Circulating leptin and inflammatory response in esophageal cancer, esophageal cancer-related cachexia-anorexia syndrome (CAS) and non-malignant CAS of the alimentary tract
Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland. Cytokine
(Impact Factor: 2.66).
08/2010; 51(2):132-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2010.05.006
We investigated the association between esophageal cancer and cachexia-anorexia syndrome (CAS) of the alimentary tract and leptin, an adipocytokine crucial for body weight regulation, a modulator of inflammatory/immune response, implication of which in cancer and CAS development remains debatable. Circulating leptin was measured in 135 esophageal cancer patients (51 non-cachectic and 84 cachectic) and 83 controls (63 non-cachectic and 20 cachectic) and referred to cancer stage, CAS, and inflammatory and nutritional indices. Leptin was down-regulated in cancer patients and cachectic controls as compared to non-cachectic controls, with more pronounced hypoleptinemia in advanced cancers. Leptin correlated directly with BMI, TNF-alpha, albumin, and hemoglobin and indirectly with IL-6, IL-8, and hsCRP. The correlations, except for hsCRP, were more pronounced in females. BMI alone (females) and BMI and hsCRP (males) were independent predictors of leptin explaining over 60% of its variability. Following adjustment for BMI and gender, cancer-related CAS but not cancer itself negatively affected leptin. Leptin and BMI were independently associated with cancer-related and non-malignant CAS with diagnostic accuracy of 93% in identifying subjects with CAS. Pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and mitogenic properties of leptin do not seem to be important for esophageal cancer development but hypoleptinemia, independently from co-occurring reduction of adiposity, appears to be strongly associated with esophageal cancer-related CAS and non-malignant CAS of the alimentary tract.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "We observed tendency to the highest levels of apelin concentration in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in comparison to patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Esophageal squamous cell cancer is very aggressive with rapid primary tumor growth and early metastasis to the regional lymph node . Increased level of apelin in this type of cancer may correlate with tumor angiogenesis. "
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The aim of the study was the investigation of relationship between cachexia syndrome and serum resistin, adiponectin, and apelin in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC).
Material and methods:
Adipocytokines concentrations were measured in sera of 85 GEC patients and 60 healthy controls. They were also evaluated in tumor tissue and appropriate normal mucosa of 38 operated cancer patients.
Resistin and apelin concentrations were significantly higher in GEC patients than in the controls. The highest resistin levels were found in cachectic patients and in patients with distant metastasis. Serum adiponectin significantly decreased in GEC patients with regional and distant metastasis. Serum apelin was significantly higher in cachectic patients than in the controls. Apelin was positively correlated with hsCRP level. Resistin and apelin levels increased significantly in tumor tissues. Weak positive correlations between adipocytokines levels in serum and in tumor tissue were observed.
Resistin is associated with cachexia and metastasis processes of GEC. Reduction of serum adiponectin reflects adipose tissue wasting in relation to GEC progression. Correlation of apelin with hsCRP can reflect a presumable role of apelin in systemic inflammatory response in esophageal and gastric cancer.
Available from: sciencedirect.com
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ABSTRACT: Some authors suggest that adipocytokines contribute to the induction of pancreatic carcinogenesis as well as the development of endocrine insufficiency.
We evaluate the circulating concentrations of leptin, resistin and visfatin in patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer (PC) and relationship between serum adipocytokines level and clinicopathological features of PC. Moreover the usefulness of those adipocytokines as possible biomarkers of endocrine pancreatic function in PC has been assessed.
The pilot study group consisted of 45 individuals (mean age 65.6 ± 11.5 years, BMI 21.8 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) with newly diagnosed PC (within last 1-3 months) and 13 healthy individuals with age, gender and BMI matched to the study group. Among PC patients 18 (40%) had recently diagnosed diabetes. Fasting plasma leptin, resistin, visfatin concentrations were determined with ELISA (R&D Systems, Phoenix Pharmaceuticals) and insulin by RIA (DakoCytomation).
Patients with PC as compared to controls had significantly lower plasma leptin (40.6 ± 21.3 vs 63.2 ± 16.3 pg/mL; p < 0,0008). In contrast PC patients showed more than six fold higher level of resistin (126.2 ± 143.2 vs 18.9 ± 7.2 ng/mL; p < 0.009) than controls. The median plasma visfatin was 2.8 ± 1.8 ng/mL, which was not significantly different from the controls (3.8 ± 1.1 ng/mL). When PC patients with and without diabetes were considered separately, plasma leptin concentrations among nondiabetic patients were slightly, but not significantly higher (44.6 ± 21.0) as compared to diabetics (34.5 ± 20.7). Moreover there was no difference between visfatin and resistin level in PC, among patients with and without diabetes. No significant differences between serum level of leptin, visfatin and resistin and age, gender, BMI, smoking status, tumor localization, distant metastases and pain has been found.
The results of this study confirm previous findings that patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer are characterized with lower level of leptin. This pilot study showed significantly higher resistin concentrations in patients with PC in comparison to healthy controls, which may be helpful in PC early diagnosis. Changes in leptin and resistin level in PC are not likely related to endocrine disorders.
Available from: Gilberto Paz-Filho
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ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that obesity may have pathophysiological effects that extend beyond its well-known co-morbidities; in particular its role in cancer has received considerable epidemiological support. As adipose tissue becomes strongly established as an endocrine organ, two of its most abundant and most investigated adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are also taken beyond their traditional roles in energy homeostasis, and are implicated as mediators of the effects of obesity on cancer development. This review examines these adipokines in relation to the prostate, breast, colorectal, thyroid, renal, pancreatic, endometrial and oesophageal cancers, and how they may orchestrate the influence of obesity on the development of these malignancies.
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