Diagnostic Impact of CSF Biomarkers in a Local Hospital Memory Clinic
Alzheimer Center, Department of Neurology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
(Impact Factor: 3.55).
07/2010; 29(6):491-7. DOI: 10.1159/000313534
CSF biomarkers amyloid-beta 1-42 (Abeta42), total tau (tau) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (ptau-181) are useful diagnostic markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the impact of these biomarkers in the diagnostic process in a non-academic memory clinic.
One hundred and nine patients with available CSF were included from the local hospital memory clinic. Initially, patients were clinically diagnosed, and the clinician indicated their confidence in the diagnosis. Next the CSF results were presented, and the clinician re-evaluated his initial diagnosis. The main outcomes were changes in initial diagnosis and diagnostic confidence.
Forty-seven patients were initially diagnosed with AD, 26 were diagnosed with another type of dementia, 18 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 received a non-dementia diagnosis. All biomarkers distinguished between AD and non-dementia (p < 0.01); tau and ptau-181 also distinguished AD from other types of dementia (p < 0.001). After CSF biomarker levels were revealed, 11 diagnoses changed. In 31% of the diagnoses, the clinician gained confidence, while in 10% confidence decreased.
We found that knowledge of CSF biomarker profiles changed the diagnosis in 10% of the cases, and confidence in the diagnosis increased for one third of the patients.
Available from: Pierre Olivier Lang
- "Les biomarqueurs seraient, dans ce cas-là, des critères de substitution  . En effet, il a été montré que ces biomarqueurs contribuaient à une réorientation diagnostique dans environ 10 % des cas . Lorsqu'ils sont utilisés séparément (A␤1-42, Tau et P-Tau), chacun des trois biomarqueurs a une Se et une Sp de plus de 80 % pour détecter la maladie d'Alzheimer. "
Available from: Katell Peoc'h
- "Despite this growing concern about CSF biomarker variability in experimental studies, little is known about the use of CSF biomarkers in routine clinical practice , and scarce data regarding optimum cutoffs are available. Therefore , we investigated the diagnostic accuracy and optimum threshold values of CSF biomarkers and intercenter variability in a large cohort of subjects from three French memory centers in which the use of lumbar punctures is frequent in the clinical setting to explore cognitive disorders. "
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The assessment of total tau, phosphorylated tau (pTau-181) and amyloid beta (Aβ 1-42) concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subjects has been validated for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although these measurements have shown some variability, little is known about their intersite variability in clinical settings.
A total of 880 subjects (AD, n = 515; non-AD, n = 365) from three French memory centers were included. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses were performed to computerized area under curves (AUCs) and optimal thresholds for each biomarker in the three centers. A test-retest study was performed in a group of 32 CSF samples by repeated blind analysis of the three biomarkers using the same immunoassay batches in the three centers.
In the three centers, tau (AUC, 0.82-0.88) and pTau-181 (AUC, 0.83-0.89) outperformed Aβ 1-42 (AUC, 0.70 -0.73) to discriminate subjects with AD from those without AD. An intersite variation of mean levels and cutoffs was observed for the three biomarkers. This variation was higher for Aβ 1-42 (range of cutoff, 368-582 pg/mL) than for tau (range of cutoff, 289-353 pg/mL). In a test-retest study, the mean interlaboratory coefficients of variation were 12.2% for Aβ 1-42, 11.3% for tau, and 11.5% for pTau-181.
Intercenter variability of CSF biomarkers has been confirmed in a multisite cohort of subjects and can be improved in clinical settings. Efforts on harmonization of procedures should be encouraged to optimize the accuracy of CSF biomarkers in AD.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Previous studies showed that decreased levels of CSF Aβ 1-42 less than 487 pg/mL, increased CSF phosphorylated tau (pTau 181) more than 61 pg/mL, or increased CSF total tau more than 425 pg/mL were categorized to support the diagnosis of AD, and the opposite data was against [15, 16]. However, current review uncovers various cut-off points of CSF biomarkers from different laboratory tests . "
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. To determine how beta-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ 1-42), total tau (tTau), and phosphorylated tau (pTau) levels in CSF behave in a cohort of Thai patients from the Memory Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods. During 2009-2011, twenty eight subjects from the memory clinic at Siriraj Hospital had CSF analysis for AD biomarkers. Aβ 1-42, tTau, and pTau (at amino acid 181) were measured in CSF by ELISA technique. Results. Mean of Thai mental state examination (TMSE) of 28 Thai cohort was 16.48 (6.63). Fourteen had AD, ten had non-AD dementia, and four non-cases were those with subjective memory complaint (SMC) without dementia. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, ptau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the AD group were 241.36 (60.14) pg/mL, 222.79 (212.24) pg/mL, 40.79 (27.84) pg/mL, and 0.18 (0.12) accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-AD dementia group were 430.40 (125.18) pg/mL, 349.30 (692.16) pg/mL, 36.80 (14.90) pg/mL, and 0.09 (0.04) accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-cases with SMC without dementia were 499.75 (93.44) pg/mL, 137.25 (62.74) pg/mL, 31.75 (17.48) pg/mL, and 0.06 (0.02). There is significant difference (P < 0.05) among the 3 groups in CSF Aβ 1-42 and pTau/Aβ 1-42. We propose mean + 1.5 SD of CSF Aβ 1-42 in AD group (331.57 pg/mL) to be the cut-off point in Thai subjects. Conclusion. There are significant different in CSF Aβ 1-42 and CSF p-tau/Aβ 1-42 among those with AD, non-AD dementia and non cases with SMC without dementia in Thai cohort. Cut-off point of CSF Aβ 1-42 of 331.57 pg/mL is suggested in Thai study.
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