Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream. Australas J Dermatol
Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Dermatology Clinic, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.Australasian Journal of Dermatology (Impact Factor: 1.11). 05/2010; 51(2):147-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-0960.2009.00618.x
A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances.
Chapter: Treatment of Dry Skin Syndrome[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nowadays with the extensive use of cosmetics, allergic reactions are increasingly observed and a significant portion of them are due to moisturizers. Contact allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions resulting in allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis and more exceptionally immediate-type reactions, i.e., contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservatives are the most important contact allergens, but reactions may also occur to emulsifiers and other vehicle components, humectants, conditioning agents, plant extracts, antioxidants, sunscreens, and in fact, to any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing remains the golden standard for diagnosing delayed-type reactions, although additional skin tests might be useful as well. Prick tests are generally used to diagnose allergic contact urticaria.
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ABSTRACT: Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible.
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ABSTRACT: Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation.
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