fresh-cut produce. This study evaluated the efficacy of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reduction on fresh-cut carrots using new and traditional sanitizers with tap water and fresh-cut processing water scenarios. Fresh-cut carrot shreds inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 were washed in sanitizer solutions including 200 ppm chlorine, citric acid-based sanitizer (Pro-San), 80 ppm peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer (Tsunami 100), and 1,000 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (SANOVA) prepared in fresh tap water or simulated processing water with a chemical oxygen demand level of approximately 3,500 mg/liter. Samples were packaged and stored at 5 degrees C. Microbial analyses performed at days 0, 7, and 14 indicate that the organic load in the process water significantly affected the efficacy of chlorine on pathogen removal and was especially evident on samples tested during storage. Acidified sodium chlorite provided a strong pathogen reduction even under process water conditions with up to a 5.25-log reduction when compared with the no-wash control. E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered on acidified sodium chlorite-treated samples during the entire 14 days of storage, even following an enrichment step. These results suggest that acidified sodium chlorite holds considerable promise as an alternative sanitizer of fresh-cut produce.
Article
Full-text available
Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encourage fish consumption among the general population because of the nutritional benefits. The Harvard Center for Risk Analysis convened an expert panel (see acknowledgements) to quantify the net impact of resulting hypothetical changes in fish consumption across the population. This paper estimates the impact of fish consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). Other papers quantify stroke risk and the impacts of both prenatal MeHg exposure and maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive development. This analysis identified articles in a recent qualitative review appropriate for the development of a dose-response relationship. Studies had to satisfy quality criteria, quantify fish intake, and report the precision of the relative risk estimates. Relative risk results were averaged, weighted proportionately by precision. CHD risks associated with MeHg exposure were reviewed qualitatively because the available literature was judged inadequate for quantitative analysis. Eight studies were identified (29 exposure groups). Our analysis estimated that consuming small quantities of fish is associated with a 17% reduction in CHD mortality risk, with each additional serving per week associated with a further reduction in this risk of 3.9%. Small quantities of fish consumption were associated with risk reductions in nonfatal MI risk by 27%, but additional fish consumption conferred no incremental benefits.
Article
This article describes a procedure for either amperometric or potentiometric determination of iodine formed by the oxidation of iodide by chlorine dioxide, chlorine, chlorite, and chlorate. Either phenylarsine oxide or sodium thiosulfate can be used as the titrant. Sample pretreatment and pH adjustment are used to differentiate among the various chlorine species.
Article
SUMMARY Critical to the understanding of foodborne illness outbreaks is the identification of both the contaminated food item and the responsible pathogen, allowing traceback to the original source of contamination and subsequent intervention. The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) maintains a database of foodborne illness outbreaks categorized by food vehicle, compiled from sources including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, state health departments, and scientific journals. Between 1990 and 2003, the foods most commonly linked to outbreaks with identified vehicles were seafood (n = 899), produce (n = 554), poultry (n = 476), beef (n = 438), and eggs (n = 329). Multi-ingredient foods, including pizza and sandwiches, were linked to 812 outbreaks. Overall, 27% (1229/ 4486) of the outbreaks were attributed to meats, including beef, poultry, pork, and luncheon meats, while 66% (2954/4486) of outbreaks were linked to other food items. Seven percent (303/4486) were linked to multiple food vehicles. Our findings demonstrate the value of routinely linking outbreaks to specific foods and illustrate the importance of using a consistent, common-sense food categorization scheme for all food safety stakeholders. Food attribution and categorization allow consumers to more readily assess food safety hazards and provide better information on which to base policy decisions.
Article
Acidic electrolyzed water (acidic EW), which is prepared by the electrolysis of an aqueous NaCl solution, has recently become of great importance for disinfection in a variety of fields, including medicine, the food industry and agriculture. In a previous paper we showed that: 1) acidic EW is a mixture of hypocholorite ion, hypochlorous acid and chlorine, depending upon the pH; 2) hypochlorous acid is primarily responsible for disinfection in the case of Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis PCI219, both in clean culture media. In practice, however, the use of acidic EW is in many cases severely hampered due to the presence of a variety of non-selective reducing agents. In view of the salient nature of acidic EW, it is therefore strongly urged to establish an optimum way to use acidic EW in a variety of systems. The present paper is the first report on our attempt along this line in order to characterize the nature of the chemical changes that the bactericidal activity of the acidic EW deteriorates in the presence of organic materials, which include amino acids and proteins.
Article
Ozone is a strong oxidant and potent disinfecting agent. Even though it is new for the US, it has been utilized in European countries for a long time. Ultraviolet radiation (188 nm wavelength) and corona discharge methods can be used to generate ozone. The bactericidal effects of ozone have been documented on a wide variety of organisms, including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as spores and vegetative cells. In this review, chemical and physical properties of ozone, its generation, and antimicrobial power of ozone with two suggested mechanisms were explained as well as many advantages of ozone use in the food industry. There are numerous application areas of ozone in the industry such as food surface hygiene, sanitation of food plant equipment, reuse of waste water, treatment and lowering biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of food plant waste. Treating fruits and vegetables with ozone has been found to increase shelf-life of the products. Notably, when ozone is applied to food, it leaves no residues since it decomposes quickly. In this review, use of ozone in food industry was discussed.
Article
The minimal processing industry for fruit and vegetables needs appropriate selection of raw materials and operation of improved sustainable strategies for reducing losses and providing high quality and safe commodities. The most important target for keeping overall quality of these commodities is a decrease in microbial spoilage flora as these cause both decay and safety problems. Every step in the production chain will influence microbial load and the implementation of an accurate disinfection program should be the main concern of commercial processing. The only step that reduces microbial load throughout the production chain is washing disinfection, and the keys are proper handling and optimizing existing techniques or a combination of them. Chlorine is a common efficient sanitation agent but there is the risk of undesirable by-products upon reaction with organic matter and this may lead to new regulatory restrictions in the future. Moreover, its efficacy is poor for some products. Consequently the minimal processing industry wants safer alternatives. Several antimicrobial washing solutions, O3, UV–C radiation, intense light pulses, super high O2, N2O and noble gases, alone or in combination, are presently considered promising treatments. However, change from use of conventional to innovative sanitizers requires knowledge of the benefits and restrictions as well as a practical outlook. This review addresses some recent results obtained with these eco-innovative sanitizers on fresh-cut plant commodities.
Article
This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of manual three-compartment dishwashing processes as a function of washing temperature/time, contaminating organic matter, sanitizing condition, and bacterial type. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses, stainless-steel forks, spoons and knives and plastic serving trays were contaminated with egg, cheese, jelly, lipstick and milk. Each was inoculated with E. coli and L. innocua. Greater than 5-log bacterial reductions were achieved for all samples after washing at the combination of low washing temperature (24 °C) and minimal sanitizer concentration (150 ppm), except for bacteria on the milk-contaminated regular glasses. The viability of the bacterial species was affected by both organic matter types and the washing water temperature. Although E. coli showed better survival when compared with L. innocua for jellied utensils, there was no significant difference in survival between them for all other washing conditions. The use of quaternary ammonium compounds had similar killing effect against both bacteria.
Article
Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has been regarded as a new sanitizer in recent years. Production of EO water needs only water and salt (sodium chloride). EO water have the following advantages over other traditional cleaning agents: effective disinfection, easy operation, relatively inexpensive, and environmentally friendly. The main advantage of EO water is its safety. EO water which is also a strong acid, is different to hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid in that it is not corrosive to skin, mucous membrane, or organic material. Electrolyzed water has been tested and used as a disinfectant in the food industry and other applications. Combination of EO water and other measures are also possible. This review includes a brief overview of issues related to the electrolyzed water and its effective cleaning of food surfaces in food processing plants and the cleaning of animal products and fresh produce.
Article
Fresh-cut cilantro is particularly susceptible to microbial growth and, therefore, use of an effective sanitizer on this product is of great importance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different sanitizing treatments on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations, aerobic mesophilic bacterial, yeast and mould counts on fresh-cut cilantro. Cut cilantro was treated with sodium hypochlorite (SH) at 0.2 g L−1 free chlorine and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) at 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g L−1, along with the components of ASC, i.e., citric acid (CA) at 6 g L−1 and sodium chlorite (SC) at 1 g L−1. In the present study, it was found that SH inactivated, at maximum, 1–1.3 log cfu g−1 of background or pathogenic microflora present on cut cilantro. However, reductions of more than 3 log cfu g−1 were observed after washing with 1 g L−1 of ASC. Moreover, when lower concentrations of ASC were used (0.25 and 0.5 g L−1), microbial populations were reduced by about 2 log cfu g−1. SC was as effective as ASC at 1 g L−1 in reducing aerobic mesophilic bacteria and E. coli O157:H7 populations, although it was not as effective as ASC in reducing yeast and mould populations.
Article
This study investigated residual bacteria and different food types left on tableware items after various washing and sanitization protocols. Escherichia coli K-12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis were inoculated into whole milk and soft cream cheese. The milk was used to contaminate regular drinking glasses and the cheese was used to contaminate plates and silverware. These tableware items were washed in manual (43 degrees C) and mechanical (49 degrees C) washers and sanitized with different sanitizers (24 degrees C) for 5 s. Quaternary ammonium compound, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), and a combination of citric acid with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (acidic formulation) were used as the chemical sanitizers. Tap water was used as a control. Results showed that at least 5-log reductions in both bacterial numbers were achieved for all sanitizers in both types of washers, except for the control. With mechanical dishwashing, the NEW and acidic formulation treatments reduced bacterial populations by >6.9 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. With the manual operation, bacterial numbers were reduced by >5.4 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. This study revealed that NEW and the acidic formulation are as effective as the other chemical sanitizers for food contact surface sanitization in manual and mechanical ware washing.
Article
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a strong oxidizing agent that can be applied in solution as well as in the gaseous state. It has bactericidal, fungicidal and viricidal properties. Several food-related microorganisms, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, mould spores and Bacillus cereus spores were tested for their susceptibility to 0.08 mg/L gaseous ClO2 during 1 min at a relative humidity of 90%. In this screening, the resistance of the different groups of microorganisms towards gaseous ClO2 generally increased in the order Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts and mould spores and Bacillus cereus spores. With this treatment, reductions of microbial numbers between 0.1 and 3.5 log cfu/cm2 could be achieved. The effects of the food components starch, fat, protein and NaCl on the antimicrobial activity of gaseous ClO2 were also evaluated. Soluble starch, corn oil, butter, whey protein isolate and NaCl were added in incremental concentrations to portions of an agar medium. Then, plates of the supplemented agars were inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroïdes at numbers of 4 log cfu/cm2 and subsequently treated with ClO2. Both soluble starch and NaCl did not have an effect on the antimicrobial efficiency of ClO2. However, butter, corn oil or whey protein in the agar almost eliminated the antimicrobial effect of ClO2. In corn oil-water emulsions treated with gaseous ClO2 the peroxide value increased significantly, indicating the formation of primary oxidation products. Similarly, a treatment with ClO2 increased the protein carbonyl content and induced the transformation of SH-groups to -S-S-groups in whey protein. The findings suggest that gaseous ClO2 will be a highly effective decontaminating agent for carbohydrate-rich foods, but that it would be less effective for the decontamination of high-protein and fatty foods.
Article
A sensor with potential for the development of a "chemical barcode" for real-time monitoring of fish freshness is described. This on-package sensor contains a pH sensitive dye, bromocresol green, that responds through visible colour change to basic volatile spoilage compounds, such as trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia (NH(3)) and dimethylamine (DMA) collectively known as Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N). The sensor characteristics were studied as well as its response with standard ammonia gas. Trials on cod and under-utilised species have verified that the sensor response correlates with bacterial growth patterns in fish samples thus enabling the "real-time" monitoring of spoilage in various fish species. The sensor response can be interrogated with a simple, inexpensive reflectance colorimeter that we have developed based on two light emitting diodes (LEDs) and a photodetector.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of monolaurin and lactic acid, singly or combined, on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets. Skinless catfish fillets were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and dip treated in monolaurin and/or lactic acid solution for various time periods. Results showed that monolaurin up to 400 micrograms/ml had no influence on counts. Conversely, lactic acid-treated fillets had reduced counts compared to controls. Dipping in 0.85, 1.70, or 2.55% lactic acid for 30 min reduced counts by 0.9, 1.4, or 1.3 logs, respectively. Extending the dipping time to 60 min resulted in little additional decrease in counts. Combining monolaurin with lactic acid yielded results similar to lactic acid alone. Hence, population reduction ability resides with lactic acid and not monolaurin.
Article
Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.
Article
Seafood-associated disease outbreaks in New York were examined to describe their epidemiology and to identify areas for prevention and control efforts. We reviewed reports submitted to the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) of seafood-associated outbreaks occurring from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1994. During 1980-1994, 339 seafood-associated outbreaks were reported, resulting in 3959 illnesses, 76 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. During this period, seafood-associated outbreaks accounted for 19% of all reported foodborne outbreaks and 10% of foodborne illnesses. Shellfish, the most frequently implicated seafood item, accounted for 64% of seafood outbreaks, followed by finfish (31% of outbreaks). Of the 148 seafood-associated outbreaks with a confirmed etiologic agent, Norwalk virus and scombrotoxin were the most frequently identified agents: Norwalk virus accounted for 42% of outbreaks and 42% of illnesses, and scombrotoxin accounted for 44% of outbreaks and 19% of illnesses. Three of the 4 seafood-associated deaths were caused by Clostridium botulinum; the remaining death was caused by Vibrio vulnificus. Reducing the number of seafood outbreaks will require continued and coordinated efforts by many different agencies, including those involved with water quality; disease surveillance; consumer education; and seafood harvesting, processing, and marketing. New York's foodborne disease surveillance data highlight potential areas on which to focus prevention efforts, including: (1) commodities and associated pathogens causing the largest number of seafood-associated outbreaks and illnesses, namely shellfish-associated viral gastroenteritis and finfish-associated scombroid fish poisoning, and (2) venues at which seafood were most frequently consumed in reported outbreaks, such as commercial food establishments and catered events.
Article
This study investigates the properties of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for the inactivation of pathogen and to evaluate the chemically modified solutions possessing properties similar to EO water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7. A five-strain cocktail (10(10) CFU/ml) of E. coli O157:H7 was subjected to deionized water (control), EO water with 10 mg/liter residual chlorine (J.A.W-EO water), EO water with 56 mg/liter residual chlorine (ROX-EO water), and chemically modified solutions. Inactivation (8.88 log10 CFU/ml reduction) of E. coli O157:H7 occurred within 30 s after application of EO water and chemically modified solutions containing chlorine and 1% bromine. Iron was added to EO or chemically modified solutions to reduce oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) readings and neutralizing buffer was added to neutralize chlorine. J.A.W-EO water with 100 mg/liter iron, acetic acid solution, and chemically modified solutions containing neutralizing buffer or 100 mg/liter iron were ineffective in reducing the bacteria population. ROX-EO water with 100 mg/liter iron was the only solution still effective in inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and having high ORP readings regardless of residual chlorine. These results suggest that it is possible to simulate EO water by chemically modifying deionized water and ORP of the solution may be the primary factor affecting microbial inactivation.
Article
Chlorine, used as an important disinfectant for drinking water, can react with naturally occurring organic matter to form chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Chloroform and other trihalomethanes have been shown to increase tumours of the liver, kidney or large intestine in rats or mice. The risk to man from these contaminants must be assessed carefully since there is considerable benefit associated with the use of chlorine. The weight of evidence suggests that chloroform is non-genotoxic and there are data, for each site, to indicate that tumours only occur at high doses where there is also tissue damage. Bromodichloromethane has also been shown to increase liver and kidney tumours but this and bromoform have been shown to increase large intestinal tumours in rats. The weight of evidence is that they are only weak genotoxins and they do not appear to be active in vivo. It is probable that the mechanism for the liver and kidney tumours is the same as for chloroform but the mechanism for the large intestinal tumours is uncertain. However, the toxicity and carcinogenicity of these substances is profoundly affected by dosing in corn oil. New studies suggest that dosing in drinking water would not result in increases in tumours. The evidence suggests that the use of a threshold approach, based on a tolerable daily intake, would be the most appropriate way of determining safe levels in drinking water.
Article
Pathogenic bacteria, when present in marine seafood and in fresh cultured products, are usually found at fairly low levels, and where these products are adequately cooked, food safety hazards are insignificant. A few bacteria associated with faecal contamination of seafood continue to pose a large-scale health threat through seafood.
Article
While rarely diagnosed prior to 1960, more than 10,000 cases of listeriosis were recorded in the medical literature between 1960 and 1982, and thousands more have been reported annually world-wide [Rocourt J., 1991. Human listeriosis, 1989. WHO/HPP/FOS/91.3, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Rocourt, J., Brosch, R., 1992. Human listeriosis, 1990. WHO/HPP/FOS/92.3, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Rocourt, J., Jacquet, Ch., Bille, J., 1997. Human listeriosis, 1991/1992. WHO/FNU/FOS/97.1, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland]. This widespread increase in reporting is most likely due to demographic trends and changes in food production, processing and storage, especially the extended cold food chain and the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to grow at low temperatures: L. monocytogenes is a bacterium responsible for opportunistic infections, preferentially affecting individuals whose immune system is perturbed, including pregnant women, newborns, people over 65 years, immunocompromised patients, such as cancer victims, transplant recipients, people on hemodialysis and AIDS patients. Thus, the increasing lifespan and medical progress allowing immunodeficient individuals to survive, partially explains the increasing incidence of listeriosis. Moreover, L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous and can grow at temperatures as low as 0 degrees C. At this temperature growth is very slow. The expansion of the agro-food industry, the widespread use of systems of cold storage and changes in consumers demands have led to a large increase in the pool of Listeria that can cause foodborne infections.
Article
Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has proved to be effective against foodborne pathogens attached to cutting boards and poultry surfaces and against spoilage organisms on vegetables; however, its levels of effectiveness against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium in cell suspensions have not been compared with those of other treatments. In this study, the oxidation reduction potentials (ORPs), chlorine concentrations, and pHs of acidic and basic EO water were monitored for 3 days at 4 and 25 degrees C after generation. There were no differences between the pHs or ORPs of acidic and basic EO waters stored at 4 or 25 degrees C. However, the free chlorine concentration in acidic EO water stored at 4 degrees C increased after 24 h. In contrast, the free chlorine concentration in acidic EO water stored at 25 degrees C decreased after one day. Cell suspensions of Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes were treated with distilled water, chlorinated water (20 ppm), acidified chlorinated water (20 ppm, 4.5 pH), acidic EO water (EOA), basic EO water (EOB), or acidic EO water that was "aged" at 4 degrees C for 24 h (AEOA) for up to 15 min at either 4 or 25 degrees C. The largest reductions observed were those following treatments carried out at 25 degrees C. EOA and AEOA treatments at both temperatures significantly reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations by > 8 log10 CFU/ml. EOA and AEOA treatments effectively reduced L. monocytogenes populations by > 8 log10 CFU/ml at 25degrees C. These results demonstrate the stability of EO water under different conditions and that EO water effectively reduced Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes populations in cell suspensions.
Article
Foodborne diseases cause an estimated 76 million illnesses in the USA each year. Seafood is implicated in 10-19% of these illnesses. A causative agent can be traced in about 44% of seafood-related outbreaks, viruses accounting for around half of these illnesses. Although viruses are the most common cause of seafood-related infections, most hospitalisations and deaths are due to bacterial agents. A wide variety of viruses, bacteria, and parasites have been implicated in seafood-related outbreaks, which are reported worldwide. The factor most commonly associated with infection is consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. People with underlying disorders, particularly liver disease, are more susceptible to infection. The first part of this two-part review summarises the general incidence of seafood-related infections and discusses the common viral and bacterial causes of these infections. For each agent, the microbiology, epidemiology, mode of transmission, and treatment are discussed. In the May issue of the journal we will discuss parasites associated with seafood consumption, the safety of seafood, and the measures put in place in the USA to increase its safety.
Article
Acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) was used as frozen AcEW (AcEW-ice) for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce. AcEW-ice was prepared from AcEW with 20, 50, 100, and 200 ppm of available chlorine by freezing at -40 degrees C and generated 30, 70, 150, and 240 ppm of chlorine gas (Cl2), respectively. The AcEW-ice was placed into styrene-foam containers with lettuce samples at 20 degrees C for 24 h. Although AcEW-ice generating 30 ppm Cl2 had no effect on L. monocytogenes cell counts, AcEW-ice generating 70 to 240 ppm of Cl2 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced L. monocytogenes by ca. 1.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 cell counts were reduced by 1.0 log CFU/g with AcEW-ice generating 30 ppm of Cl2. AcEW-ice generating 70 and 150 ppm of Cl2 reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 2.0 log CFU/g. Further significant reduction of E. coli O157:H7 (2.5 log CFU/g) was demonstrated by treatment with AcEW-ice generating 240 ppm of Cl2. However, treatment with AcEW-ice generating 240 ppm of Cl2 resulted in a physiological disorder resembling leaf burn. AcEW-ice that generated less than 150 ppm of Cl2 had no effect on the surface color of the lettuce. AcEW-ice, regardless of the concentration of the emission of Cl2, had no effect on the ascorbic acid content in the lettuce. The weight ratio of lettuce to AcEW-ice required was determined to be over 1:10. The bactericidal effect of AcEW-ice appeared within the first 2 h. The use of AcEW-ice provides simultaneously for low temperature storage and inactivation of bacteria.
Article
Inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica by citric (1--20% w/v) and lactic (0.3--4.0% v/v) acids at different temperatures (4, 20, 40 degrees C) has been investigated. Inactivation effect of citric and lactic acids was dependent on time and temperature of exposure and acid concentration. Survival curves of Y. enterocolitica suspended in citric acid solutions at 4 and 20 degrees C displayed a shoulder followed by an exponential inactivation, but at 40 degrees C a shoulder was not observed. At all temperatures investigated, survival curves of Y. enterocolitica suspended in lactic acid solutions were linear or slightly concave upwards. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the kinetics of inactivation of Y. enterocolitica by both acids. The influence of the citric acid concentration on Y. enterocolitica resistance was independent of the treatment temperature. However for lactic acid, the influence of the acid concentration on microbial inactivation depended on the temperature. At any temperature investigated, lactic acid was significantly more effective than citric acid.
Article
To survey the presence of indigenous and nonindigenous foodborne bacterial pathogens in displayed prepacked portions of fresh marine fish. A survey of 50 different samples of fresh marine fish (conger, swordfish, sole, grouper and whiting) was conducted over a period of 5 months. Trays of fillets and steaks were obtained at retail level and tested for foodborne bacterial pathogens. Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella were not detected. Two samples (4%) yielded Vibrio strains carrying a DNA fragment specific for Vibrio parahaemolyticus, but resulted negative to PCR amplification of the virulence-related tdh gene. Levels of motile Aeromonas ranging from 2.29 to 7.20 log CFU g(-1) were found in 31 (62%) samples. All fish portions were positive for the Aeromonas hlyA gene and 38 for both aerA and hlyA genes, which may contribute to diarrhoea-related virulence. The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes was 10%. Levels of Staphylococcus aureus lower than 2 log CFU g(-1) were found in 15 (30%) samples. Numbers of presumptive Clostridium perfringens ranging from 1.82 +/- 0.22 to 4.26 +/- 1.25 log CFU g(-1) were detected in 42 (84%) samples. Edwardsiella tarda was detected in two samples of grouper fillets. Displayed portions of raw fish carried bacteria that can cause foodborne disease. The risk posed by fresh fish when properly cooked is low, but high when destined to be consumed raw, undercooked or very lightly processed. This study revealed that raw fish sold in Spain could be a source of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Improvements in handling and processing are needed to minimize the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria.
Article
The effects of electrolyzed water ice (EW-ice), compared with traditional tap water ice (TW-ice), on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory quality of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) stored for a period of up to 30 days at 4 degrees C were evaluated. EW-ice with active chlorine at a concentration of 34 mg/kg was prepared from weak acidic electrolyzed water, whose pH, oxidation-reduction potential, and chlorine content were 5, 866 mV, and 47 mg/liter, respectively. Microbiological analysis showed that EW-ice, compared with TW-ice, markedly inhibited the growth of both aerobic and psychrotrophic bacteria in saury flesh during refrigerated storage, primarily because of the action of active chlorine. Chemical analysis revealed that EW-ice retarded the formation of volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and reduced the accumulation of alkaline compounds in the fish flesh in comparison with TW-ice. Sensory analysis confirmed that the freshness of saury was better preserved in EW-ice than in TW-ice and showed that the saury stored in EW-ice had a shelf life that was about 4 to 5 days longer than the fish stored in TW-ice.
Article
The ability of electrolyzed (EO) water to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in suspension and biofilms on stainless steel in the presence of organic matter (sterile filtered chicken serum) was investigated. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was treated with deionized, alkaline EO, and acidic EO water containing chicken serum (0, 5, and 10 ml/liter) for 1 and 5 min. Coupons containing L. monocytogenes biofilms were also overlaid with chicken serum (0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 ml/liter) and then treated with deionized water, alkaline EO water, acidic EO water, alkaline EO water followed by acidic EO water, and a sodium hypochlorite solution for 30 and 60 s. Chicken serum decreased the oxidation-reduction potential and chlorine concentration of acidic EO water but did not significantly affect its pH. In the absence of serum, acidic EO water containing chlorine at a concentration of 44 mg/liter produced a > 6-log reduction in L. monocytogenes in suspension, but its bactericidal activity decreased with increasing serum concentration. Acidic EO water and acidified sodium hypochlorite solution inactivated L. monocytogenes biofilms to similar levels, and their bactericidal effect decreased with increasing serum concentration and increased with increasing time of exposure. The sequential 30-s treatment of alkaline EO water followed by acidic EO water produced 4- to 5-log reductions in L. monocytogenes biofilms, even in the presence of organic matter.
Article
This study investigated 2 sanitizer formulations and compared them with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Formulation number 1 contained citric acid and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). Formulation number 2 contained SDBS, citric, lactic, phosphoric acids, and benzoic acid. Low concentration levels of the sanitizers (1.0% for formulation 1 and 0.5% for formulation 2) were compared with 35% H(2)O(2) for their efficacies on Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculated onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films and metal cans at room temperature (23 +/- 1 degrees C) and 40 degrees C. The results showed that both formulations 1 and 2 required >120 s to sanitize both materials from microbial populations at room temperature, while <15 s was needed for the H(2)O(2). Except for formulation 1 on the E. coli inoculated LDPE film surface, the sanitizers completely eliminated the bacterial populations on both materials in 60 s at 40 degrees C. In general, the formulations were more effective for reduction of the microbial numbers on the can material when compared with the LDPE film. The E. coli showed greater tolerance for the sanitizers when exposed to the process conditions in this study. All sanitizers completely eliminated the test organisms in </=36 s at 40 degrees C when tested on a commercial Benco Aseptic packaging machine.
Food Microbiology & Safety Effect of sanitized ice on raw fish Infections related to the ingestion of seafood Part I: viral and bacterial infections
  • Of Food
  • M
Vol. 75, Nr. 4, 2010—JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE M237 M: Food Microbiology & Safety Effect of sanitized ice on raw fish... Butt AA, Aldridge KE, Sanders CV 2004. Infections related to the ingestion of seafood Part I: viral and bacterial infections. Lancet Infect Dis 4:201–12.
Are oxidizing sanitizers safe for use on fruits and vegetables? Available from: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms Food-related illness and death in the United States
  • Lopes J Mead Ps
  • L Slutsker
  • V Dietz
  • Bresee Lf Mccaig
  • Shapiro
Lopes J. 2004. Are oxidizing sanitizers safe for use on fruits and vegetables?. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/04/july04/072904/04N-0258-emc00009-01.pdf. Accessed Oct 7, 2008. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee Shapiro C. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emer Infect Dis 5:607–25.
Are oxidizing sanitizers safe for
  • J Lopes