Potential down-regulation of salivary gland AQP5 by LPS via cross-coupling of NF-κB and p-c-Jun/c-Fos

Department of Molecular Oral Physiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima-shi, Tokushima, Japan.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 08/2010; 177(2):724-34. DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.090282
Source: PubMed


The mRNA and protein levels of aquaporin (AQP)5 in the parotid gland were found to be potentially decreased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo in C3H/HeN mice, but only weakly in C3H/HeJ, a TLR4 mutant mouse strain. In the LPS-injected mice, pilocarpine-stimulated saliva production was reduced by more than 50%. In a tissue culture system, the LPS-induced decrease in the AQP5 mRNA level was blocked completely by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, MG132, tyrphostin AG126, SP600125, and partially by SB203580, which are inhibitors for IkappaB kinase, 26S proteasome, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, respectively. In contrast, the expression of AQP1 mRNA was down-regulated by LPS and such down-regulation was blocked only by SP600125. The transcription factors NF-kappaB (p65 subunit), p-c-Jun, and c-Fos were increased by LPS given in vivo, whereas the protein-binding activities of the parotid gland extract toward the sequences for NF-kappaB but not AP-1-responsive elements present at the promoter region of the AQP5 gene were increased by LPS injection. Co-immunoprecipitation by using antibody columns suggested the physical association of the three transcription factors. These results suggest that LPS-induced potential down-regulation of expression of AQP5 mRNA in the parotid gland is mediated via a complex(es) of these two classes of transcription factors, NF-kappaB and p-c-Jun/c-Fos.

Download full-text


Available from: Tetsuya Akamatsu, Apr 08, 2014
  • Source
    • "TNFα and lipopolysaccharide inhibit Aqp5 expression in salivary and parotid gland cells, respectively [40], [41]. TNFα-mediated repression involves suppression of histone H4 acetylation [40]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dot1l encodes histone H3 K79 methyltransferase Dot1a. Mice with Dot1l deficiency in renal Aqp2-expressing cells (Dot1l(AC)) develop polyuria by unknown mechanisms. Here, we report that Aqp5 links Dot1l deletion to polyuria through Aqp2. cDNA array analysis revealed and real-time RT-qPCR validated Aqp5 as the most upregulated gene in Dot1l(AC) vs. control mice. Aqp5 protein is barely detectable in controls, but robustly expressed in the Dot1l(AC) kidneys, where it colocalizes with Aqp2. The upregulation of Aqp5 is coupled with reduced association of Dot1a and H3 dimethyl K79 with specific subregions in Aqp5 5' flanking region in Dot1l(AC) vs. control mice. In vitro studies in IMCD3, MLE-15 and 293Tcells using multiple approaches including real-time RT-qPCR, luciferase reporter assay, cell surface biotinylation assay, colocalization, and co-immunoprecipitation uncovered that Dot1a represses Aqp5. Human AQP5 interacts with AQP2 and impairs its cell surface localization. The AQP5/AQP2 complex partially resides in the ER/Golgi. Consistently, AQP5 is expressed in none of 15 normal controls, but in all of 17 kidney biopsies from patients with diabetic nephropathy. In the patients with diabetic nephropathy, AQP5 colocalizes with AQP2 in the perinuclear region and AQP5 expression is associated with impaired cellular H3 dimethyl K79. Taken together, these data for the first time identify Aqp5 as a Dot1a potential transcriptional target, and an Aqp2 binding partner and regulator, and suggest that the upregulated Aqp5 may contribute to polyuria, possibly by impairing Aqp2 membrane localization, in Dot1l(AC) mice and in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chorda tympani denervation (CTD) of rats was earlier shown to result in loss of submandibular gland (SMG) weight (at only 1 wk) and in continued reduction in aquaporin 5 (AQP5) protein expression (until 4 wk), without affecting its mRNA synthesis (Li X, Azlina A, Karabasil MR, Purwanti N, Hasegawa T, Yao C, Akamatsu T, Hosoi K. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295: G112-G123, 2008). The present study indicated that despite elevation of bax, a proapoptosis protein, by CTD, the operation also increased the level of bcl-2, an antiapoptosis protein, in the SMG. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay) showed no increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the SMG. CTD, however, induced strongly and transiently (at 1-3 days) the protein expression of LC3B-II, a marker protein of autophagosomes, suggesting that the reduction in the gland weight was due to onset of autophagy by CTD. Upon CTD, Lamp2, a lysosomal marker, gradually increased in amount, reaching a peak at the 14th day. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an increase in the number of lysosome-like structures positive for both AQP5 and Lamp2 in the acinar cells of the SMG after CTD; similar changes were observed also for AQP5 and LC3Bs. These data suggest that AQP5 in the SMG entered autophagosomes and/or lysosomes for degradation upon CTD. In vitro AQP5-degrading activity was found in the SMG extracts, and such activity was shown to be increased by CTD. Inhibitor experiments implied cathepsins B and L to be candidate enzymes for this degradation under normal and CTD conditions, respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: S100A8 and S100A9 constitute a heterodimeric protein, calprotectin. The mRNAs of S100A8 and S100A9, being expressed at minimal levels in the submandibular and parotid glands (SMG and PG, respectively) of C3H/HeN mice, were induced strongly and transiently by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Among the mRNAs of members of the S100 protein family examined, those of S100A8 and S100A9 were specifically induced by LPS in the salivary glands. The induction was assumed to be mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), since their elevation was limited in C3H/HeJ mice, a TLR4-mutant strain. These proteins became expressed in the granular convoluted tubular cells and striated duct cells in the SMG, and in both acinar and duct cells in the PG (all in the cytoplasm). The salivary calprotectin level was not increased by LPS treatment, implying that elevated calprotectin was not secreted into the saliva and that they may function in microcellular environment of the salivary gland.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Inflammation
Show more