Article

Use of Airway Pressure Release Ventilation is Associated With a Reduced Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Patients With Pulmonary Contusion

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.
The Journal of trauma (Impact Factor: 2.96). 03/2011; 70(3):E42-7. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181d9f612
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Past studies suggest that airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is associated with reduced sedative requirements and increased recruitment of atelectatic lung, two factors that might reduce the risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We investigated whether APRV might be associated with a decreased risk for VAP in patients with pulmonary contusion.
Retrospective cohort study.
Of 286, 64 (22%) patients requiring mechanical ventilation for >48 hours met criteria for pulmonary contusion and were the basis for this study. Subjects with pulmonary contusion had a significantly higher rate of VAP than other trauma patients, [VAP rate contusion patients: 18.3/1,000, non-contusion patients: 7.7/1,000, incidence rate ratio 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-4.97), p=0.025]. Univariate analysis showed that APRV (hazard ratio, 0.15 [0.03-0.72; p=0.018]) was associated with a decreased incidence of VAP. Cox proportional hazards regression, using propensity scores for APRV to control for confounding, supported a protective effect of APRV from VAP (hazard ratio, 0.10 [95% CI, 0.02-0.58]; p=0.01). Pao2/FiO2 ratios were higher during APRV compared with conventional ventilation (p<0.001). Subjects attained the goal Sedation Agitation Score for an increased percentage of time during APRV (median [interquartile range (IQR)] 72.7% [33-100] of the time) compared with conventional ventilation (47.2% [0-100], p=0.044), however, dose of sedatives was not different between these subjects. APRV was not associated with hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.57 [95% CI, 0.06-5.5]; p=0.63) or ventilator-free days (No APRV 15.4 vs. APRV 13.7 days, p=0.49).
Use of APRV in patients with pulmonary contusion is associated with a reduced risk for VAP.

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    • "Two recent studies have investigated the properties of these modes to improve outcome in ventilated patients in general [6] or with pulmonary contusion [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Partial ventilatory support modalities are ill defined and different perceptions about these modes might depend on geographic region. Exemplary on two recent publications investigating airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in an adult ICU population, the question is investigated whether research in ventilation modes can be performed with the current definitions. The lack of precise definitions precludes drawing meaningful conclusions from these studies, as it remains unclear how these patients were actually ventilated and whether or how much spontaneous breathing was factitiously preserved. An argument is made to develop a new taxonomy of ventilation modes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Critical care (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a mode of ventilation that has been around since the 1980s and was originally viewed as a type of continuous positive pressure mode of ventilation. Conceptually, APRV can be thought of as a type of inverse-ratio, pressure-controlled, intermittent mandatory ventilation during which the maintenance of spontaneous breathing and prolonged application of high mean airway pressure contribute to the clinical benefits. The aim of this review article was to familiarize the bedside clinician working in the intensive care unit with the theory and rationale behind this mode of ventilation. The potential advantages and disadvantages of APRV will also be discussed to empower the advance practice clinician and bedside nurse to advocate for their patient diagnosed with the often-high mortality disease of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
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    ABSTRACT: Potentially harmful effects of positive pressure mechanical ventilation have been recognized since its inception in the 1950s. Since then, the risk factors for and mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) have been further characterized. Publication of the ARDSnet tidal volume trial in 2000 demonstrated that a ventilator strategy limiting tidal volumes and plateau pressure in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome was associated with a 22% reduction in mortality. Since then, a variety of ventilator modes have emerged seeking to improve gas exchange, reduce injurious effects of ventilation, and improve weaning from the ventilator. We review here emerging ventilator modes in the intensive care unit (ICU). Airway pressure release ventilation seeks to optimize alveolar recruitment and maintain spontaneous ventilatory effort. It is associated with improved indices of respiratory and cardiovascular physiology, but data to support outcome benefit are lacking. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation is associated with improvements in gas exchange, but outcome data are conflicting. Extracorporeal modes of ventilation continue to evolve, and extra-corporeal CO(2) removal is a technique that could be used in non-specialist ICUs. Proportional-assist ventilation and neutrally adjusted ventilator assist are modes that vary level of assistance with patient ventilatory effort. They result in greater patient-ventilator synchrony, but at present there is no evidence of a reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation or outcome benefit. Although the use of many of these modes is likely to increase in intensive care units, further evidence of a beneficial effect is desirable before they are recommended.
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