Article

Cognitive Performance in Centenarians and the Oldest Old: Norms from the Georgia Centenarian Study

University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.
Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition (Impact Factor: 1.07). 09/2010; 17(5):575-90. DOI: 10.1080/13825585.2010.481355
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We present normative data from a large population-based sample of centenarians for several brief, global neurocognitive tasks amenable for frail elders. Comparative data from octogenarians are included. A total of 244 centenarians and 80 octogenarians from Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study were administered the Mini-Mental Status Examination, Severe Impairment Battery, and Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale. Centenarians (age 98-107) were stratified into three age cohorts (98-99, 100-101, 102-107), octogenarians into two 5- year cohorts (80-84, 85-89). Highly significant differences were observed between groups on all measures, with greater variation and dispersion in performance among centenarians, as well as stronger associations between age and performance. Descriptive statistics and normative ranges (unweighted and population-weighted) are provided by age cohort. Additional statistics are provided by education level. While most previous centenarian studies have used convenience samples, ours is population-based and likely more valid for comparison in applied settings. Results suggest centenarians look different than do even the oldest age range of most normative aging datasets (e.g., 85-90). Results support using global measures of neurocognition to describe cognitive status in the oldest old, and we provide normative comparisons to do so.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Lloyd Stephen Miller
    • "The published literature includes multiple studies of centenarians that came to autopsy. Research subjects in those studies were characterized neuropathologically with regard to the presence and severities of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body diseases (LBD), hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging), cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), and other neuropathologic features (Giannakopoulos, et al., 2008, Giannakopoulos, et al., 1995a, Giannakopoulos, et al., 1993, Giannakopoulos, et al., 1995b, Gold, et al., 2000, Imhof, et al., 2007, Itoh, et al., 1998, Miller, et al., 2010, Mizutani and Shimada, 1992, von Gunten, et al., 2010). In addition to prior case series, there have been excellent reviews of the findings (Hof, et al., 1996, Imhof, et al., 2007, von Gunten, et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With an emphasis on evolving concepts in the field, we evaluated neuropathologic data from very old research volunteers whose brain autopsies were performed at the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center, incorporating data from the Georgia Centenarian Study (n = 49 cases included), Nun Study (n = 17), and University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (n = 11) cohorts. Average age of death was 102.0 (range: 98-107) years overall. Alzheimer's disease pathology was not universal (62% with "moderate" or "frequent" neuritic amyloid plaque densities), whereas frontotemporal lobar degeneration was absent. By contrast, some hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles (including primary age-related tauopathy) were observed in every case. Lewy body pathology was seen in 16.9% of subjects and hippocampal sclerosis of aging in 20.8%. We describe anatomic distributions of pigment-laden macrophages, expanded Virchow-Robin spaces, and arteriolosclerosis among Georgia Centenarians. Moderate or severe arteriolosclerosis pathology, throughout the brain, was associated with both hippocampal sclerosis of aging pathology and an ABCC9 gene variant. These results provide fresh insights into the complex cerebral multimorbidity, and a novel genetic risk factor, at the far end of the human aging spectrum.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Neurobiology of aging
  • Source
    • "Further, 13% of people aged 65 years and older are afflicted with Alzheimer's disease. Studies in centenarians have reported considerable dementia, ranging from 42 to 100% [2] [3]. The number of individuals so affected is likely to increase given that the number of people over 65 years is rising. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study, sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Brain tissues were obtained from 47 centenarian decedents. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids, α-tocopherol, and retinol using HPLC. Analyte concentrations were compared with cognitive tests designed to evaluate global cognition, dementia, depression and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, attention, and executive functioning). Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations were most consistently related to better cognition (P < 0.05) in the whole population and in the centenarians. Only serum lutein was significantly related to better cognition in the octogenarians. In brain, lutein and β-carotene were related to cognition with lutein being consistently associated with a range of measures. There were fewer significant relationships for α-tocopherol and a negative relationship between brain retinol concentrations and delayed recognition. These findings suggest that the status of certain carotenoids in the old may reflect their cognitive function. The protective effect may not be related to an antioxidant effect given that α-tocopherol was less related to cognition than these carotenoids.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of aging research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While it is understood that longevity and health are influenced by complex interactions among biological, psychological, and sociological factors, there is a general lack of understanding on how psychosocial factors impact longevity, health, and quality of life among the oldest old. One of the reasons for this paradox is that the amount of funded research on aging in the US is significantly larger in the biomedical compared to psychosocial domains. The goals of this paper are to highlight recent data to demonstrate the impact of four pertinent psychosocial domains on health and quality of life of the oldest old and supplement recommendations of the 2001 NIA Panel on Longevity for future research. The four domains highlighted in this paper are (1) demographics, life events, and personal history, (2) personality, (3) cognition, and (4) socioeconomic resources and support systems.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Show more