Curcumin improves early functional results after experimental spinal cord injury

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Fatih University, 06510 Emek, Ankara, Turkey.
Acta Neurochirurgica (Impact Factor: 1.77). 09/2010; 152(9):1583-90; discussion 1590. DOI: 10.1007/s00701-010-0702-x
Source: PubMed


Curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and well known as a multifunctional drug with anti-oxidative, anticancerous, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the use of the curcumin and the methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) functionally, biochemically, and pathologically after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI).
Forty rats were randomly allocated into five groups. Group 1 was performed only laminectomy. Group 2 was introduced 70-g closing force aneurysm clip injury. Group 3 was given 30 mg/kg MPSS intraperitoneally immediately after the trauma. Group 4 was given 200 mg/kg of curcumin immediately after the trauma. Group 5 was the vehicle, and immediately after trauma, 1 mL of rice bran oil was injected. The animals were examined by inclined plane score and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale 24 h after the trauma. At the end of the experiment, spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity and pathological evaluation.
Curcumin treatment improved neurologic outcome, which was supported by decreased level of tissue MDA and increased levels of tissue GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activity. Light microscopy results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the treatment group.
This study showed the neuroprotective effects of curcumin on experimental SCI model. By increasing tissue levels of GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT, curcumin seems to reduce the effects of injury to the spinal cord, which may be beneficial for neuronal survival.

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    • "The dura was left intact. An aneurysm clip with 70 g closing force (Yasargil FE 721, Aesculap, Germany) was applied to the T7 level of the spinal cord for 1 min [18] [19]. At the end of the procedure, the clip was removed, and the surgical wound was closed in layers with silk sutures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a mushroom belonging to the polyporaceae family of Basidiomycota and has widely been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. G. lucidum has never been studied in traumatic spinal cord injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) can protect the spinal cord after experimental spinal cord injury. Rats were randomized into five groups of eight animals each: control, sham, trauma, GLPS, and methylprednisolone. In the control group, no surgical intervention was performed. In the sham group, only a laminectomy was performed. In all the other groups, the spinal cord trauma model was created by the occlusion of the spinal cord with an aneurysm clip. In the spinal cord tissue, caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, nitric oxide levels, and superoxide dismutase levels were analysed. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations were also performed. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined-plane test. After traumatic spinal cord injury, increases in caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels were detected. After the administration of GLPS, decreases were observed in tissue caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, GLPS treatment showed improved results in histopathological scores, ultrastructural scores, and functional tests. Biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural analyses and functional tests reveal that GLPS exhibits meaningful neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    • "Although animal and human studies have shown that bioavailability of curcumin is very limited due to low intestinal absorption, rapid metabolism in liver, and elimination through gall bladder [16], it is documented that curcumin is able to permeate the blood-brain barrier and to exert neuroprotection effects [115]. Curcumin treatment improved neurologic outcome after SCI, which was supported by decreased level of lipid peroxydation [114, 116, 117], increased level of glutathione peroxidase activity [109], and attenuated level of apoptosis [113]. Also, it is documented that treatment with 200 mg/kg curcumin increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity after closing force [114] and weight drop method of SCI [116]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenols have been shown to have some of the neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. These effects are attributed to a variety of biological activities, including free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In this regard, many efforts have been made to study the effects of various well-known dietary polyphenols on spinal cord injury (SCI) and to explore the mechanisms behind the neuroprotective effects. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanisms of neuroprotection of natural polyphenols used in animal models of SCI.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Iranian biomedical journal
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook this study to investigate the possible beneficial effects of combined hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment in comparison with methylprednisolone in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Forty eight male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were randomized into six groups; A (normothermic control group; only laminectomy), B (normothermic trauma group; laminectomy + spinal trauma), C (normothermic methylprednisolone group; laminectomy + spinal trauma + methylprednisolone treated), D (hypothermia group; laminectomy + spinal trauma + hypothermia treated); E (HBO group; laminectomy + spinal trauma + HBO therapy), F (hypothermia and HBO group; laminectomy + spinal trauma + hypothermia and HBO treated) each containing eight rats. Neurological assessments were performed 24 h after trauma and spinal cord tissue samples had been harvested for both biochemical and histopathological evaluation. After SCI, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the control group was measured increased, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were measured decreased. In group F, it was also shown that MDA level elevation had been prevented, and group F has increased the antioxidant enzyme activities than the other experimental groups C, D, E (p <0.05). We concluded that the use of combined hypothermia and HBO treatment might have potential benefits in spinal cord tissue on secondary damage.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Archives of medical research
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