Article

Effect of Topical Application of Virgin Coconut Oil on Skin Components and Antioxidant Status during Dermal Wound Healing in Young Rats

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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on excision wounds in young rats. Three sets of experiments with 3 groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats each consisting of 6 animals were used for studying wound closure time, antioxidant status and biochemical parameters. Group 1 was the control; groups 2 and 3 were treated with 0.5 and 1.0 ml VCO, respectively, 24 h after wound creation for 10 days. After the experimental period, the healing property of VCO was evaluated by monitoring the time taken for complete epithelization as well as levels of various parameters of the wound's granulation tissue. The collagen solubility pattern, glycohydrolase activity, and histopathology of the granulation tissue were also analyzed. The antioxidant status during wound healing was monitored continuously for 14 days. VCO-treated wounds healed much faster, as indicated by a decreased time of complete epithelization and higher levels of various skin components. Pepsin-soluble collagen showed a significant increase in VCO- treated wounds, indicating a higher collagen cross-linking. Glycohydrolase activities were also found to be increased due to a higher turnover of collagen. Antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels were found to be increased on the 10th day after wounding, which were found to have returned to normal levels on day 14 in the treated wounds. The lipid peroxide levels were found to be lower in the treated wounds. A histopathological study showed an increase in fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization in VCO-treated wounds compared to controls. The beneficial effect of VCO can be attributed to the cumulative effect of various biologically active minor components present in it.

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... In Gorontalo, coconut oil can be obtained easily, still used as an ingredient and a dry skin moisturizer. Therefore, researchers are interested in conducting research on the use of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in overcoming skin damage in leprosy patients [5,6]. ...
... This is caused by leprosy germs attacking the peripheral nerves having three nerves such as autonomic, motoric, and sensory nerves. The autonomic nerves that are innervated by the sweat glands, oil glands, and blood vessels, so when leprosy germs attack the autonomic nerves of the leprosy skin which will automatically dry out and reduce moisture so that it can manifest the skin in patients [5,8]. ...
... This happens due to the content of lauric acid in coconut oil which can help reduce skin moisture levels. Meanwhile, Chaerunisa (2008) also explained that coconut oil can soften the skin because it contains various nutrients in the form of fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamins A, D, E, K, and provitamin A) and as good nutrition for beauty care which can maintain skin moisture and skin elasticity while facilitating skin regeneration [5]. Regarding this, applying coconut oil on dry skin or throughout the body as a massage materials, and apply it to cracked and broken skin with a little massage to relax the skin muscles so that it will be soft, moist, and relaxed [11]. ...
Article
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Objective: Leprosy is a major cause of permanent disability among infectious diseases. The important parts of the human body that is disturbed in leprosy patients are the skin and peripheral nerves. Multidrug therapy treatment can kill leprosy germs, but previous existing defects cannot be eliminated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in improving the skin of lepers. Methods: The methods of this research used a pre- and post-test of the control group of 50 people respondents which consisted of the treatment group of VCO and control group of original coconut oil. All treatment and control groups of respondents were given once per day for 1 month based on non-probability sampling. Results: The results showed that there was a significant effect of VCO on the skin of leprosy patients with a statistical value p=0.000 (α=0.001). This was also supported by the observation of the patient’s skin which all of patients experience changed in the results of the assessment of the skin after VCO administration intervention. This relates to lauric acid content in coconut oil which can reduce skin moisture levels. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study can be concluded that VCO is effective in improving the skin of lepers. VCO can be used as an alternative intervention in skin care for leprosy patients and to prevent further disability. Therefore, it is important for leprosy patients to obtain information about the use of VCO in the care and moisture of the skin.
... in vivo, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antipyretic properties [25][26][27]. Coconut oil is considered a saturated fat because it contains more than 90% saturated fatty acids; it also contains high amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerols, which are effective against the development of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases [28,29], as well as antioxidant compounds. Luiz Henrique C. Vasconcelos [30] demonstrated that coconut oil supplementation reverses oxidative stress-induced peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate, epithelial hyperplasia, smooth muscle thickening, and hypercontractility, through its interactions with the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in guinea pigs. ...
... Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory activity against various diseases [25][26][27][28][29][30]. To examine whether coconut oil could regulate inflammatory responses in PM-stimulated AMs, we evaluated the levels of inflammatory genes, such as MCP-1 and CXCL-1, and Data are presented as the means ± SD of three independent experiments. ...
... Coconut oil has anti-inflammatory activity against various diseases [25][26][27][28][29][30]. To examine whether coconut oil could regulate inflammatory responses in PM-stimulated AMs, we evaluated the levels of inflammatory genes, such as MCP-1 and CXCL-1, and inflammatory proteins, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, using qRT-PCR and ELISA assays, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is related to various respiratory diseases, and this affects the respiratory immune system. Alveolar macrophages (AMs), which are defenders against pathogens, play a key role in respiratory inflammation through cytokine production and cellular interactions. Coconut oil demonstrates antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and it is consumed worldwide for improved health. However, reports on the protective effects of coconut oil on the PM-induced respiratory immune system, especially in AMs, are limited. In this study, we generated artificial PM (APM) with a diameter approximately of 30 nm by controlling the temperature, and compared its cytotoxicity with diesel exhaust particles (DEP). We also investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coconut oil in APM- and DEP-stimulated AMs, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that APM and DEP had high cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in AMs. In particular, APM or DEP at 100 μg/mL significantly decreased cell viability (p < 0.05) and significantly increased oxidative stress markers such as reactive oxygen species (p < 0.01); the GSSH/GSH ratio (p < 0.01); and cytokine production, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (p < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-1β (p < 0.001), and IL-6 (p < 0.001). The expression of the genes for chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 (p < 0.05) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p < 0.001); and the proteins toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (p < 0.01), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p < 0.001), p38 (p < 0.001); and extracellular receptor-activated kinase (p < 0.001), were also upregulated by PM. These parameters were reversed upon treatment with coconut oil in APM--or DEP-stimulated AMs. In conclusion, coconut oil can reduce APM- or DEP-induced inflammation by regulating the TLR4/MAPK pathway in AMs, and it may protect against adverse respiratory effects caused by PM exposure.
... 6 Apart from major health claims, the abundance of vitamin E in CNO aids in moisturizing hair and skin. 19 Despite the substantial number of studies conducted reinforcing the beneficial health properties of CNO, the hypocholesterolemic and cardioprotective effects of oil remain a matter of controversy. 11,12,20 A recent review, including 21 research studies, stated that CNO is unhealthy in terms of cardioprotection. ...
... In Ayurvedic medicine, CNO has been used to treat numerous skin disorders which include wound healing and microbial infections. 19 Nevin and Rajamohan 19 have shown the beneficial effect of VCO for the healing of dermal wounds in rats. Further, CNO is applied as a remedy to heal the pain of burn wounds. 2 A comparative study done to determine the efficacy of VCO and mineral oil as therapeutic moisturizers for mild to moderate xerosis showed that both oils had considerable hydration ability on the skin and increased the skin surface lipid levels. ...
... In Ayurvedic medicine, CNO has been used to treat numerous skin disorders which include wound healing and microbial infections. 19 Nevin and Rajamohan 19 have shown the beneficial effect of VCO for the healing of dermal wounds in rats. Further, CNO is applied as a remedy to heal the pain of burn wounds. 2 A comparative study done to determine the efficacy of VCO and mineral oil as therapeutic moisturizers for mild to moderate xerosis showed that both oils had considerable hydration ability on the skin and increased the skin surface lipid levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coconut oil is an integral part of Sri Lankan and many South Asian diets. Initially, coconut oil was classified along with saturated fatty acid food items and criticized for its negative impact on health. However, research studies have shown that coconut oil is a rich source of medium-chain fatty acids. Thus, this has opened new prospects for its use in many fields. Beyond its usage in cooking, coconut oil has attracted attention due to its hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, antihepatosteatotic, antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and skin moisturizing properties. Despite all the health benefits, consumption of coconut oil is still underrated due to a lack of supportive scientific evidence. Even though studies done in Asian countries claim a favorable impact on cardiac health and serum lipid profile, the limitations in the number of studies conducted among Western countries impede the endorsement of the real value of coconut oil. Hence, long-term extensive studies with proper methodol-ogies are suggested to clear all the controversies and misconceptions of coconut oil consumption. This review discusses the composition and functional properties of coconut oils extracted using various processing methods.
... 6 Apart from major health claims, the abundance of vitamin E in CNO aids in moisturizing hair and skin. 19 Despite the substantial number of studies conducted reinforcing the beneficial health properties of CNO, the hypocholesterolemic and cardioprotective effects of oil remain a matter of controversy. 11,12,20 A recent review, including 21 research studies, stated that CNO is unhealthy in terms of cardioprotection. ...
... In Ayurvedic medicine, CNO has been used to treat numerous skin disorders which include wound healing and microbial infections. 19 Nevin and Rajamohan 19 have shown the beneficial effect of VCO for the healing of dermal wounds in rats. Further, CNO is applied as a remedy to heal the pain of burn wounds. 2 A comparative study done to determine the efficacy of VCO and mineral oil as therapeutic moisturizers for mild to moderate xerosis showed that both oils had considerable hydration ability on the skin and increased the skin surface lipid levels. ...
... In Ayurvedic medicine, CNO has been used to treat numerous skin disorders which include wound healing and microbial infections. 19 Nevin and Rajamohan 19 have shown the beneficial effect of VCO for the healing of dermal wounds in rats. Further, CNO is applied as a remedy to heal the pain of burn wounds. 2 A comparative study done to determine the efficacy of VCO and mineral oil as therapeutic moisturizers for mild to moderate xerosis showed that both oils had considerable hydration ability on the skin and increased the skin surface lipid levels. ...
... Nano emulsion have been showed to improve solubility of active substances when compared to pure extract. Nano emulsion drug delivery system from plant extracts has been showed increasing antimicrobial activity of D-limonene extracts [10]- [13], anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin [14]; anticancer [15], and antioxidant from green tea and tomato extract [4], [16]- [18]. This results are known to be associated increasing solubility and permeability of drugs to target cells [5] [14], Kusuma, et.al, 2020 TRKU 1198 [18], [19]. ...
... The size of droplets and zeta potential are the most important characteristics in the nano emulsion system because they affect stability as well as pH value is thought to play an important role to prove irritation skin. Skin's ideal pH, globule size, and zeta potential, which are recommended to be achieved in nano emulsion are 5 -7, < 50 nm, (30 mV to -30 mV) respectively [16], [24]. The physical results are 6.3 -6,5, (-)11.5 -(-)23.3 ...
Article
The ethyl acetate extract of Musa paradisiaca L. leaves contains quercetin. The main problem of quercetin associated with oral administration is its poor aqueous solubility. Nano emulsion is drug delivery system that it was prove to enhancement the solubility and permeation of lipophilic drugs. The research aimed to investigate nano emulsion as carrier of extract to improve the activity of antioxidant and antibacterial. The nano emulsion of extract was formulated by various concentration of Tween-80 and PEG-400, and it was optimized by Factorial Design on Design Expert ® 7 software based on desirability value. Design using response droplet size, zeta potential, and pH. The optimum formula selected was tested for physical stability and activity. Physical stability was tested by centrifugation and cyling test methods. The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of fo and extract were determined by DPPH and Kirby Bauer methods, respectively, and its analyzed by independent T-test. The optimum formula was obtained by 15% Tween-80 and 10% PEG-400 with desirability value 82,4%. It has pH 6.4, droplet size 15.3 nm, a polydisperse index (PI) 0.012, a zeta potential-23.3 mV. Physical stability test shows the formula does not experience syneresis, separation, creaming or cracking. The independent T-test showed that nano emulsion significantly improved antioxidant and antibacterial activities against S. Aureus and E. Coli with p value 0.001, 0.003, and 0.000 respectively. The results prove that Nano emulsion is potential for improving lipophilic drugs.
... VCO contains antioxidants such as tocopherol and betacarotens, and has properties to enhance moisturization of the skin 16 . VCO has been shown to increase wound contraction rate in chronic wounds that exhibited delayed wound healing, and has the potential to increase wound healing biomarker levels in a full-thickness wound mouse model 17,18 . ...
... Previous research found that VCO caused a significant reduction in ear edema, claw edema and granuloma formation in Sprague Dawley rats 54 . VCO has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects including increased levels of the superoxide dismutase enzyme in the wound tissue of normal mice 17,53 . In the case of chronic human skin conditions such as xerosis and atopic dermatitis, VCO shows a significant healing effect 55 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diabetes is a disease that affects people worldwide, including in Indonesia. The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing from year to year. One of the most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic ulcers, which is a limb-threatening complication. Over the past few decades, ozone generated using plasma medical technology has been investigated as an agent that helps wound healing. This study aims to evaluate the effects of topical ozonated virgin coconut oil (VCO) in a diabetic wound mouse model. Methods: This study was an experimental study with a post-test control design. An ulcer wound model was made in 50 diabetic male Wistar mice, divided into five groups, and a control group of 10 non-diabetic mice. The control groups were given conventional therapy only and the treatment groups were also given topical ozonated VCO with different flow durations (0 min, 90 min, 7 h, 14 h). Macroscopic appearance and wound contraction were observed. HSP90β, VEGF-A, EGF, bFGF and CD34 levels were measured from the immunostained slices of wound margins. Results: The reduction of wound length was proportionally related to the duration of ozone flow. Ozonated VCO with a longer duration of ozone flow healed the wound more quickly and had the shortest wound length. VCO with ozone flow for 14 hours (16837.10 µm) had the biggest reduction in wound length compared to other groups. The wounds treated with ozonated VCO showed an increase in HSP90β, VEGF-A, EGF, bFGF and CD34 levels that correlated to improved wound healing. A longer period of treatment resulted in higher levels of wound healing biomarkers compared to shorter therapeutic durations. Conclusions: Topical ozonated VCO improved the wound healing process in a diabetic ulcer mouse model by improving macroscopic wound appearance and increasing levels of wound healing biomarkers.
... VCO contains antioxidants such as tocopherol and beta carotenes, and has properties to enhance moisturization of the skin 16 . VCO has been shown to increase wound contraction rate in chronic wounds that exhibited delayed wound healing, and have the potential to increase wound healing biomarker levels in a full-thickness wound mouse model 17,18 . ...
... Previous research found that VCO caused a significant reduction in ear edema, claw edema and granuloma formation in Sprague Dawley rats 54 . VCO has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects including increased levels of the superoxide dismutase enzyme in the wound tissue of normal rat 17,53 . In the case of chronic human skin conditions such as xerosis and atopic dermatitis, VCO shows a significant healing effect 55 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diabetes is a disease that affects people worldwide, including in Indonesia. The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing from year to year. One of the most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic ulcers, which is a limb-threatening complication. Over the past few decades, ozone generated using plasma medical technology has been investigated as an agent that helps wound healing. This study aims to evaluate the effects of topical ozonated virgin coconut oil (VCO) in a diabetic wound mouse model. Methods: This study was an experimental study with a post-test control design. An ulcer wound model was made in 50 diabetic male Wistar mice, divided into five groups, and a control group of 10 non-diabetic mice. The control groups were given conventional therapy only and the treatment groups were also given topical ozonated VCO with different flow durations (0 min, 90 min, 7 h, 14 h). Macroscopic appearance and wound contraction were observed. HSP90β, VEGF-A, EGF, bFGF and CD34 levels were measured from the immunostained slices of wound margins. Results: The reduction of wound length was proportionally related to the duration of ozone flow. Ozonated VCO with a longer duration of ozone flow healed the wound more quickly and had the shortest wound length. VCO with ozone flow for 14 hours (16837.10 µm) had the biggest reduction in wound length compared to other groups. The wounds treated with ozonated VCO showed an increase in HSP90β, VEGF-A, EGF, bFGF and CD34 levels that correlated to improved wound healing. A longer period of treatment resulted in higher levels of wound healing biomarkers compared to shorter therapeutic durations. Conclusions: Topical ozonated VCO improved the wound healing process in a diabetic ulcer mouse model by improving macroscopic wound appearance and increasing levels of wound healing biomarkers.
... It is observed that this eco-friendly Metal working fluid has material property equivalent to commercial metal working fluid without any environmental hazards. [10][11][12] Coconut oil has been found to possess superior tribological properties in terms of low coefficient of friction, improved wear resistance, and higher thermal stability characteristics when compared to other vegetable oils. 9,12,13 Hence, the present work focuses on development of non-toxic and biodegradable cutting fluid from coconut oil. ...
... [10][11][12] Coconut oil has been found to possess superior tribological properties in terms of low coefficient of friction, improved wear resistance, and higher thermal stability characteristics when compared to other vegetable oils. 9,12,13 Hence, the present work focuses on development of non-toxic and biodegradable cutting fluid from coconut oil. ...
Article
The evolution in development of cutting fluid from petroleum based products have brought about remarkable changes to the present and growing machining industry. Most of the cutting fluids are made of mineral base oils which are toxic, non-biodegradable and unsustainable. A major issue lies in their inappropriate disposal which results in surface water and groundwater contamination and consequently, agricultural products and food contamination. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop an alternative, sustainable, non-toxic and completely biodegradable cutting fluid to replace the mineral oil based cutting fluid. A Green cutting fluid [GCF] was prepared by combining nontoxic emulsifiers and natural additives. GCF meets many of the characteristic specifications of commercial formulations with the added advantage that it is eco-friendly. Toxicity test for cutting fluids has been carried out using fish toxicity test (OECD-203). The GCF with green additives has an LC50 value !1064 mg/L. Commercial cutting fluid (CCF) has an LC50 value less than 100 mg/L These tests show that commercial cutting fluids are highly toxic, while the GCF can be considered as non-toxic. Biodegradability test was done using BOD-COD technique and found GCF as biodegradable and CCF as non-biodegradable. The ASTM D4627 corrosion tests infer that the GCF with grade 3 has better anticorrosive characteristics when compared to grade 4 of most CCF samples tested this could be possibly by the effect of natural additives in GCF. Drilling experiments were carried out to evaluate the machining performance of cutting fluids. Results from the drilling tests comparing the axial force/cutting force and torque showed that the performance of the GCF was comparable to that of the CCFs. Nevertheless, GCF formulation with non-toxic emulsifiers and natural additives is a good basis for further development and use of non-toxic tribological products.
... Healing Activity: Nevin et al (2010) reported that VCO-treated wounds healed much faster due to higher collagen and anti-oxidant enzymes activities. It was also observed histopathologically, that there is increase in fibroblast proliferation and nevovascularization in VCO-treated wounds 17 . ...
... Healing Activity: Nevin et al (2010) reported that VCO-treated wounds healed much faster due to higher collagen and anti-oxidant enzymes activities. It was also observed histopathologically, that there is increase in fibroblast proliferation and nevovascularization in VCO-treated wounds 17 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Roghan-e-Narjeel (coconut oil) is extracted from dried Maghz-e-Narjeel (coconut kernels) which is derived from coconut (Cocosnucifera L.) tree. It is used extensively in tropical countries especially India, Srilanka and Philippines. The oil contains 92% of saturates consisting of medium chain fatty acids in the form of triglycerides containing lauric acid in large amount, and about 8% of unsaturates consisting of oleic and linoleic acids as triglycerides. The oil is colourless and has odour typical of the coconuts. It plays an important role in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, infections (viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal), wounds and obesity. These effects of oil can be attributed to the presence of lauric acid, capric acid and caprylic acid. The aim of this review paper is to highlight the physico-chemical and pharmacological properties of Roghan-e-Narjeel (coconut oil) according to modern as well as unani aspect.
... VCO contains antioxidants such as tocopherol and beta carotenes and has properties to enhance moisturization of the skin 16 . VCO has been shown to increase wound contraction rate in chronic wounds that exhibited delayed wound healing, and have the potential to increase wound healing biomarker levels in a full-thickness wound mouse model 17,18 . ...
... Previous research found that VCO caused a significant reduction in ear edema, claw edema and granuloma formation in Sprague Dawley rats 54 . VCO has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects including increased levels of the superoxide dismutase enzyme in the wound tissue of normal rats 17,53 . In the case of chronic human skin conditions such as xerosis and atopic dermatitis, VCO shows a significant healing effect 55 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diabetes is a disease that affects people worldwide, including in Indonesia. The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing from year to year. One of the most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic ulcers, which is a limb-threatening complication. Over the past few decades, ozone generated using plasma medical technology has been investigated as an agent that helps wound healing. This study aims to evaluate the effects of topical ozonated virgin coconut oil (VCO) in a diabetic wound mouse model. Methods: This study was an experimental study with a post-test control design. An ulcer wound model was made in 50 diabetic male Wistar mice, divided into five groups, and a control group of 10 non-diabetic mice. The control groups were given conventional therapy only and the treatment groups were also given topical ozonated VCO with different flow durations (0 min, 90 min, 7 h, 14 h). Macroscopic appearance and wound contraction were observed. HSP90β, VEGF-A, EGF, bFGF, and CD34 levels were measured from the immunostained slices of wound margins. Results: The reduction of wound length was proportionally related to the duration of ozone flow. Ozonated VCO with a longer duration of ozone flow healed the wound more quickly and had the shortest wound length. VCO with ozone flow for 14 hours (16837.10 µm) had the biggest reduction in wound length compared to other groups. The wounds treated with ozonated VCO showed an increase in HSP90β, VEGF-A, EGF, bFGF, and CD34 levels that correlated to improved wound healing. A longer period of treatment resulted in higher levels of wound healing biomarkers compared to shorter therapeutic durations. Conclusions: Topical ozonated VCO improved the wound healing process in a diabetic ulcer mouse model by improving macroscopic wound appearance and increasing levels of wound healing biomarkers.
... Coconut oil is the primary product used as a processing ingredient in culinary, beauty, and pharmaceutical products. The fatty acid contents in coconut oil are reported to have antioxidant properties (Nevin &Rajamohan 2010) andphotoprotective (Merlin et al. 2008). Moreover, other medicinal activities of coconut oil include anti-bacterial (Kim et al. 2017;Rahmad et al. 2019), skin barrier repair (Lin et al. 2017;Vaughn et al. 2018), anti-aging, wound healing, and moisturizing in atopic dermatitis treatment (Evangelista et al. 2014;Kim et al. 2017;Lin et al. 2017). ...
... Coconut oil is the primary product used as a processing ingredient in culinary, beauty, and pharmaceutical products. The fatty acid contents in coconut oil are reported to have antioxidant properties (Nevin &Rajamohan 2010) andphotoprotective (Merlin et al. 2008). Moreover, other medicinal activities of coconut oil include anti-bacterial (Kim et al. 2017;Rahmad et al. 2019), skin barrier repair (Lin et al. 2017;Vaughn et al. 2018), anti-aging, wound healing, and moisturizing in atopic dermatitis treatment (Evangelista et al. 2014;Kim et al. 2017;Lin et al. 2017). ...
Article
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A protective effect of Acehnese traditionally fermented coconut oil (Pliek U oil) and its residue (Pliek U) have been studied against UVB radiation. The research was performed by preparing the active ingredient in ointment formulation and protective test in male Wistar rat skin (Rattus novergicus). Four different extraction methods were done to produce four active ingredients, that are Pliek U oil (PUO), ethanolic Pliek U oil extract (EPUOE), ethanolic Pliek U extract (EPUE), and ethanolic hexane residue Pliek U extract (EHRPUE). The protective effect was determined based on the erythema index (EI), melanin index (MI), and level of protein oxidation parameters. The protective level from each active ingredient was studied by PCA analysis. The result showed that the active ingredient could inhibit the redness and protein oxidation in skin tissue. PCA results show that concentration (20 v. 40%) does not affect the protection level of the active ingredients of Pliek U oil, but it does affect the one of Pliek U. Therefore, these active ingredients are potential for sunscreen application.
... Microbial fermentation process using minimal energy has been considered safer and more beneficial with more yield (Satheesh and Prasad, 2014;Masyithah, 2017). The virgin coconut oil processed by fermentation system is more prefer than traditional methods, since they are often infected by insects or aflatoxin producing molds that caused potential toxicity problem during manufacturing (Soeka et al., 2008).VCO produced via fermentation should have high content of saturated fatty acids, mostly lauric acid that is highly resistant to oxidative rancidity, very stable and more functional (Brien et al., 2009).Desirable qualities of VCO can be identified through its physical and chemical properties (Nakatsuji et al.,2009;Nevin and Rajamohan, 2006;Nevin and Rajamohan, 2010). There are two types of fermentation commonly employed for VCO production. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fermentation to produce Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) through induced and spontaneous fermentation and screening for the antimicrobial property of the oil produced against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in this study. Matured coconut was processed to obtain coconut milk. The milk was subjected to induced fermentation using 1.25 % of overnight broth culture of Lactobacillus plantarum adjusted to 0.5 and 1.0% Macfarland for 24 and 48 hours. Spontaneous fermentation of the coconut milk was carried out for the same period. The resulting oil was tested for its antimicrobial property against S. aureus and the physicochemical property was also determined. The results show that induced fermentation with 1 % Macfarland of L. plantarum for 48 hours recovered more oil, (10.6 %) as compared to other fermentation methods. Oil recovered at 48 hours from induced fermentation with 0.5 % Macfarland of L. plantarum was found to be moderately potent against S. aureus with 8 mm in diameter of zone of inhibition. The physicochemical parameters tested revealed free fatty acid content ranging from 0.14 to 0.22 %, the iodine value (IV) ranges from 4.11 to 4.18 gl2 /100g fats, the peroxide value (PV) ranges from 0.72 to 0.87 meqoxygen/kg, the saponification value ranges between 250.67 to 259.67 mg KOH/g oil and acid value ranges from 0.03 to 0.08. In conclusion, induced fermentation with L. plantarum at 1 % Macfarland for 48 hours yielded more oil and it is effective for VCO production. The oil produced after 48 hours through induced fermentation was effective against S. aureus and the physicochemical parameter of the VCO generally conformed to standard requirements.
... The antioxidant activity of the oil was analyzed and the results in (Table 4) shows that VCO has ability to fight against free radicals in human body as also documented in literature [23][24][25]. Free radicals are toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that can cause significant damage to living cells and tissues, the process known as oxidative stress while antioxidant are the vitamins and minerals which the body uses to counteract oxidative stress. Survey of literature indicated that VCO is a nutritional and medicinal food in the traditional coconut growing areas [26]. ...
Article
Virgin coconut oil can be a good food supplement due to its high medium – chain fatty acids unlike other cooking oils which contain long – chain fatty acids. This research is to investigate the physiochemical, antioxidant properties, proximate and nutritional values of Virgin coconut oil (VCO). The extract of virgin coconut oil was investigated for its proximate and nutritional composition showed that coconut oil can be good food supplement. The physiochemical parameters showed low iodine, saponification, peroxide, and acid value of 0.5918, 134.50, 1.5 and 0.673 meq/kg respectively. The antioxidant activity was investigated using DPPH free radical scavenging, the result showed that the VCO inhibits in the range of (37.0 – 61.0) % while Vitamin C (control) inhibits within (93-97) %. The proximate and nutritional values analyses showed that the moisture content, ash content, crude fibre, crude protein, crude lipid, and carbohydrate were 14.28, 1.075, 7.22, 9.255, 39.72 and 28.45 respectively. Minerals found were K, C, Na, Fe, Ca, Zn and P 138.15, 0.015, 58.6, 1.82, 38.55, 5.35 and 0.79 mg/kg respectively. Keywords: Virgin coconut oil, Iodine value, saponification value, rancidity, peroxides Value. Arabian Journal of Chemical and Environmental Research
... In addition, lauric acid can also stimulate collagen growth so that it can repair wounds more quickly. 8 The purpose of this study was to study the effect of VCO administration on colonization of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in DM ulcers in DM patients in Padang Indonesia. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diabetic ulcers often result in amputations. The bacteria found in diabetic ulcers are Enterobacter sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp and Pseudomonas sp. Nursing management of ulcer patients has been attempted but nothing has been effective yet. Using virgin coconut oil (VCO) contains anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and has an analgesic effect to increase the formation of new blood vessels with faster wound healing. Aim was to study the effect of wound care by giving VCO on the colonization of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in diabetic ulcers.Methods: Quasi-experimental research with the two-group pre-test and post-test design approach involved 36 diabetic ulcer patients with consecutive sampling by doing wound care for 4 days. The duration of treatment was 30-40 minutes. Data was taken by swab on wound fluid before and after the intervention. Bivariate analysis carried out t-independent test of DM ulcers.Results: The results showed the average number of colony staphylococcus in the intervention group before being given wound care with VCO 72.88, while after being treated with 38.88 wound VCO and the average results of the number of colony staphylococcus in the control group before being treated with NaCl 77.88, whereas after being treated with VCO 38.88 wound with NaCl 72.88 in the statistical test the p value is 0,000.Conclusions: There was a significant influence between the number of colony Staphylococcus in the control group and the intervention group.
... These compounds prevent the formation of free radicals which are harmful to health. [11] ...
Article
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Abstract: For several years, Consumers were made to believe that coconut oil is deleterious to health as it would block the arteries and cause heart disease. In recent years Coconut oil is receiving attention as a Functional food oil and its consumption has dramatically risen. Coconut oil has been claimed to have beneficial effects on health. There are rarely published studies from Saudi Arabia exploring the awareness about benefits or risks of coconut oil. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the knowledge of students of Hail University about the effects of coconut oil on health with a comparison between females (scientific and Literary College) and males (scientific and Literary College). Also, this report aims to review the available literature about benefits and risks of coconut oil consumption and highlight its positive effects on health. Results of the present study was concluded that students of University have a moderate knowledge about effect of coconut oil on human health but the knowledge of female students more than male students. Comparison between students of scientific College and Literary College in level of knowledge about healthy importance of coconut oil show a none significant difference in all questions. The present work concluded that coconut oil is the best oil for health and reported the need to increase the knowledge of students about beneficial of coconut oil by distributing booklets or by health education program to highlight its positive effects on health and correct their thinking that coconut oil is harmful. Keywords: Coconut Oil, Benefits of Coconut Oil, Risks of Coconut Oil, Antimicrobial Property, Antioxidants Property
... It stimulated the blood Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine vessels formation at all periods analyzed and increased the count of fibroblasts and collagen deposition after 7 and 14 days (Figure 3 and Table 5). Nevin and Rajamohan [40] showed that coconut oil was able to accelerate wound healing in rats, increasing the collagen deposition and limiting oxidative stress in the wound tissue. e authors attributed the effect to the presence of medium-chain fatty acids (C:6 to C:12) and also to minor compounds found in the nonsaponifiable fraction of the oil, such as polyphenols, vitamin E, and provitamin A. Both major fatty acids found in babassu oil and lauric and oleic acids have been reported to positively affect wound healing. ...
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Babassu (Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae) is a palm tree endemic to Brazil and found mainly in the borders of Amazon forest, where the harvesting of its fruits is an important source of income for more than 300,000 people. Among the communities of coconut breakers women, babassu oil is used in culinary, as fuel, and mostly as medicinal oil for the treatment of skin wounds and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the wound healing effects of babassu oil. In vitro, babassu oil increased the migration of L929 fibroblasts, inhibited the production of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and increased the levels of INF-γ and IL-6 cytokines production. In vivo, babassu oil accelerated the healing process in a full-thickness splinted wound model, by an increase in the fibroblasts number, blood vessels, and collagen deposition in the wounds. The babassu oil also increased the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the wound site and showed an anti-inflammatory effect in a chronic ear edema model, reducing ear thickness, epidermal hyperplasia, and myeloperoxidase activity. Thus, these data corroborate the use of babassu oil in folk medicine as a remedy to treat skin wounds.
... Moreover, VCO can be easily absorbed into the skin due to its relatively small molecular structure, being a helpful agent into the skin healing process due to its intrinsic properties. Studies related to the topical application of VCO showed that it was effective in promoting wound skin healing through faster epithelization (Nevin & Rajamohan, 2010). This fact could be explained due to the presence of active compounds, namely fatty acids, polyphenols, vitamins, and antioxidants, that can work together in a wound healing process. ...
Article
The design of innovative pharmaceutical products, able to reach unexplored market niches, requires natural materials use with improved swelling and moisture properties. Herein, chitosan (CHT), a natural polymer, was combined with virgin coconut oil (VCO), a resource extracted from coconut kernels, to develop emulsion-based films for biomedical purposes. The film's properties were tuned by changing VCO concentrations, and the structural, morphological, and physical properties of the films were evaluated. The CHT/VCO-based film morphology showed the presence of VCO droplets at different sizes, both in the surface and inner part. Moreover, the capability to develop CHT/VCO-films as superabsorbent materials was shown. The film extracts cytotoxicity was assessed using human adipose stem cells, and metabolic activity was confirmed. The findings suggest that incorporating a small volume of VCO into the CHT system, superabsorbent materials with the potential to be applied in biomedical devices that require high swelling properties, can be developed.
... Gibbs phase diagram ( Fig.1) can be used to show the influence of changes in the volume fractions of the phases within the microemulsion system. Coconut oil is obtained from Cocos nucifera Linne (Family: Arecaceace) and due to its high content in saturated fatty acids (exemplified by lauric acid and myristic acid), it is used in the synthesis of most cosmetic detergents., and has been applied topically to promote wound healing (Nevin and Rajamohan, 2010). Some of the most promising research has been in the area of using lauric acid or monolaurin, both derived from coconut oil, in treatment of antibiotic resistance (Abbas et al, 2017). ...
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Background: Oil derived from Cocos nucifera Linne (CNL) has been used in formulating creams; however, its use in formulation of microemulsion is not well documented in literature.Objective: Oils obtained from CNL were characterized, used in the formulation of microemulsions and were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties in comparison with Castor oil BP (CO) and commercially available coconut oil (CACO).Methodology: Oil from CNL was extracted by maceration in hot – water and petroleum ether to yield naturally extracted oil (NEO) and chemically extracted oil (CEO) respectively. The NEO and CEO were used in formulating microemulsions containing pre-determined ratios (3:7, 1:1, 9:1) of oil to surfactant mix (Smix) [containing polyethylene glycol: Tween 80® at ratio 2:1] Characterization of NEO, CEO and microemulsions were carried out using elemental constituents, rheology, physico-and phyto-chemical analysis, thermal stability and antimicrobial profiles as parameters. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA at p<0.05Results: The NEO and CEO contained antraquinones and terpenoids, but were devoid of lead, copper, zinc, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids. Viscosity profiles were in the order CO>CEO>CACO>NEO. The microemulsions were in the size range 54.24±0.26-89.08±0.07 μm. Microemulsions of oil:Smix (3:7) were the most stable. Inhibition ranking was Candida sp.D25 (CEO:Smix>CACO: Smix>NEO: Smix>NEO>CO>CEO), Candida sp.D33 (CEO = CO>CACO: Smix=NEO>CEO:Smix=NEO:Smix), Staphylococcus sp.DS2 (NEO>CO>CACO:Smix>NEO: Smix>CEO: Smix=CEO) and Pseudomonas sp.DP8 (NEO:Smix>CO>CACO:Smix>CEO:Smix=NEO > CEO).Conclusion: Oil derived from CNL has good potentials as an excipient in the formulation of microemulsions and the method of oil extraction had a significant effect on the antimicrobial activities and on the microemulsions formulated using the oils. Keywords: Coconut oil, extraction method, castor oil, microemulsions, antimicrobial properties.
... So, to improve the healing process of diabetic wound, the oxidative stress can be eliminated by using VCO to suppress the reactive oxygen species production. VCO was shown to promote wound healing in young rats when applied topically (Nevin & Rajamohan 2010). We have previously shown VCO to be able to promote wound healing in diabetic rats by promoting re-epithelialization and collagen synthesis (Soliman et al. 2018). ...
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Delayed wound healing is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus where it often leads to amputation. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a natural oil widely used to treat wounds and burns traditionally. It possesses potent antioxidant and antibacterial activities. This study aimed to determine the effect of VCO on the fibroblast population in diabetic wound healing. Full thickness cutaneous wound 133 tissues were collected from non-treated, VCO-treated, and silver sulfadiazine (SS)-treated diabetic rats. The tissues were then subjected to Verhoeff eosin staining and immunohistology of fibroblast and myofibroblast. Histological analysis showed increased collagen deposition with intact epidermis in the VCO treated group compared to decreased collagen deposition with damaged epidermis in both non-treated and SS-treated groups. Interestingly, more fibroblasts and myofibroblasts were observed in the non-treated group compared to the VCO-and SS-treated groups. VCO significantly promoted wound healing process in diabetic rats via promoting re-epithelialization, and increasing collagen fibres deposition and wound contraction. The results suggested VCO can be used to treat diabetic wounds.
... Beberapa hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa VCO memiliki efek yang baik untuk kesehatan. Antara lain sebagai antiinflamasi, antipiretik, anti analgetik [4,5], menurunkan kolesterol darah total, mempercepat penyembuhan luka, berfungsi sebagai antioksidan [6,7,8,9] ...
... Corroborating with the increase in GSH levels, VCO, curcumin and VCr administration has reduced the lipid peroxidation products measured in terms of TBARS. Previously VCO, as well as curcumin, are reported to improve skin antioxidant defence during dermal wound healing (29,30) and protected against oxidative damages induced by free radicals (31). In addition to the improvement of the redox status of skin tissue, in the present study, oral administration of VCO, curcumin and the combination VCr offered an improvement in hepatic antioxidant status. ...
Article
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and turmeric are traditionally being used in Indian cuisine systems; VCO is a natural combination of medium-chain triglyceride and polyphenols with established pharmacological potential. Curcumin isolated from turmeric is renowned for its anti-cancer properties, however, with limited clinical success due to poor bioavailability. Considering the lipophilic nature of VCO, curcumin added to VCO is expected to have syner-gistic/additive actions. In this study, the chemopreventive potential of curcumin enriched VCO (VCr) (4 and 8 mL/Kg orally) was analyzed in 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) (470 nmoles/200 mL/week for two weeks topical)/croton oil (3% v/v in 200 mL acetone twice a week for 6 weeks topical) induced skin papilloma. In DMBA control animals, an average incidence of 13 papilloma/mice (latency period of 11.6 ± 1.5 weeks) was recorded. Pretreatment with VCrH (8 mL/kg) had a 60% inhibition of tumor index, and an increased latency period (12.5 ± 0.9 weeks). Additionally, DMBA/croton oil-induced reduction in gluta-thione levels and concomitant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the skin microenvironment were restored by VCr. The study thus suggests that the VCr promotes antioxidant status In Vivo and imparts an improved anticarcinogenic potential. However, further studies are necessary to ascertain the improvement in bioavailability of curcumin fact. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Selain itu, MCFA memiliki beberapa fungsi dan sifat gizi, termasuk antivirus, antibakteri, antiplaque, antiprotozoal, dan antiinflamasi (Marina et al., 2009;Krishna et al., 2010;Law et al., 2014;Lim et al., 2014). Kandungan MCFA dalam VCO memberikan beberapa manfaat untuk menyembuhkan beberapa penyakit seperti diare, radang kulit, masalah pencernaan, luka ringan, cedera, dan bengkak (Nevin dan Rajamohan, 2010). VCO juga dapat mencegah berbagai penyakit degeneratif seperti kanker, kolesterol, jantung, dan berpengaruh positif terhadap sistem imun penderita HIV/AIDS ( Law et al., 2014). ...
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p>Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) production with dry extraction oils such as copra is time consuming and resulting in quality. The purpose of this study was to optimize the production of VCO using the Direct Micro Expelling-Flat Bed Dried (DME-FBD) method. This research was carried out at the Indonesian Palm Crops Research Institute (IPCRI) on January - March 2019 in the coconut processing unit of the postharvest laboratory using two coconut varieties, namely Mapanget Tall (MTT) and Salak Green Dwarf (SGD), each with 10, 11, and 12 months harvest period. The experimental design used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 repetition. The results showed that the yield of VCO oil from coconut 11 months old of MTT was 18.39% (16 nuts/L VCO) with optimum DME-FBD temperature of approximately 40-88°C on plate and 36–72°C on grated coconut meat. VCO obtained from MTT coconut has a quality of 0.07% water content, free fatty acid 0,0017%, fresh aroma coconut, non-rancid with a value of 4.50, a distinctive of coconut oil taste of 4.10, and clear color of 4.30 accordingly with SNI 7381: 2008 and export quality requirements of APCC. Almost the same quality was obtained from SGD coconut with 11 months of harvest with a water content of 0.06%, free fatty acids 0.0018%, a fresh aroma of coconut with a value of 4.30, a distinctive of coconut oil taste of 4.00, and clear color 4.10. ABSTRAK Produksi Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) dengan ekstraksi kering seperti kopra membutuhkan waktu lama dan metode yang digunakan kurang optimal. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk melakukan optimasi produksi VCO dengan menggunakan metode Direct Micro Expelling-Flat Bed Dried (DME-FBD). Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Januari-Maret 2019 di unit pengolahan kelapa laboratorium pascapanen, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma menggunakan dua varietas kelapa, yaitu kelapa Dalam Mapanget (DMT) dan kelapa Genjah Salak (GSK), masing-masing dengan umur panen 10, 11, dan 12 bulan. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rendemen minyak VCO tertinggi dari kelapa DMT umur 11 bulan, sebesar 18,39% (16 butir/L VCO) dengan suhu optimum sekitar 40-88°C di pelat dan 35-72°C pada kelapa parut, sedangkan rendemen VCO kelapa GSK umur 11 bulan sebesar 16,38%, tetapi dengan jumlah buah 26 butir untuk mendapatkan 1 liter VCO, dengan suhu optimum sekitar 42-94°C di pelat dan 36-72°C pada kelapa parut. VCO yang diperoleh dari kelapa DMT mempunyai kualitas kadar air 0,07%, asam lemak bebas 0,0017%, aroma khas kelapa segar, tidak tengik dengan nilai 4,50, rasa normal, khas minyak kelapa 4,10, dan warna jernih 4,30 yang sesuai dengan SNI 7381:2008 dan syarat mutu ekspor APCC. Kualitas yang hampir sama diperoleh dari kelapa GSK dengan umur panen 11 bulan dihasilkan kadar air 0,06%, asam lemak bebas 0,0018%, aroma segar khas kelapa, tidak tengik dengan nilai 4,30, rasa khas minyak kelapa 4,00, dan warna jernih 4,10. </p
... The antioxidant activity of the oil was analyzed and the results in (Table 4) shows that VCO has ability to fight against free radicals in human body as also documented in literature [23][24][25]. Free radicals are toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that can cause significant damage to living cells and tissues, the process known as oxidative stress while antioxidant are the vitamins and minerals which the body uses to counteract oxidative stress. Survey of literature indicated that VCO is a nutritional and medicinal food in the traditional coconut growing areas [26]. ...
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Virgin coconut oil can be a good food supplement due to its high medium-chain fatty acids unlike other cooking oils which contain long-chain fatty acids. This research is to investigate the physiochemical, antioxidant properties, proximate and nutritional values of Virgin coconut oil (VCO). The extract of virgin coconut oil was investigated for its proximate and nutritional composition showed that coconut oil can be good food supplement. The physiochemical parameters showed low iodine, saponification, peroxide, and acid value of 0.5918, 134.50, 1.5 and 0.673 meq/kg respectively. The antioxidant activity was investigated using DPPH free radical scavenging, the result showed that the VCO inhibits in the range of (37.0-61.0) % while Vitamin C (control) inhibits within (93-97) %. The proximate and nutritional values analyses showed that the moisture content, ash content, crude fibre, crude protein, crude lipid, and carbohydrate were 14.28, 1.075, 7.22, 9.255, 39.72 and 28.45 respectively. Minerals found were K, C, Na, Fe, Ca, Zn and P 138.15, 0.015, 58.6, 1.82, 38.55, 5.35 and 0.79 mg/kg respectively.
... Besides, CO is useful for Alzheimer's disease, controlling blood sugar level, weight loss, and wound healing [34]. According to earlier studies, CO can help collagen binding and fibroblast proliferation [35]. Evangelista et al. used CO to heal skin eczema in children and observed that about 46% of patients were treated after eight weeks [36]. ...
Article
Coconut oil (CO) is a naturally derived bio-oil which exhibits specific characteristics such as biocompatibility and antibacterial activity. In this work, the biological properties of poly(caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibers are improved using CO encapsulation. This bio-oil was added to the PCL/Gel polymer solution with different concentrations (5–40%). Nanofibers were crosslinked using glutaraldehyde vapor. Different types of characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, DSC, tensile measurements, water contact angle, and water vapor permeability were used to study the chemical, physical, thermal, and morphological properties of resultant nanofibers. Results showed an average diameter of 300–370 nm for as-spun nanofibers, which increased to 360–470 nm after the crosslinking reaction. The presence of CO was confirmed using FTIR and DSC experiments. Moreover, results indicated that the presence of CO increases the hydrophilicity and water vapor permeability of nanofibers, which are desirable for their final application. Biological tests, such as antibacterial activity, cell viability, and cell morphology tests were performed to evaluate the possible application of the produced nanofibers for wound healing applications. Results indicated that the crosslinked PCL/Gel nanofibers containing 20% CO exhibited the highest cell compatibility and antibacterial activity against gram-positive (S. aureus) and gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria.
... Kemoterapi banyak dikenal sebagai metode pengobatan kankeryang menggunakan obat-obatan khusus guna membunuh sel-sel kanker yang bersarang di dalam tubuh. Penggunaan obat-obatan ini yang sering kali menyebabkan efek samping pada pengidapnya yang meliputi mual, muntah, kelelahan, rambut rontok, perubahan pada kulit, nafsu makan menurun, penurunan memori, perubahan emosional, masalah kesuburan, dan lain sebagainya [14] Efek samping dari kemoterapi ini tentunya tidak selalu sama pada setiap orang. Seorang terkena kanker kolom bisa saja mengalamiPalmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesiausai menjalani kemoterapi, sementara efek samping yang muncul pada pasien lainnya mungkin tidak terlalu parah. ...
Article
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Patients with colon cancer undergoing chemotherapy at the Pure Teguh Memorial Hospital both inpatient and outpatient experience many Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia. Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia incident that occurs in colon cancer patients due to side effects of chemotherapy. The high incidence of Plamr-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia in colon cancer patients is related to the lack of immersion of the feet with water and the application of a misture of VCO and olive oil. This type of research is a quasy experimental study of post test only non eguivalent control group design that aims to determine the effectiveness of soaking the foot with water and applying a mixture of VCO and Olive Oil in overcoming the side effects of chemotherapy (Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia) in colon cancer patients in Pure Teguh Memorial Hospital.The population in this study were all colon cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy in the Murni Teguh Memorial hospital chemotherapy center as many as 90 patients and a sample of 90 patients consisting of 45 people in the intervention group and 45 in the control group). Data were analyzed with chi square test. The results of the study are the effectiveness of foot immersion soaking with water and the application of a mixture of VCO and olive oil to overcome the side effects of chemotherapy (Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia) in colon cancer patients at Murni Teguh Memorial Hospital.As a suggestion in this study, it is expected that immersion of foot hands with water and the application of a mixture of VCO and olive oil to reduce Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia in colon cancer patients at Murni Teguh Memorial Hospital and for patients should immerse foot hands with water and basting mixture of VCO olive oil data to reduce the incidence of Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia.
... International Journal of Biomaterials 3 is research conducted by Nevin et al. on 18 Sprague Dawley with excision wounds proved that VCO was able to increase the proliferation of fibroblast cells so that the density of collagen fibers increased, whereas wounds treated with VCO healed faster, indicated by a decrease in complete epithelialization time and a higher rate of reepithelialization of various skin components. Pepsin-soluble collagen also showed a significant increase in VCO-treated wounds [32,33]. Another study conducted by Jannah et al. on Rattus norvegicus applied VCO gel after tooth extraction. ...
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Background: Virgin coconut oil is a natural product from coconut that has many benefits such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. Inflammatory disease of the periodontal tissues has a high prevalence worldwide. The main etiology of periodontitis plaque of biofilm contains colonies of pathogenic microorganisms. The occurrence of inflammation in the periodontal tissue stimulates the release of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and TGF-β. Treatment for periodontitis can be performed starting from initial therapy and usually accompanied by additional therapy such as local drug delivery. VCO can be used as an alternative to antibiotics. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of VCO gel on periodontal tissue regeneration materials through the expression of TNF-α and TGF-β1. Methods: This is an experimental laboratory with a posttest-only control group design. VCO was made from grated fresh coconut and then mixed with NaCMC to obtain gel viscosity. The subjects of this study were 30 male periodontitis-induced Wistar rats by injecting Porphyromonas gingivalis into the gingival sulcus. Wistar rats were then divided into 3 groups. On the 7th and 14th days, the rats were sacrificed and the jaw was sampled to determine the amount of TNF-α and TGF-β1 expression in the regenerative process of periodontal tissue. Result: The amount of TNF-α and TGF-β1 increased significantly in the treatment group, but not as much as the increase in the positive control and negative control groups. Conclusion: VCO gel can affect the expression of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the regeneration process of periodontal tissue in periodontitis-induced rats.
... VCO can lose weight or obesity and increase HDL levels and reduce blood levels of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) by dissolving cholesterol; thus, blood circulation becomes smooth [15] [16]. Recently, VCO emerged as a health supplement because of its medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) content which was found to have potential as an anti-obesity treatment and has been shown to cure some minor ailments such as diarrhea, skin inflammation [17] [18]. VCO Additionally contains antioxidants. ...
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This study aims to determine the effect of High-Density Lipoprotein (VCO) dose on mice's blood serum High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This study is an experimental study using 24 mice divided into four groups. Control (-), Control (+) were fed egg yolks 0.025 mL/g body weight, Dose 0.02 and Dose 0.025 were experimental groups, given egg yolks 0.025 mL/g mice body weight and VCO at a dose of 0.020 mL, and 0.025 mL/g body weight of mice. HDL levels were determined on days 7, 14, and 21 by enzymatic method using 20 D* spectrophotometry. The statistical test found that the length of time giving VCO significantly affected blood serum HDL levels in mice with Fcount > Ftable (Fcount = 7.128 and Ftable = 5.14). In contrast, variations in VCO dose did not significantly affect blood serum HDL levels. mice with Fcount < Ftable (Fcount = 3.33 and Ftable = 4.76). The highest HDL level was at a dose of 0.020 mL/g body weight of mice with a treatment period of 14 days, namely 164,033 mg/dL of blood.
... Viscosity is defined as a measure of resistance to deformation by shear stress or tensile stress [32]. Viscosity depends on the droplet size, shear rate, droplet size distribution and density of the oil; which are influenced by the type of emulsifying agent incorporated in the formulation [33]. Emulsions generally exhibit non-Newtonian flow behaviour at low shear rate and Newtonian flow behaviour at high shear rate [34]. ...
Article
In this study, the stabilizing potential of corn starch acidified with hydrochloric acid (ACS) in comparison with Tween 80® was evaluated in vitamin E enriched coconut emulsions for use in extemporaneous topical formulations. Emulsions containing vitamin E and coconut oil (2:3) as lipid phase and different concentrations (1.5 – 5.0 %w/w) of ACS (or Tween80®) in phosphate buffer as aqueous phase were formulated at 27± 2 ⁰C. , Droplet sizes and shapes, pH and rheological properties were evaluated. Acidified CS was analysed using FTIR spectroscopy Emulsions stabilized with ACS and Tween80® were cream and yellow coloured respectively, with the intensity of the colour increasing as the concentration increased. The emulsions were non-offensive and easily re-dispersed on shaking. Emulsions containing ACS had larger droplet sizes (18.34± 1.14 - 33.27± 1.32 µm) and were more spherically shaped with higher pH values(6.80-6.95), showing dilatant and pseudoplastic flows at low and high shear rates respectively. The viscosity of emulsions stabilized at 2.5 %w/w and 5.0 %w/w remained unchanged after seven days. Acidified corn starch has stabilizing potentials comparable with Tween 80® when incorporated in vitamin E enriched coconut oil emulsions for extemporaneous topical formulations. Keywords: Coconut oil emulsions; Vitamin E; Acidified corn starch; Tween80®; Viscosity Emulsion stability, Extemporaneous topical formulations
... It involves inflammatory reactions, proliferation and tissue remodelling. According to the previous studies, animal and plant extracted oils and fatty acids possess wound healing potential [16,17] and deficiency of Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) such as linoleic or oleic acid, results in delayed wound healing. Both oleic and linoleic acid can alter the function and composition of membrane rafts through eicosanoidindependent mechanism [18]. ...
Article
Medicinal oils, including fixed and essential oils, are one of the most ancient forms of medicines. Animals and plants are the major source of fixed oils which have been reported to treat various ailments, such as urinary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal disorders, bacterial, fungal and protozoal infections etc. Medicinal oils, especially of animal origin are; however, ignored and rarely investigated in contemporary modern medical research. This study was aimed to investigate the various pharmacological activities of fixed oil of Gallus gallus domesticus (Egg oil, Fo.Gg). Fo.Gg was investigated for its wound healing potential by using excisional wound model, anti-arthritic activity by following turpentine oil-induced acute arthritis model, antipyretic activity by yeast-induced pyrexia, anxiolytic activity by adopting hole board, light/dark exploration and elevated plus maze models, antidepressant activity by forced swim test and tail suspension model and antiamnesic activity by Y-maze model. Fo.Gg showed significant healing potential as evident from increase in percent wound contraction and decrease in period of epithelialization and also the significant decrease in paw and ankle joint diameter in anti-arthritic activity. It showed dose-dependent (i.e. 10, 30 and 50%) decrease in rectal temperature when compared to the control group, also showed significant anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-amnesic activities. These pharmacological activities may be attributed to the antioxidant as well as radical scavenging potential of oil components especially polyphenols, oleic acid and linoleic acid. Thus, the results of the study conclude that egg oil possesses wound healing, anti-arthritic, antipyretic, anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-amnesic potential. The study provides scientific ground for the folkloric use of the oil in traditional system of medicine; however, further studies are required to explore the possible mechanism(s) of action.
... Similar results were reported by previous study on chitosan film incorporated norfloxacin [18]. Overall, all the films were in the range of commercial wound dressing products which is 90-2893 g m -2 day -1 [20]. ...
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In an effort to produce ideal wound dressing, gellan gum/collagen hydrogel films containing different concentrations of gatifloxacin were prepared via evaporative casting method. The films were examined in terms of physical appearances, water uptake and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR). All the films showed good physical appearances. Swelling percentages of the films were decreased, whereas WVTR values were increased as the addition of gatifloxacin was increased. Swelling percentage of gellan gum/collagen film with the lowest percentage of gatifloxacin (GG/C-GAT01) has the highest swelling ratio (2057%). Meanwhile, the WVTR value of GG/C-GAT1 has the highest WVTR value among all films which is 1245 g m ⁻² day ⁻¹ . The formulation of GG/C films with the addition of gatifloxacin with good water absorbance and acceptable WVTRs value offered promising materials to be applied as wound dressing materials.
... There was an increased level of pepsin-soluble collagen (higher collagen cross-linking) in VCO treated wounds compared to controls. Histopathology showed increased fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization in these wounds [39]. ...
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Anti-aging is one of the top goals in the field of health care and aesthetics. Anti-aging cosmetics derived from nature are oriented to long-term development, bringing safety to users and being environmentally friendly. The aim of this study was to develop an anti-aging cosmetic formulation process based on coconut oil in combination with deer antler stem cell extract. The results show that the presence of deer antler stem cell extract added to the foundation made the serum product highly stable and helped improve skin aging significantly after 2 weeks of use. The skin site where the serum product was applied showed a smooth and elastic skin surface, with very few fine lines and shallow wrinkles. Serum reduced the number of wrinkles (48.09% compared to commercial serum (ME) and 60.31% compared to positive control (PC)), reduced skin recovery time (39.31% compared to ME and 67.1% of PC) after two weeks of use. After 2 weeks of use, collagen density increased 10.18% compared to ME and 63.76% compared to control. Epidermal thickness increased by 106.1% compared to PC and 121.7% compared to ME
... Besides, the swelling and redness of the wound is also decreasing. The wound characteristic is significantly different from the control group, where adding te VCO into the wound treatment make the wound become dry and the formed of fibroblast tissue is also stimulated (K.G. Nevin T. Rajamohan, 2010). Based on the interviews to the patients, the pain scales of the patients are also significantly lowering. ...
... In this study, rat burn assay was employed to study the delayed healing process in that form a problem in most species of animals and to give highlights to the effect of VCO extract to the healing process alone and the Synergistic effect of the VCO and fucine on this wounds. The analysis showed that coconut oil (VCO) has a significant positive effect on wound repair, though promote and accelerate the reepithelialization process in wound healing of the wound in rats (Nevin et al., 2010), and its effect on the cell viability through the fibroblast cell line (Zunairah et al., 2017), also, our study found the total collagen and elastin content of the granulation tissue from both VCO-fucine treated animal groups were found to be higher significantly as compared with the G1and G2 (table1) on day 10. The principal component of the extracellular matrix and the main granular protein Collagen, so the collagen 's role in the healing process starts during the injury and lasts for several weeks to months after the injury is closed (Shoshan, 1981), on the other hand, the total DNA of the granulated tissue was increased by VCO use, this rise in DNA indicates the hyperplasia of the cells. ...
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The goal of this study was to improve the appropriate and economic treatment of wounds, agency for improving injury healing processes using an animal model with the use of indigenous material such as VCO oil, we used 24 rats, they divided four groups each group (6) rats, first group (G1) treatment by coconut oil, (G2) treatment by fucine ointment, (G3) treatment by coconut oil as the first group and treated with fucine ointment and Control negative (G4) control negative, Every animal treated daily as study design in groups of 10 days. VCO group and VCO-fucine treated group wounds cured much faster than other groups, as the time for complete epithelization(10days) decreases and different skin components increase. Pepsinsoluble collagen and high level of elastin showed a significant increase in VCO-fucine groups treated the wound, indicating a higher collagen cross-linking, beside the quick effect of VCO in the re-epithelialization process and increase close examination (contraction) of the wound, Conclusion: VCO's potential advantage can be due to the combined influence of multiple small biologically active components with the power activity of fucine.
... VCO, an edible oil obtained from the milk of fresh and mature kernel of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), is largely consumed and used in cooking, bakery, confectionary, and infant foods (Ghani, Channip, Hwa, Ja'afar, Yasin, & Usman, 2018). Recently, VCO emerged as a health supplement owing to its medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) contents that were found to show potential as anti-obesity treatment and were also shown to heal several minor illnesses such as diarrhoea, skin inflammations, and injuries, among others (Assunção, Ferreira, Dos Santos, Cabral, & Florencio, 2009;Nevin, & Rajamohan, 2004;Nevin, & Rajamohan, 2010). VCO is considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) by the US FDA (2020). ...
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... The antifungal and anti-bacterial properties of coconut oil make it an excellent wound salve. A study found that when rats were treated with coconut oil on their wounds, inflammatory markers were decreased and there was an increase in the production of collagen which resulted in the enhanced healing speed of the wound [49,54]. Eating coconut oil has also showed that it provides strong antiinflammatory effects. ...
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... VCO also has antimicrobial properties [9]. As regard wound healing, VCO can reduce inflammation in palatoplasty surgical wound and VCO flavonoids can improve wound re-epithelialization, increase anti-oxidant level, and increase the amount of granulation tissue [11]. Moreover, VCO can reduce infection [9]. ...
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... 20,21 Topical applications of virgin coconut oil are effective in promoting wound healing through faster epithelization, increased neovascularization, fibroblast proliferation, pepsin-soluble collagen synthesis, and turnover of collagen. 22 Coconut oil enhances protective barrier function of the stratum corneum by increasing the expression of cornified envelope components. 20 It reduces transepidermal water loss and increase skin capacitance, which are beneficial and effective in conditions such as xerosis, atopic dermatitis, hence, its use as moisturizers. ...
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This study was aimed at determining the effect of different dosages of coconut oil on the histology of the testis. The rats in the control group were administered with distilled water while those in the low, moderate and high dose groups were administered with coconut oil extract of 0.5, 1.1 and 2.2ml/kg body weight respectively once daily for fourteen days. On day 14 of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed. The testes of rats from various groups were carefully dissected out and weighed. There was no significant decrease (p<0.05) in mean testicular weight of the treated rats; low dose (1.14±0.05), moderate dose (1.16±0.05) and high dose (1.12±0.06) groups compared to the control rats (1.20±0.04). The histological sections revealed proliferation of seminiferous epithelium especially that of the high dose group. In conclusion, coconut oil has no deleterious effect on the histology of the testes and could lead to increased spermatogenesis. Keywords: Cocos nucifera, testis, histology, spermatogenesis
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Diabetic ulcers are open sores on the skin through into the dermis, which if not properly managed, can increase amputation cases. Over the past few decades, ozone generated using plasma medical technology has been investigated to have the ability as an agent that helps wound healing. This study aims to evaluate the effect of topical ozonated VCO on the diabetic wound healing in the diabetic mice model. This study was an experimental study with post-test control design. Ulcer wound model was made in 50 diabetic male Wistar mice. They are divided into 5 groups, the first group (control) was given conventional therapy and the other groups (treatment) were given conventional therapy and topical ozonated VCO with different flow durations (0 min, 90 min, 7 h, 14 h). Then, the characteristics of wound healing (macroscopic and wound lengths) were observed in day 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. The results of this study showed that the reduction of wound length was proportionally related to the duration of ozone flow. Topical VCO with the longer duration of ozone flow would heal the wound more quickly and had the shortest wound length at the end of the observation. VCO with ozone flow for 14 hours (16837.10 µm) had the biggest reduction of wound length, following by VCO with ozone flow for 7 hours (14209.64 µm), 90 minutes (14071.96 µm), 0 minutes (8531.99 µm), and control group (6370.77 µm). Therefore, we concluded that topical ozonated VCO improved diabetic wound healing process in diabetic ulcer mice model and can be used as adjuvant therapy for diabetic ulcers.
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Wound infection and disinfection mainly rely on the type of wounds and the development of a novel and effective way of wound repairing or healing materials. Development of novel anti-infective formulations depends on the type of wounds and mechanism of healing the wound. Nowadays, wound healing and management is quite a challenging area of research, whereas development of anti-infective formulations needs an extensive information on the pathogenesis of wound infection and its healing. This seems to be a much more complicated process which is controlled by different exogenous and endogenous factors. In the elderly, systemic disorders like diabetes, immunosuppression, venous disease, and metabolic deficiencies also affect the healing of wounds. Apart from this, accumulation of some pathogenic bacteria in skin wounds occurs where they are aggregated and immobilized in an adhesive matrix of extracellular polymeric substances which leads to the weak penetration of antibiotics and subsequently makes it difficult to eradicate the bacteria completely. This happens due to the host clearance mechanisms, i.e., antibodies and phagocytes through the microbial biofilm. In addition, toxins produced from bacteria lead to an excessive, detrimental inflammatory response such as development of antibiotic resistance and delayed wound healing followed by prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, wound infections and its healing have emerged as a big cause of death and burden toward the healthcare system. Based on the above scenario, different anti-infective therapies and formulations were suggested which will be described in this chapter. Several antimicrobial therapies as well as antimicrobials are used for wound healing which is discussed in this chapter. Besides this, some naturally derived antimicrobials such as essential oil and honey also play a key role in curing wounds. In addition, nanoparticles also help in wound healing by an excellent approach to speeding up the recovery of acute and chronic wounds, by energizing proper movement through the different phases of healing.
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The demand for wound care products, especially advanced and active wound care products is huge. In this study, gellan gum (GG) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were utilized to develop microemulsion-based hydrogel for wound dressing materials. A ternary phase diagram was constructed to obtain an optimized ratio of VCO, water, and surfactant to produce VCO microemulsion. The VCO microemulsion was incorporated into gellan gum (GG) hydrogel (GVCO) and their chemical interaction, mechanical performance, physical properties, and thermal behavior were examined. The stress-at-break (σ) and Young’s modulus (YM) of GVCO hydrogel films were increased along with thermal behavior with the inclusion of VCO microemulsion. The swelling degree of GVCO hydrogel decreased as the VCO microemulsion increased and the water vapor transmission rate of GVCO hydrogels was comparable to commercial dressing in the range of 332–391 g m−2 d−1. The qualitative antibacterial activities do not show any inhibition against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. In vivo studies on Sprague–Dawley rats show the wound contraction of GVCO hydrogel is best (95 ± 2%) after the 14th day compared to a commercial dressing of Smith and Nephew Opsite post-op waterproof dressing, and this result is supported by the ultrasound images of wound skin and histological evaluation of the wound. The findings suggest that GVCO hydrogel has the potential to be developed as a biomedical material.
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The control of proliferation and epithelial restitution are processes that are poorly understood. The effects of (n-3), (n-6) and trans fatty acids on proliferation of subconfluent IEC-6 cultures and restitution of wounded IEC-6 monolayers were investigated. Incorporation of supplemented fatty acids into cellular phospholipid was also assessed. Sulforhodamine B protein dye binding assay was utilized to assess the proliferative effects of fatty acids on growth of IEC-6 cultures. Incorporation of supplemental fatty acids into cellular phospholipid was examined by thin-layer chromatography combined with gas chromatography. The modulation of epithelial restitution was examined by razor blade wounding confluent IEC-6 monolayers grown in media supplemented with various fatty acids. Inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis by indomethacin during the wounding assay was also assessed. Both (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids significantly inhibited growth of this intestinal epithelial cell model at concentrations above 125 mmol/L. The trans fatty acid, linoelaidate 18:2(n-6)trans, inhibited growth of IEC-6 cells at concentrations above 250 mmol/L. Another trans fatty acid, elaidate 18:1(n-9)trans, was well-tolerated at concentrations as high as 500 mmol/L. Eicosapentanoic 20:5(n-3), linoleic 18:2(n-6), a-linolenic 18:3(n-3), g-linolenic 18:3(n-6) and arachidonic 20:4(n-6) acids all significantly enhanced cellular migration in the IEC-6 model of wound healing. Eicosapentanoate, linoleate, a-linolenate, g-linolenate and arachidonate are all capable of improving reconstitution of epithelial integrity following mucosal injury. Inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis reduced the enhancement of restitution by n-6 fatty acids back to control levels. J. Nutr. 129: 1791-1798, 1999.
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In this study antioxidant activity of methanol extract of rhizomes ofCurculigo orchioides (MEC) was investigated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-intoxicated rat liver as the experimental model. The hepatotoxic rats were administered MEC for 90 days (daily, orally at the dose of 70 mg per kg body weight). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in CCl(4)-intoxicated rats was evidenced by a marked increment in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diene conjugates (CD), and also a distinct diminution in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver. In CCl(4)+MEC-treated rats these biochemical parameters attained an almost normal level. The decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GRD) in CCl(4)-intoxicated rats, and its retrieval towards near normalcy in CCl(4)+MEC-administered rats revealed the efficacy of MEC in combating oxidative stress due to hepatic damage. Elevated level of glutathione transferase(GTS) observed in hepatotoxic rats too showed signs of retuming towards normalcy in MEC co-administered animals, thus corroborating the antioxidant efficacy of MEC. The findings provide a rationale for further studies on isolation of active principles and its pharmacological evaluation.
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Phenolic compounds present in the nonsaponifiable fraction of coconut oil were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with florescence detection. Mass spectra of the phenolic compounds were also obtained separately by LC–MS to confirm the presence of the phenolic compounds. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and (+/−) catechin were observed in coconut oil. Phenolic acid fraction of the coconut oil prepared by boiling coconut milk (traditional coconut oil) was more complex compared with that of coconut oil prepared by pressing copra (commercial coconut oil). Total phenol content of traditional coconut oil was nearly seven times higher than that of commercial coconut oil (618 ± 46 vs. 91 ± 11 mg kg−1), suggesting that the phenol content varies with the extraction method.
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The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of dietary linoleic acid (LA) intake on the growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice, together with their invasive capacity and secretion of type IV collagenase (gelatinase) in vitro. Each tumor cell line (10(6) cells) was injected into a right-sided mammary fat pad in 60 mice with equal numbers (30 mice/group) assigned to isocaloric diets containing 23% (w/w) total fat and 2% or 12% (w/w) LA. The MDA-MB-435-cell mammary fat pad tumors became palpable earlier and initially they grew more rapidly, but by 6 weeks the MDA-MB-231-cell tumors exhibited an acceleration of growth which was enhanced by the high-LA diet. At necropsy, 12 weeks after the tumor cell injections, the mean weight [10.2 +/- 1.4 g(SEM)] of mammary fat pad MDA-MB-231 cell tumors in 12% LA-fed mice was significantly higher (6.7 +/- 1.4 g) than that of the mice fed 2% LA; also, it was higher than that of MDA-MB-435 cell tumors in the 12% LA-fed mice (3.6 +/- 0.1 g) or the 2% LA-fed mice (3.3 +/- 0.1 g) (each P < 0.001). Mice fed the 12% LA diet had a higher incidence of grossly visible MDA-MB-435 cell pulmonary metastatic nodules than those fed the 2% LA diet (67% versus 33%; P < 0.02), more metastatic lesions (5.7 +/- 1.6 versus 2.3 +/- 0.8; P < 0.05), and greater total volumes (62.0 +/- 25.9 versus 24.8 +/- 9.0 mm3; P < 0.02) per mouse. Of the MDA-MB-231 cell tumor-bearing mice, only 1 in the 12% LA dietary group and 2 in the 2% LA dietary group had macroscopic nodules but the incidence of microscopic metastases was 68 and 42%, respectively. The MDA-MB-231 cell line exhibited a relatively high capacity for invasion in vitro and constitutively high levels of both total type IV collagenolytic activity and M(r) 92,000 gelatinase production which were unaffected by LA. In contrast, MDA-MB-435 cells had approximately only one-sixth the invasive capacity and secreted a relatively low level of type IV collagenase and little of the M(r) 92,000 gelatinase; both invasion and enzyme production were stimulated by LA.
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Healing of wounds, whether from accidental injury or surgical intervention, involves the activity of an intricate network of blood cells, tissue types, cytokines, and growth factors. This results in increased cellular activity, which causes an intensified metabolic demand for nutrients. Nutritional deficiencies can impede wound healing, and several nutritional factors required for wound repair may improve healing time and wound outcome. Vitamin A is required for epithelial and bone formation, cellular differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin C is necessary for collagen formation, proper immune function, and as a tissue antioxidant. Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the skin; however, the effect of vitamin E on surgical wounds is inconclusive. Bromelain reduces edema, bruising, pain, and healing time following trauma and surgical procedures. Glucosamine appears to be the rate-limiting substrate for hyaluronic acid production in the wound. Adequate dietary protein is absolutely essential for proper wound healing, and tissue levels of the amino acids arginine and glutamine may influence wound repair and immune function. The botanical medicines Centella asiatica and Aloe vera have been used for decades, both topically and internally, to enhance wound repair, and scientific studies are now beginning to validate efficacy and explore mechanisms of action for these botanicals. To promote wound healing in the shortest time possible, with minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring to the patient, it is important to explore nutritional and botanical influences on wound outcome.
Chapter
The objective of this chapter is to discuss the roles of hyaluronan (HA) and proteoglycans (PGs) in developmental processes and tissue remodeling. In the first section I have summarized recent progress on the molecular basis of HA and PG interactions with the surface of cells, since this is the most likely means whereby HA and PGs would influence cell behavior during development. This is followed by a review of cellular studies, mainly performed in vitro, that implicate HA and PGs in specific aspects of cell behavior that would be relevant to development in vivo. Finally, I have chosen three developmental systems to illustrate ways in which HA or PGs are involved in actual morphogenetic and differentiative processes.
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In this experimental study, we investigated whether vitamin E and EGb 761 have any influence on endotoxemic rats and liver histopathology. Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals in each group. The control rats were untreated and comprised group 1. Two ml serum was applied to the rats intraperitoneally (i.p.) in group 2, and then 0.5 ml endotoxin solution (E. coli 0:157:H7, 109 bacteria/ml) was given to the same group two hours later. Not only endotoxin solution but also vitamin E (600 mg/kg) was given to the rats in group 3. Endotoxin solution and EGb 761 (50 mg/kg) were given to the rats in group 4. The experiment lasted 24 hours. In group 2, liver histopathology showed large hepatocytes surrounding the mononuclear inflammatory cells, enlarged v. centralis, increased connective tissue fields, and moderately active hyperemia. In group 3, there was a decrease in v. centralis enlargement. In group 4, there was near to normal width vena centralis. The experimental data were analyzed by Anova and Scheffe's test. In groups 3 and 4, prominent amelioration was seen in tissue samples in biochemical evaluations, along with increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) values were more significant in group 2 than in groups 3 and 4. We suggest that anti-oxidants such as vitamin E and EGb 761 can be useful in preventing cellular liver damage caused by oxygen free radicals.
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The influence of seed suspension of Trigonella foenum graceum (commonly known as fenugreek) was investigated for wound healing properties in excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. The seed suspension of T. foenum graceum 1 ml/kg was given either topically or orally once a day. The granulation tissues formed were removed after 4, 8, 12, and 16 days of post excision wounding; and biochemical parameters such as DNA, total protein, total collagen, and hexosamine were estimated. The suspension increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increases in DNA, protein, and collagen contents of the granulation tissues. Quicker and better maturation and cross-linking of collagen was observed in the suspension-treated rats, as indicated by the high stability of acid soluble collagen and increase in aldehyde content and tensile strength. The orally treated wound was found to epithelize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was higher, as compared with the control wounds. The results show that T. foenum graceum produced different actions on the various phases of wound repair.
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O-2, H2O2 and •OH are highly toxic to cells. Cellular antioxidant enzymes, and the free-radical scavengers normally protect a cell from toxic effects of the ROS. However, when generation of the ROS overtakes the antioxidant defense of the cells, oxidative damage of the cellular macromolecules (lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) occurs, leading finally to various pathological conditions. ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation, oxidation of proteins, and DNA damage are well-known outcomes of oxygen-derived free radicals, leading to cellular pathology and ultimately to cell death. The mechanism of ROS-mediated oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and DNA has been extensively studied. The site-specific oxidative damage of some of the susceptible amino acids of proteins is now regarded as the major cause of metabolic dysfunction during pathogenesis. ROS have also been implicated in the regulation of at least two well-defined transcription factors which play an important role in the expression of various genes encoding proteins that are responsible for tissue injury. One of the significant benefits of the studies on ROS will perhaps be in designing of a suitable antioxidant therapy to control the ROS-mediated oxidative damage, and the disease processes.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the procedures employed for the analysis of the sugar components of glycoproteins. Most of the methods used for the estimation of the monosaccharides present in glycoproteins are colorimetric in nature. Because of the relatively low specificity of some of these color reactions, it is often important to apply them only after appropriate separation of the constituents. In many cases complete identification, preferably by chromatographic means, of all the sugar and amino acid constituents of a glycoprotein should precede any colorimetric analysis so that potentially interfering substances may be taken into account. The hydrolytic release of the monosaccharides is also considered in the chapter. The optimal conditions of acid hydrolysis for the monosaccharides vary substantially because of differences both in the stability of their glycosidic bonds and in their susceptibility to destruction during the hydrolysis. One of the prerequisites for an accurate analysis of the monosaccharide components of a polymer is finding hydrolysis conditions under which all of a given sugar is released and yet is not significantly destroyed.
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Virgin coconut oil (VCO) directly extracted from fresh coconut meat at 50°C temperature was tested for its effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels in male Sprague–Dawley rats, compared to copra oil (CO) and groundnut oil (GO) as control. Oils were fed to rats for 45 days along with a semi-synthetic diet and after the experimental period various biochemical parameters were done. Individual fatty acid analyses of VCO and CO were done using gas chromatography. Effect of polyphenol fraction isolated from the oils was also tested for the ability to prevent in vitro microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4. The results showed that GO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, reduced the levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation, indicated by the very high MDA and conjugate diene content in the tissues. PF fraction from VCO was found to have more inhibitory effect on microsomal lipid peroxidation compared to that from the other two oils. VCO with more unsaponifiable components viz. vitamin E and polyphenols than CO exhibited increased levels of antioxidant enzymes and prevented the peroxidation of lipids in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. These results showed that VCO is superior in antioxidant action than CO and GO. This study has proved that VCO is beneficial as an antioxidant.
Article
We studied the effect of four rapeseed oils with different fatty acid profiles on parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans in a model experiment with hamsters. The hamsters were divided into seven groups and fed a semi-synthetic, cholesterol-enriched diet (5 g/kg diet) containing 15% of the fat in question for a period of six weeks. The following rapeseed oils were used: (1) conventional rapeseed oil (6% saturated fatty acids [SFA], 64% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFA], 18% linoleic acid [LA], 9% α-linolenic acid [ALA]), (2) linoleic acid-rich rapeseed oil (6% SFA, 61% MUFA, 28% LA, 2% ALA), (3) oleic acid-rich rapeseed oil (6% SFA, 74% MUFA, 11% LA, 5% ALA), (4) myristic acid-rich rapeseed oil (11% myristic acid, 35% SFA, 44% MUFA, 14% LA, 5% ALA). Sunflower oil, olive oil and lard were used as control fats. The concentrations of the lipids in the plasma, in the lipoprotein fractions and in the liver, the fatty acid composition of various tissues, the tocopherol status and the susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to in vitro-oxidation were determined. The concentrations of total cholesterol found in the plasma and in the LDL fraction and the ratios of LDL to HDL were similar after feeding the four different types of rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and olive oil. Lard produced the highest concentrations of cholesterol in plasma and the LDL fraction and the highest ratio of LDL to HDL. Feeding conventional, oleic acid- and myristic acid-rich rapeseed oils resulted in markedly lower ratios of arachidonic to eicosapentaenoic acid in the lipids of the liver and the erythrocytes. This is considered beneficial for the formation of eicosanoids. The lag-time before the onset of peroxidation of the LDL lipids, induced by copper ions, was not statistically significant between the seven hamster groups suggesting that the susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was similar after feeding all types of fat. Considering all parameters obtained in the used hamster model it is obvious that all four rapeseed oils are at least as favourable as olive oil or sunflower oil.
Article
The histology of the tail and its autotomy planes in Anolis carolinensis follows the same basic plan as that described for other lizards. Variations in detail which are of importance to the present paper are described. The normal regeneration process was studied using histologic and autoradiographic techniques. These studies suggest: (1) that the muscle makes little if any contribution to the regenerate, (2) that the source of cells for the regenerate is primarily from the various connective tissue elements and (3) that the tail has no apical accumulation blastema. It is proposed that the term blastema as applied in amphibian limb regeneration cannot be applied in lizard tail regeneration. The growth of a normal regenerate results from extensive interstitial growth in the differentiating tissues and from subapical growth in the less differentiated areas of these tissues.
Article
Glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver supernatant from rats fed a Se-deficient diet for 2 weeks was 8% of control when measured with H2O2 but 42% of control when assayed with cumene hydroperoxide. Two peaks of glutathione peroxidase activity were present in the Sephadex G-150 gel filtration chromatogram of rat liver supernatant when 1.5 mM cumene hydroperoxide was used as substrate. Only the first peak was detected when 0.25 mM H2O2 was used as substrate. The first peak was absent from chromatograms of Se-deficient rat liver supernatants; but the second peak, which eluted at a position corresponding to M.W. = 39,000, appeared unchanged. The second peak thus represents a second glutathione peroxidase activity which catalyzes the destruction of organic hydroperoxides but has little activity toward H2O2 and which persists in severe selenium deficiency.
Article
Because coconut oil extracted by wet process (virgin coconut oil, VCO) is gaining popularity among consumers, this study was conducted to evaluate VCO compared with coconut oil extracted by dry process (copra oil, CO) for their influence on lipid parameters, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status in rats coadministered with cholesterol. VCO, CO, and cholesterol were fed in a semi-synthetic diet to 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats for 45 days. After the experimental period, lipid and lipid peroxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the polyphenolic fraction from VCO and CO were also analyzed. The results showed that lipid and lipid peroxide levels were lower in VCO-fed animals than in animals fed either CO or cholesterol alone. Antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO-fed animals were comparable with those in control animals. Although the fatty acid profiles of both oils were similar, a significantly higher level of unsaponifiable components was observed in VCO. Polyphenols from VCO also showed significant radical-scavenging activity compared with those from CO. This study clearly indicates the potential benefits of VCO over CO in maintaining lipid metabolism and antioxidant status. These effects may be attributed in part to the presence of biologically active minor unsaponifiable components.
Article
The reaction of lipid peroxides in animal tissues with thiobarbituric acid was dependent on pH of the reaction mixture as was the case for linoleic acid hydroperoxide. The optimum pH was found to be 3.5. Taking this fact into consideration, a standard procedure for the assay of lipid peroxide level in animal tissues by their reaction with thiobarbituric acid was developed as follows. Ten percent ( tissue homogenate was mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate, acetate buffer (pH 3.5), and aqueous solution of thiobarbituric acid. After heating at 95°C for 60 min, the red pigment produced was extracted with n-butanol-pyridine mixture and estimated by the absorbance at 532nm. As an external standard, tetramethoxy-propane was used, and lipid peroxide level was expressed in terms of nmol malondialdehyde. Using this method, the liped peroxide level in the liver of rats suffering from carbon tetrachloride intoxication was investigated. The results were in good agreement with previously reported data obtained by measuring diene content.
Article
Histochemical demonstration of beta-glucuronidase was carried out in the normal and regenerating tail of the house lizard, Hemidactylus flaviviridis. Greater enzyme activity was particularly discernible in the stratum germinativum of the skin of the normal and fully regenerated tail. During regeneration most of the cellular elements of the blastema and the differentiating regenerate exhibited enzyme activity. Distribution of the enzyme beta-glucuronidase is correlated with the high degree of cellular proliferation. The role of the enzyme in the catabolism of mucopolysaccharides is also implicated during the wound-healing phase. In the full-grown regenerate the intensity and distribution of the enzyme activity were found to be the same as those observed in the normal tail.
Article
Oxygen free-radicals are known to impair wound healing after ischaemia-reperfusion or polymorphonuclear cell stimulation. Furthermore, they reduce the breaking strength of all recent wounds and might be a cause of wound leakage. This study was performed to evaluate whether or not hyaluronic acid can reduce the risk of wound impairment caused by free-radicals, in rats with abdominal sepsis, polymorphonuclear cell stimulation or cytochrome C function derangement produced by xenobiotics. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with open wounds received phenazine methosulfate or zimosan, or had abdominal sepsis to induce oxygen free-radical generation. There were three groups of treatment: hyaluronic acid cream, hyaluronic acid ethyl ester gel, and placebo. The reduction in wound size was measured from the 1st to the 11th postoperative day; biopsies were taken for histological evaluation. Every other day, a gentle debridement was performed in all the groups of animals. We found that hyaluronic acid and its ethyl ester derivative significantly improved the wound healing of rats subjected to an increased generation of oxygen free-radicals. It remains to be established whether or not hyaluronic acid acts as a scavenger of free-radicals.
Article
In experiments in vivo and in vitro the authors studied antioxidative properties of 4-methyluracil and carnosine, their capacity to inhibit sex and accelerate healing of skin wounds. 4-methyluracil and carnosine discover almost the same capacity to decrease in the tissues of the wound and the blood serum in the formation of various intermediate products of free radical oxidation. Data are given on the study of the dynamics of wound healing after a 5-day treatment with equimolar quantities.
Article
In order to explore the role of glutathione in cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we have examined the effect of the sulphydryl-reactive and glutathione-depleting agent 2-cyclohexene-1-one on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and cell-mediated lympholysis by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. 2-Cyclohexene-1-one significantly inhibited (P less than 0.001) both antibody-dependent and spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity using three different cell-line targets, at three different killer:target cell ratios (10:1, 25:1 and 50:1). Using K-562 cell-line targets, spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity was inhibited by 2-cyclohexene-1-one with an ID50 of 0.71 X 10(-4) M-1.48 X 10(-4) M, while antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was less sensitive to inhibition, and required slightly higher concentrations of 1.48 X 10(-4) M-3.98 X 10(-4) M to achieve 50% inhibition. Similar results were seen with human colon tumour cell-line and Chang liver cell-line cells as targets. Maximal inhibition occurred when 2-cyclohexene-1-one was added to the cytotoxicity assay 60 min prior to, at the start of, or within the first 60 min of a 4-hr assay; inhibition of cytotoxicity occurred with pretreatment of effector cells; and no inhibition of cytotoxicity was observed with pretreatment of target cells. Both the allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction and cell-mediated lympholysis were also significantly inhibited (P less than 0.001) by 2-cyclohexene-1-one. These studies demonstrate that 2-cyclohexene-1-one is an effective inhibitor of cell-mediated cytotoxicity and suggest that glutathione, specific glutathione-protein interactions, or protein-bound sulphydryl groups are involved in allowing cells to carry out cytolysis.
Article
The general objective of this study was to identify biochemical correlates of life expectancy in the adult male housefly. All houseflies lose flying ability prior to death, whereby, in an aging population, shorter-lived flies can be identified as flightless 'crawlers' from their longer-lived cohorts, the 'fliers'; the average lifespan of crawlers is about one-third shorter than the fliers. Neither crawlers nor fliers exhibited any physical damage to their chemoreceptive tarsi, thereby ruling out starvation as a probable cause of death. Levels of antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) and products of oxygen free radical reactions (inorganic peroxides and thiobarbituric acid [TBA]-reactants) were compared between crawlers and fliers. The fliers showed higher superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and glutathione concentration than crawlers, whereas, the amount of inorganic peroxides (H2O2) and TBA-reactants was higher in the crawlers than in fliers. Results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that longer life expectancy of organisms belonging to the same cohort group is associated with relatively higher levels of antioxidants and lower concentrations of products of oxygen free radical reactions.
Article
The in vitro metabolism of methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and parathion (O,O-diethyl O,p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and the sensitivities of the target cholinesterases to inhibition by their oxygen analogs were studied in sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) and mice to determine the basis for the low toxicity of methyl parathion in sunfish (LD50 > 2500 mg/kg). The LD50 values of parathion and methyl parathion in mice were 13.5 and 11 mg/kg, respectively, and the times to death were much shorter for both compounds in mice than in fish. Low sensitivity of fish cholinesterases to paraoxon as compared to mice accounted for the 10-fold lower toxicity of parathion in fish (LD50, 110 mg/kg). By contrast, sunfish had similar cholinesterase sensitivities to methyl paraoxon and paraoxon. Differences in rates of oxidative formation of the oxygen analog or oxidative cleavage to p-nitrophenol and the corresponding dialkyl thiophosphate could not account for the selective resistance of sunfish to methyl parathion toxicity. Fish and mouse liver homogenates catalyzed a glutathione (GSH)-dependent metabolism of methyl parathion and methyl paraoxon but not of parathion or paraoxon. Additionally, hydrolysis of methyl paraoxon by fish liver homogenates exceeded that for parathion by 5-fold, while methyl paraoxon hydrolysis in mice was of that of paraoxon. Apparently, a longer time to death in fish provided the opportunity for GSH-dependent and hydrolytic detoxification, which favored methyl parathion and methyl paraoxon relative to parathion and paraoxon. Although in mice the GSH-dependent enzymes also favored detoxification of methyl parathion and methyl paraoxon, this is apparently of less importance because of their high cholinesterase sensitivity and because cleavage and hydrolysis favored parathion and paraoxon.
Article
Two prophylactic immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporine and methylprednisolone (MP), were compared for their effect on the in situ inflammatory reaction of granulation tissue formation and on wound healing. Granulation tissue was generated via implantation of viscous cellulose sponges in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into six groups: One group received 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, the second 10 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, the third 2.5 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, the fourth 12 mg/kg/day of MP, the fifth received the cyclosporine solvent, and the sixth group was given only saline. All drugs were given i.p. No reduction in the number of inflammatory cells was observed in the cyclosporine-treated sponges compared with the controls, whereas MP suppressed the inflammation strongly. Differential counts demonstrated a relative enrichment of macrophages in the cyclosporine-treated versus the MP-treated or control sponges. Chemical analyses of the sponge extracts agreed well with the cytological data: MP suppressed the total DNA content of the sponges, a marker of total cellularity, as well as the content of acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase, both markers of macrophages, but no such suppression was seen in the cyclosporine-treated sponges. The alkaline phosphatase content, a marker for granulocytes, was similar in all groups. A remarkable suppression in the contents of hydroxyproline, reflecting the amount of collagen, and in that of hemoglobin, reflecting the amount of neovascularization, was observed in the MP-treated sponges, whereas no such suppression--but possibly a slight enhancement of the second parameter--was observed in the cyclosporine-treated sponges. We conclude that, in contrast to MP, cyclosporine does not inhibit the inflammatory reaction of granulation tissue formation or the regenerative process of wound healing.
A biological survey is given on the cellular factors affecting wound healing, as well as on environmental and extracellular matrix influences on the healing process. Scar formation is discussed as a dangerour solution to injury. Conclusions are drawn and future prospects for improved healing are outlined. 7 pages of literature references are given.
Article
This chapter presents methods generally applicable to the preparation of native collagen from a variety of sources. The preparation of a collagen sample generally involves several different steps. These include acquisition and preliminary processing of an appropriate tissue or organ, extraction of the collagen, and its purification. The latter process requires not only elimination of the noncollagenous components that are present in the extract, but may also require selective removal of alternative collagen types. This can usually be accomplished by a judicious use of selective precipitation techniques accompanied ultimately by one or two chromatographic steps. Given the extreme diversity of the tissues or organs in which collagen occurs as well as the multiplicity of collagen types that may be present in a given source, there understandably exists no single standard or preferred method for the preparation of collagen. Unless otherwise indicated, all procedures are conducted at relatively low temperatures, in the range of 4-8 °. This minimizes bacterial growth, enhances the solubility of native collagens, and ensures the retention of native conformation on the part of the solubilized collagens.
Article
Plasma malondialdehyde-like material (MDA-LM) was evaluated in 138 normal subjects and in a group of 57 stroke patients using a modification of the method of Smith et al. (1976). The basal level of MDA-LM in the control group was 35 mumol/l with a range of 22-50 mumol/l. Values above 50 mumol/l were found in 80% of the patients suffering from subarachnoid haemorrhage, in 68% of those with cerebral thrombosis, and in 17% with transient ischaemic attacks. None of the patients with cerebral embolism, intracerebral haematoma, or lacunar infarct had values above 50 mumol/l. Significant statistical differences were found between the control group and all the patients except those with lacunar infarcts.
Article
In this study we have determined the effects of the n-6 essential fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the motility and invasive/metastatic nature of the human colon cancer cell lines HT115, HT29 and HRT18. Cell motility was induced by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and measured by both colony scattering and dissociation from carrier beads. Invasiveness was measured in vitro by cellular invasion into extracellular matrix. At concentrations up to 100 microM (which had no effect on cell growth over the duration of the experiments) both cell motility and invasion induced by HGF/SF were markedly reduced by GLA and its lithium salt. The attachment of these cells to the extracellular matrix components (Matrigel and fibronectin) was also inhibited. There were also changes in the cell-surface E-cadherin, but not fibronectin receptor at similar concentrations. It is concluded that n-6 essential fatty acids have the ability to inhibit both motility and invasiveness of human colon cancer cells, perhaps by modifying cell-surface adhesion molecules. Images p745-a Figure 1 Figure 7