Postactivation Potentiation Following Different Modes of Exercise

Cardiff School of Sport, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 07/2010; 24(7):1911-6. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181dc47f8
Source: PubMed


The performance characteristics of skeletal muscle are transient in nature and have been shown to be significantly affected by its contractile history, where the phenomenon of acute enhancement is termed postactivation potentiation (PAP). Acute enhancement of dynamic activity has been observed when preceded by resistance exercises; however little information exists for plyometric activity as a conditioning stimulus. In addition, no study has examined PAP effects on more than one subsequent performance trial. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether countermovement jump (CMJ) performance could be enhanced if preceded by heavy-resistance exercise or by dynamic plyometric activity over 3 trials. Thirteen anaerobically trained male subjects (mean +/- SD: age, 22 +/- 3 years; height, 182.4 +/- 4.3 cm; body mass, 82.7 +/- 9.2 kg) performed in a counterbalanced order 3 half squats using a 3 repetition maximum loading (SQUAT), a set of 24 contacts of lower body plyometric exercises (PLYO), or a control of no activity (REST) 5 minutes before each CMJ. Three sets of each treatment and CMJ were performed in total and maximal displacement (dmax), peak power (Ppeak), and peak vertical force (Fpeak) were recorded, whereas rate of force development and relative force (F/body mass) were calculated for every trial. No significant differences were revealed for any of the other variables, but greater displacement was found for SQUAT compared to REST or PLYO, whereas no differences were revealed for any of the conditions for the repeated trials. Although heavy resistance-induced PAP seems to enhance jump height compared to REST or PLYO in repeated CMJ performance, it has no additional benefit on repeated trials.

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Available from: Theodoros Bampouras, Jan 30, 2014
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    • "Bringing both points together, this might indicate a different time course of the net effect between potentiation and fatigue for a conditioning stimulus delivered by means of heavy resistance exercises versus a plyometric conditioning activity such as repetitive reactive hops. An exceeding resting period could be another reason for the missing effect of reactive conditioning exercise on improved jump performances in the study of Esformes and colleagues [3]. In line with previous findings in recreationally active participants [12], we found a significant increase in DJ performance of 11 % after the conditioning hops compared to CON. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background It has previously been shown that conditioning activities consisting of repetitive hops have the potential to induce better drop jump (DJ) performance in recreationally active individuals. In the present pilot study, we investigated whether repetitive conditioning hops can also increase reactive jump and sprint performance in sprint-trained elite athletes competing at an international level. Methods Jump and sprint performances of 5 athletes were randomly assessed under 2 conditions. The control condition (CON) comprised 8 DJs and 4 trials of 30-m sprints. The intervention condition (HOP) consisted of 10 maximal repetitive two-legged hops that were conducted 10 s prior to each single DJ and sprint trial. DJ performance was analyzed using a one-dimensional ground reaction force plate. Step length (SL), contact time (CT), and sprint time (ST) during the 30-m sprints were recorded using an opto-electronic measurement system. Results Following the conditioning activity, DJ height and external DJ peak power were both significantly increased by 11 % compared to the control condition. All other variables did not show any significant differences between HOP and CON. Conclusions In the present pilot study, we were able to demonstrate large improvements in DJ performance even in sprint-trained elite athletes following a conditioning activity consisting of maximal two-legged repetitive hops. This strengthens the hypothesis that plyometric conditioning exercises can induce performance enhancements in elite athletes that are even greater than those observed in recreationally active athletes.. In addition, it appears that the transfer of these effects to other stretch-shortening cycle activities is limited, as we did not observe any changes in sprint performance following the plyometric conditioning activity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "A 3-day testing design was used over a seven day period as illustrated in Table 1. Participants performed a standardised dynamic warm up of 3 minutes of cycling at a selfselected pace followed by four repetitions of high knees, walking hamstring sweeps and walking lunges over 10 m on all 3 days using a procedure adapted fromEsformes et al, (2010)which examined PAP in sprint trained males. The participants performed single leg drop jumps from a standardised drop height of 30 cm on their dominant leg with a rest interval of 1 minute between trials which allowed for full recovery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: This study examined the acute effect of gluteal activation exercises on 10 m sprints and drop jumps performed on a force sledge apparatus. Methods: Twelve participants completed pre-tests of 10 sprints and 10 drop jumps with one minute recovery between sprints or jumps. For the 10 m sprints, contact, flight, 5 m and 10 m times were recorded using an Optojump Next system. For drop jumps, height jumped, contact and flight times, reactive strength index and peak forces were recorded via a force - sledge system. In the post-tests, the participants completed a gluteal activation exercise protocol immediately before the sprint or DJ tests. Results were analysed using an adapted typical error method and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The repeated measures ANOVA found significant performance related improvements in 5 m and 10 m sprint times, flight and contact times for each step and significant improvements in all jump measures (p <0.05). By contrast, the typical error method showed relatively few instances of potentiation and no clear patterns of fatigue followed by potentiation across all participants in sprint and drop jump performances following the gluteal activation protocol. Conclusion: The results suggest that gluteal activation exercises do not produce a consistent acute performance enhancing affect; however, their role in injury prevention is unclear.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness
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    • "Further mechanisms include volume, intensity and type of the conditioning contractions, the time between conditioning contractions and the subsequent athletic activity, as well as the type of the subsequent athletic activity (for review see [15]). The matching of the type of conditioning contraction and the type of the subsequent activity has been suggested to be particularly important in order to achieve PAP-induced performance gains in athletic activities [15,16]. In line with this reasoning, several authors have recommended reactive stretch-shortening cycle movements like drop jumps or hops in the preparation for explosive movements [17,18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Postactivation potentiation (PAP) has been defined as the increase in twitch torque after a conditioning contraction. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hops as conditioning contractions to induce PAP and increase performance in subsequent maximal drop jumps. In addition, we wanted to test if and how PAP can contribute to increases in drop jump rebound height. Twelve participants performed 10 maximal two-legged hops as conditioning contractions. Twitch peak torques of triceps surae muscles were recorded before and after the conditioning hops. Then, subjects performed drop jumps with and without 10 conditioning hops before each drop jump. Recordings included ground reaction forces, ankle and knee angles and electromyographic activity in five leg muscles. In addition, efferent motoneuronal output during ground contact was estimated with V-wave stimulation. The analyses showed that after the conditioning hops, twitch peak torques of triceps surae muscles were 32% higher compared to baseline values (P < 0.01). Drop jumps performed after conditioning hops were significantly higher (12%, P < 0.05), but V-waves and EMG activity remained unchanged. The amount of PAP and the change in drop jump rebound height were positively correlated (r(2) = 0.26, P < 0.05). These results provide evidence for PAP in triceps surae muscles induced by a bout of hops and indicate that PAP can contribute to the observed performance enhancements in subsequent drop jumps. The lack of change in EMG activity and V-wave amplitude suggests that the underlying mechanisms are more likely intramuscular than neural in origin.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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