Obstructive sleep apnoea and 24-h blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension

Department of Pulmonology (Sleep Unit), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Journal of Sleep Research (Impact Factor: 3.35). 12/2010; 19(4):597-602. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2010.00839.x
Source: PubMed


Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in patients with resistant hypertension, but understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms linking both conditions is limited. This study assessed the prevalence of OSA and the relationships between OSA and 24-h blood pressure (BP) in 62 consecutive patients with resistant hypertension, defined as clinic BP values ≥ 140/90 despite the prescription of at least three drugs at adequate doses, including a diuretic. In order to exclude a 'white coat effect', only patients with ambulatory 24-h BP values ≥ 125/80 were recruited. Patients underwent polysomnography, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and completed the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). OSA was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥ 5 and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) by an ESS ≥ 10. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of anthropometric data, OSA severity measures and ESS with 24-h systolic and diastolic BP. Mean 24-h BP values were 139.14/80.98 mmHg. Ninety per cent of patients had an AHI ≥ 5 and 70% had an AHI ≥ 30. Only the ESS was associated with 24-h diastolic BP [slope 0.775, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.120-1.390, P < 0.02); age was associated negatively with 24-h diastolic BP (slope -0.64, 95% CI -0.874 to -0.411, P < 0.001). Compared with those without EDS, patients with EDS showed a significantly higher frequency of diastolic non-dipping pattern (69.2% versus 34.7%, P < 0.032). Our results demonstrate a high prevalence of severe OSA in patients with resistant hypertension and suggest that EDS could be a marker of a pathogenetic mechanism linking OSA and hypertension.

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Available from: Maria Jose Jurado, Oct 08, 2014
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    • "Another study of 71 patients with resistant hypertension revealed an 85% prevalence of OSA (AHI ≥ 5 events/h) [86]. A study from Spain in 62 resistant hypertensives reported a 90% prevalence of OSA (AHI ≥ 5 events/h) [87]. However, when the diagnosis of OSA was based on 30 or more episodes of apnea/hypopnea per hour, the prevalence was reduced to 70%, underlining the importance of accurate and homogeneous definition of OSA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Resistant hypertension is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure despite the use of three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, in optimal doses. Treatment resistance can be attributed to poor adherence to antihypertensive drugs, excessive salt intake, physician inertia, inappropriate or inadequate medication, and secondary hypertension. Drug-induced hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea, primary aldosteronism, and chronic kidney disease represent the most common secondary causes of resistant hypertension. Several drugs can induce or exacerbate pre-existing hypertension, with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs being the most common due to their wide use. Obstructive sleep apnoea and primary aldosteronism are frequently encountered in patients with resistant hypertension and require expert management. Hypertension is commonly found in patients with chronic kidney disease and is frequently resistant to treatment, while the management of renovascular hypertension remains controversial. A step-by-step approach of patients with resistant hypertension is proposed at the end of this review paper.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011
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    • "We know that the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is high in the general population, but what is the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in treatment-resistant hypertension patients? Ninety per cent (Lloberes et al., 2010)! Furthermore, the authors report that in those patients who are not treated for obstructive sleep apnoea, excessive daytime sleepiness as assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale is associated with 24-h diastolic sleep pressure. "

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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent pharyngeal collapse secondary to sleep-induced hypotonia of peri-pharyngeal structures. Therapy for OSA is sometimes poorly tolerated and not always effective. The current study reviews a new treatment modality, hypoglossus stimulation, recently evaluated by multiple physiological studies and currently assessed by several clinical studies. A phase-I, implantable hypoglossus nerve stimulation multicenter study was published in 2001. Significant reduction in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was reported in seven of the eight implanted OSA patients, but technical faults precluded prolonged follow-up. Over the past 2 years, three new hypoglossus nerve stimulation systems have been evaluated in more than 60 OSA patients. In adequately selected patients, a more than 50% reduction in AHI was observed. Usually, a decrease in OSA severity from moderate-severe to mild-minimal can be achieved. Ongoing research, including recent initiation of a large multicenter phase-III study, suggests that hypoglossus nerve stimulators are likely to be available as a new treatment modality within a few years. Additional data are needed to define which OSA patients are most likely to benefit from hypoglossus nerve stimulation. Continuous refinement of electrodes design is likely to improve stimulation efficacy in coming years.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Current opinion in pulmonary medicine
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