The biogenesis, maintenance and function of primary cilia are controlled through intraflagellar transport (IFT) driven by two kinesin-2 family members, the heterotrimeric KIF3A/KIF3B/KAP complex and the homodimeric KIF17 motor. How these motors and their cargoes gain access to the ciliary compartment is poorly understood. Here, we identify a ciliary localization signal (CLS) in the KIF17 tail domain that is necessary and sufficient for ciliary targeting. Similarities between the CLS and classic nuclear localization signals (NLSs) suggest that similar mechanisms regulate nuclear and ciliary import. We hypothesize that ciliary targeting of KIF17 is regulated by a ciliary-cytoplasmic gradient of the small GTPase Ran, with high levels of GTP-bound Ran (RanGTP) in the cilium. Consistent with this, cytoplasmic expression of GTP-locked Ran(G19V) disrupts the gradient and abolishes ciliary entry of KIF17. Furthermore, KIF17 interacts with the nuclear import protein importin-beta2 in a manner dependent on the CLS and inhibited by RanGTP. We propose that Ran has a global role in regulating cellular compartmentalization by controlling the shuttling of cytoplasmic proteins into nuclear and ciliary compartments.
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"In C. elegans, IFT is mediated by an additional kinesin, OSM-3 . KIF17, the vertebrate homologue of OSM-3, localizes to cilia, but its function in IFT is not entirely understood , . Using immunofluorescence, we confirmed that KIF17 is expressed in IMCD-3 cells and localizes to primary cilia (Figure S3). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are important sensory organelles. They exist in a wide variety of lengths, which could reflect different cell-specific functions. How cilium length is regulated is unclear, but it probably involves intraflagellar transport (IFT), which transports protein complexes along the ciliary axoneme. Studies in various organisms have identified the small, conserved family of ros-cross hybridizing kinases (RCK) as regulators of cilium length. Here we show that Intestinal Cell Kinase (ICK) and MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase (MOK), two members of this family, localize to cilia of mouse renal epithelial (IMCD-3) cells and negatively regulate cilium length. To analyze the effects of ICK and MOK on the IFT machinery, we set up live imaging of five fluorescently tagged IFT proteins: KIF3B, a subunit of kinesin-II, the main anterograde IFT motor, complex A protein IFT43, complex B protein IFT20, BBSome protein BBS8 and homodimeric kinesin KIF17, whose function in mammalian cilia is unclear. Interestingly, all five proteins moved at ∼0.45 µm/s in anterograde and retrograde direction, suggesting they are all transported by the same machinery. Moreover, GFP tagged ICK and MOK moved at similar velocities as the IFT proteins, suggesting they are part of, or transported by the IFT machinery. Indeed, loss- or gain-of-function of ICK affected IFT speeds: knockdown increased anterograde velocities, whereas overexpression reduced retrograde speed. In contrast, MOK knockdown or overexpression did not affect IFT speeds. Finally, we found that the effects of ICK or MOK knockdown on cilium length and IFT are suppressed by rapamycin treatment, suggesting that these effects require the mTORC1 pathway. Our results confirm the importance of RCK kinases as regulators of cilium length and IFT. However, whereas some of our results suggest a direct correlation between cilium length and IFT speed, other results indicate that cilium length can be modulated independent of IFT speed.
"Considering the fact that the RanGTP gradient that is established around the chromosome extensively contributes to spindle assembly and dynamics, it is conceivable that the formation of a secondary AurA–TPX2 gradient that contains active AurA and, consequently, its phosphorylated substrates is crucial for mitotic progression (Clarke and Zhang, 2008; Tsai et al., 2003). Indeed, RAN and its effectors regulate many aspects of centrosome and spindle function, but these are not discussed here owing to space limitations (for more information, readers can see Clarke and Zhang, 2008; Dishinger et al., 2010; Peloponese et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2005). Although TPX2 is required for targeting AurA to the mitotic spindle, depletion of TPX2 appears to have no effect on the centrosomal localization of AurA (Kufer et al., 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The centrosome acts as the major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) for cytoskeleton maintenance in interphase and mitotic spindle assembly in vertebrate cells. It duplicates only once per cell cycle in a highly spatiotemporally regulated manner. When the cell undergoes mitosis, the duplicated centrosomes separate to define spindle poles and monitor the assembly of the bipolar mitotic spindle for accurate chromosome separation and the maintenance of genomic stability. However, centrosome abnormalities occur frequently and often lead to monopolar or multipolar spindle formation, which results in chromosome instability and possibly tumorigenesis. A number of studies have begun to dissect the role of mitotic kinases, including NIMA-related kinases (Neks), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), Polo-like kinases (Plks) and Aurora kinases, in regulating centrosome duplication, separation and maturation and subsequent mitotic spindle assembly during cell cycle progression. In this Commentary, we review the recent research progress on how these mitotic kinases are coordinated to couple the centrosome cycle with the cell cycle, thus ensuring bipolar mitotic spindle fidelity. Understanding this process will help to delineate the relationship between centrosomal abnormalities and spindle defects.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Cell Science
"Several recent studies have implicated a number of mechanisms in formation of a ciliary ‘gate’ which controls entry and exit of proteins from the cilium, including a septin barrier , a nuclear pore-like mechanism [13–15], and retention of proteins via the apical actin cytoskeleton . Several studies have highlighted complexes consisting largely of ciliopathy proteins which appear to be key in maintaining ciliary compartmentalisation [17–20]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Cilia are critical for diverse functions, from motility to signal transduction, and ciliary dysfunction causes inherited diseases termed ciliopathies. Several ciliopathy proteins influence developmental signalling and aberrant signalling explains many ciliopathy phenotypes. Ciliary compartmentalisation is essential for function, and the transition zone (TZ), found at the proximal end of the cilium, has recently emerged as a key player in regulating this process. Ciliary compartmentalisation is linked to two protein complexes, the MKS and NPHP complexes, at the TZ that consist largely of ciliopathy proteins, leading to the hypothesis that ciliopathy proteins affect signalling by regulating ciliary content. However, there is no consensus on complex composition, formation, or the contribution of each component.
Using bioinformatics, we examined the evolutionary patterns of TZ complex proteins across the extant eukaryotic supergroups, in both ciliated and non-ciliated organisms. We show that TZ complex proteins are restricted to the proteomes of ciliated organisms and identify a core conserved group (TMEM67, CC2D2A, B9D1, B9D2, AHI1 and a single TCTN, plus perhaps MKS1) which are present in >50% of all ciliate/flagellate organisms analysed in each supergroup. The smaller NPHP complex apparently evolved later than the larger MKS complex; this result may explain why RPGRIP1L, which forms the linker between the two complexes, is not one of the core conserved proteins. We also uncovered a striking correlation between lack of TZ proteins in non-seed land plants and loss of TZ-specific ciliary Y-links that link microtubule doublets to the membrane, consistent with the interpretation that these proteins are structural components of Y-links, or regulators of their formation.
This bioinformatic analysis represents the first systematic analysis of the cohort of TZ complex proteins across eukaryotic evolution. Given the near-ubiquity of only 6 proteins across ciliated eukaryotes, we propose that the MKS complex represents a dynamic complex built around these 6 proteins and implicated in Y-link formation and ciliary permeability.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-531) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.