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Risk from exposure to arylamines from consumer products and hair dyes

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Abstract

Arylamines are widely used for the manufacturing of elastomers, colorants and consumer products. Furthermore they are part of many colorants either as contaminant or as cleavage product. Also many hair dyes are arylamines. Thus consumers are exposed from various sources and products, especially high exposure is contributed by tobacco smoke. Many of the arylamines and colorants derived from them are mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. In contrast, a considerable number of arylamines has been proven to be non hazardous. In other cases exposure was negligible. Insofar the risk due to exposure to arylamines from consumer products has to be assessed case by case considering the toxicological profile and the exposure for each individual substance and product.
... The main purpose to include the habit of this cosmetic is to cover gray or white hair and to change to such colour which will be considered as more stylish or trendy and finally to give back the natural hair colour which has been bleached by hairdressing practices or sun bleaching. It classifies hair dyes into permanent, demipermanent, semi-permanent, and temporary [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. The three hair dye brands used in this research are as follows: Bigen, Black Rose and Indica. ...
... Pharm. Biotech., 2018; 4(4):[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] www.ijapbjournal.com ...
... As recently assessed by Platzek [12], exposure to the presence of aromatic amines (AAs) in consumer products carries a risk to human health, especially related to the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties of some AAs. The toxicity of AAs depends on the metabolic activation of an amino group that can produce reactive intermediate hydroxylamine, which is known to damage DNA and proteins [13]. ...
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... The most significant kind of synthetic dyes is azo dyes. While different aromatic amines are being used in the production of azo dyes as substrates (Freeman 2013), Aromatic amines could have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties along with other toxic potentials as well as the capacity for allergens (Brüschweiler et al. 2014;Brüschweiler and Merlot 2017;Platzek 2010). Moreover, dermal, systemic and bacterial biotransformation of azo dyes, can-in turn-release aromatic aromatic amines (Stingley et al. 2010). ...
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... Barium salts (nitrate and sulfate), are used in many productions, such as plastics, ceramics, adhesives, in drilling fluids for oils and gas wells, as a green coloring in fireworks by burning barium nitrate and chlorate, as a white pigment in paints or to preserve old frescoes. Barium-containing hair dyes are used in some countries (Khalili et al. 2016;Platzek 2010;Pragst et al. 2017), and barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) is permitted by the Cosmetic Directive of the European Union and may be utilized as a colorant in cosmetics and personal care products. Moreover, the study of new materials for medical, industrial, and technological applications led to the development of nanoparticles based on BaSO 4 (Konduru et al. 2014;Webster et al. 2013) or barium composites (Genchi et al. 2016;Marino et al. 2019), thus increasing the possibility of environmental contamination (Crisponi et al. 2017;Zoroddu et al. 2014). ...
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The relatively widespread presence of environmental barium is raising a growing public awareness as it can lead to different health conditions. Its presence in humans may produce several effects, especially among those chronically exposed from low to moderate doses. Barium accumulation can mainly occur by exposure in the workplace or from drinking contaminated water. However, this element is also assumed with the diet, mainly from plant foods. The average amount of barium intake worldwide and its geographical variation is little known due to the lack of research attention. Barium was never considered as an essential nutrient for humans, although it is undoubtedly naturally abundant enough and distinctive in its chemical properties that it might well have some biochemical function, e.g., for regulatory purposes, both in animals and plants. The information on the potential health effects of barium exposure is primarily based on animal studies and reported as comprising kidney diseases, neurological, cardiovascular, mental, and metabolic disorders. The present paper considers exposure and potential health concerns on environmental barium, giving evidence to information that can be used in future epidemiological and experimental studies.
... Adaptada de (Deutsche & Forschungsgemeinschaft, 2018) Para la Unión Europea, el Parlamento Europeo y el Consejo consideran el reglamento sobre clasificación, etiquetado y envasado de sustancias y mezclas primordial, basándose en la Regulación 1272/2008 (CLP). En la cual la clasificación se distribuye en cuatro partes: (Brüschweiler et al., 2014;Freeman, 2013;Thomas Platzek, 2010;Yusuf, 2019). Se conoce que dentro de los 896 tintes azoicos existentes en la base de datos de Friedlipartner,496 de estos pueden liberar una o más aminas aromáticas reguladas mientras que la diferencia, es decir 470 tintes pueden descomponerse en aminas aromáticas no reguladas, estos pueden generar alrededor de 1102 productos de separación. ...
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Background: Azobenzene disperse dyes (azo DDs) are well known as textile allergens, but the knowledge of their occurrence in garments is low. The numerous azo DDs and dye components found in textiles constitute a potential health risk, but only seven azo DDs are included in the European baseline patch test series (EBS). Objectives: To investigate non-regulated azo DDs and dye components in synthetic garments on the Swedish market. Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and computerized data mining. Results: Sixty-two azo DDs were detected, with Disperse Red 167:1 occurring in 67%, and fourteen other DDs each found in >20% of the garments. Notably, the EBS dyes were less common, three even not detected, while arylamines were frequently detected and exceeded 1 mg/g in several garments. Also halogenated dinitrobenzenes were identified in 25% of the textiles. Conclusions: Azo DDs and dye components, in complex compositions and with large variations, occurred frequently in the synthetic garments. The arylamines were shown to occur in much higher levels compared to the azo DDs, suggesting the former to constitute a potentially higher health risk. The role of arylamines and halogenated dinitrobenzenes in textile allergy have to be further investigated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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2,4,5,6-Tetraaminopyrimidine sulfate (TAPS) is worldwide the most commonly used developer in hair dyes. As skin is the major organ, which is directly exposed to these permanent hair dyes, a comprehensive dermal safety assessment is needed. Hereto, we studied the photosensitization potential and mechanism involved in dermal phototoxicity of TAPS exposed to the dark and UVA/UVB/Sunlight by using different in-chemico and mammalian (HaCaT) cells, as test systems. Our experimental outcomes illustrate that TAPS get photodegraded (LC-MS/MS) and specifically generated superoxide anion radical (O2•−) under UVA and UVB via type-I photodynamic reaction. The phototoxic potential of TAPS is measured through MTT, NRU, and LDH assays that depicted a significant reduction in cell viability at the concentration of 25 μg/ml and higher. Different cellular stainings (PI uptake, AO/EB, JC-1, NR uptake) suggested the role of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Further, the transcriptomics study revealed upregulation of Apaf-1, Bax, Caspase 3, Caspase 9, Cytochrome c and downregulation of Bcl-2 and Catalase by TAPS treated cells that strengthen our findings. Thus, the above findings suggest that chronic application of TAPS may be hazardous for human skin and promote various skin diseases.
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Dyes used in the textile industry for imparting color to clothes are designed to be resistant to sweat, light and microbial attack. A significant portion of the dyes that are produced for the textile industry is discharged into the process water without any pretreatment. Thus, synthetic dyes used in dyeing of textiles are major contaminants of the aquatic environment. Fungi, especially white rot fungi (WRF), which produce extracellular lignin modifying enzymes have been found to be capable of degrading toxic synthetic dyes. Some of the mechanisms fungi use to detoxify dyes include biosorption, decolourisation and degradation or metabolism. Apart from WRF, fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Trichoderma, and Penicillium have been reported as good candidates for treating dye effluents. Several fungal bioreactors have been developed for the treatment of synthetic dyes and dye effluents.
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Introduction Dyes are important if not to say indispensable in adding colour to our everyday life. They are used in a wide array of items and their production is an important economic factor. Aromatic amines represent widely used components in dye synthesis. Some of them, however, proved to be human carcinogens provoking bladder cancer in labourers of dye production plants. As a consequence, legal restrictions were enacted, banning the use of or setting limits for amines and dyes derived from them. Besides foodstuff, detailed regulations also exist for commodities, such as cosmetics, clothes, upholstery and toys. To our knowledge, Switzerland is the only country which has set limits for the release of aromatic amines in inks of writing utensils (1). These limits concern children who may write on their skin or suck on tips of the cartridges. The use of dyestuffs for tattoos has not been restricted so far. However, throughout Europe, implementing specific restrictions is regarded as urgent. All restrictions concerning consumer goods as well as almost all analytical methods deal only with primary aromatic amines. This may be due to their scope (determination of amines after cleavage of azo dyes) or to the use of colorimetric methods (2 –6). Even papers and norms, which deal with determining specific amines as impurities using GC/MS, HPLC or LC/MS mainly mention only them. Tertiary amines, such as michler's ketone (MK; tetramethyl-4,4'-diaminobenzophenone) and methane base (MB; 4,4'-methylenebis-(N,N'-dimethylaniline)) are important educts and intermediates for synthesising triphenylmethane dyes of which victoria blue (C.I. 44045), methyl violet (C.I. 42535) and crystal violet (C.I. 42555) are widely used in ballpoint pen inks. Victoria blue and food green 4 (C.I. 44090) are also allowed as cosmetic ingredients. Both MK and MB are regarded as potentially Original papers carcinogenic (7). We are only aware of three papers which deal with the determination of MK: one investigated the migration of MK from food packaging cardboard (8), the other two determined MK in methyl violet respectively food dyes (9, 10). Auramine O, the imine homologue of MK, is another tertiary amine of toxicological concern. Although banned by the European printing industry on a voluntary basis, it is still used as a yellow dye for ballpoint pen inks in East Asia. Up to now, sample preparation for checking migration of amines out of inks has been done with gastric juice simulant (diluted hydrochloric acid) presupposing oral contact as the main exposition pathway (11–13). These methods are tedious and eliminate MK during the following clean up process with solid phase extraction, which is essential when analysing with HPLC/DAD or GC/MS. In order to include tertiary amines, clean up procedures and detection methods have to be modified. A reevaluation done by the Federal Office of Public Health in Switzerland however showed, that in the case of ballpoint pens, skin contact is far more relevant. A determination of the total content using organic solvents would therefore better reflect the amount of amines absorbed via the skin from a liquid such as ink. Total extraction also applies to tattoo inks or cosmetics and to the supervision of an European directive which stipulates R45 labelling of technical products (e.g. dyes and inks) containing more than 1000 mg/kg of carcinogenic components (14). The aim of our work was to develop an LC/MS method which can screen for over 30 aromatic amines in inks and dyes of pens and tattoos, be it with diluted acid or organic solvent as extractant and which can reliably quantify the four amines most often found. Experimental
Chapter
Hair dyes represent an important class of cosmetic ingredients for consideration of their percutaneous absorption. In part, this is because of their widespread usage among women and increasing popularity among men. Further, the utility of chemicals from the aromatic or nitro-aromatic classes as hair dyes has drawn attention to their potential for toxicological effects associated with some members of the class.
Chapter
The skin is now recognized as more than an inert barrier capable of limiting chemical entry and exit. Numerous enzyme activities have been identified in cutaneous tissues, which are capable of a wide range of chemical transformations of both endo-and xenobiotic compounds. These activities may modulate toxicity and in certain cases percutaneous absorption, and are hence potentially of great importance in the response of the skin (and the whole body) to environmental, occupational, and therapeutic exposure to chemicals via the dermal route. Xenobiotic metabolism is regarded as a multistage process. In Phase I metabolism, xenobiotics are subject to “functionalization,” in which functional groups (especially oxygen-containing groups) are introduced as a result of oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis. In Phase II metabolism, these functionalized compounds are conjugated to water soluble compounds such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, glycine, and glutathione (GSH) or further metabolized by epoxyhydrases and other oxidoreductases, in order to increase their molecular weight and water solubility (to facilitate the removal from the cell). While Phase I metabolism can result in an increase in toxicity by generating reactive intermediates capable of binding to macromolecules, Phase II generally results in detoxification, though an intermediate may be formed that may undergo further Phase I metabolism. This chapter will summarize reports of expression and activity of enzymes in cutaneous tissues and will cover the consequences of enzyme activity for percutaneous penetration, absorption, and toxicity of topical xenobiotics; how expression and/or catalytic activity in tissue homogenates relate to whole cells and “intact” skin; and the ability to predict cutaneous metabolism in vivo using model systems, such as cell cultures, reconstructed skin models, and ex vivo models.
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Laminates, which are used extensively for flexible packaging of foodstuff, are multilayered films often cured with polyurethane adhesives. Monomers of these adhesives are polyols and diisocyanates. In case the adhesive has not cured property or been mixed wrongly, there is a risk, that unpolymerized isocyanates migrate from the packaging material into the foodstuffs. If aromatic isocyanates come into contact with water, which makes up a considerable part of many foodstuffs, primary aromatic amines (PAA) are formed. Both, isocyanates and PAA are harmful substances. The aim of the project was to screen laminates used as food packaging concerning residues of 14 monomer isocyanates in the plastic material in relationship to the migration of the corresponding primary aromatic amines (PAA) into food simulant. 51 multilayer films were analysed using LC, GC-MS and attenuated total reflectance (ATR). In 13 laminates, isocyanate residues ranging from <10 to 260 μg/kg NCO were detected. Isocyanates found were 2,4-TDI, 2,4-MDI, 4,4′-MDI and IPDI. Only in one sample PAA could be detected in the aqueous migration solution (< 10 μg/kg 2,4-toluenediamine). All PAA and isocyanate results were well below the EU limits.
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The volatile components of black tea were isolated by extraction with supercritical CO2 under pressure followed by atmospheric steam distillation and enrichment of steam volatiles on Porapak Q. The total black tea aroma fraction was separated into basic and neutral components. A total of 56 constituents, mainly pyridines, pyrazines, quino-lines, thiazoles, aromatic amines, and carbonyls, have been identified for the first time in black tea aroma by using a combination of glass capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Identifications of the new compounds were accomplished by comparison of their mass spectra with authentic reference spectra measured on the same instrument and with mass spectral data given in the literature. GLC retention times were used to confirm identifications.
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Background Due to their basic reactive chemistry, the safety evaluation of hair dyes has always been a major consideration. Hair dyes are therefore one of the most studied and regulated consumer products on the market with an overwhelming amount of safety data. Yet, hair dyes continue to come under scrutiny, primarily regarding two safety concerns: First, a potential link to increased cancer risk, and second, skin allergy. Aims This paper will review epidemiologic studies regarding hair dye safety, discuss hair dye allergies incidence and consumer practices, and provide practical recommendations for dermatologists and patients. Conclusion Numerous epidemiologic studies have been conducted, evaluating a potential correlation between hair dye use and an increased risk for any possible cancer type. Taking all currently available epidemiology studies and state-of-the-art safety data into account, it is concluded that hair dyes do not pose an increased cancer risk, either for consumers and clients, or for professional hairdressers. Like other products such as certain foods or drugs, hair dyes can cause allergic reactions in a few sensitive individuals. The vast majority of hair dye allergies are delayed hypersensitivity or type IV reactions. Allergic reactions to hair dyes are rare when compared to their widespread use and occur at a rate of approximately 1 per 1 million products sold. To further minimize the risk of hair dye allergies, the cosmetic industry has voluntarily implemented risk management measures. For example, all oxidative hair dye products bear allergy warning labels on pack, making consumers and hairdressers aware of a potential allergy risk. In addition, hair coloring products are equipped with clear use instructions and the majority of brands recommend conducting a skin sensitivity test 48 h before the hair coloration. Finally, professional hairdressers are advised to apply appropriate occupational safety measures (like wearing gloves). In collaboration with dermatologists, we will continue the education efforts towards consumers, clients, and hairdressers to improving the compliance with the risk management measures with the overall aim to further minimize any potential allergy risk.
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Synopsis An analytical method has been developed that allows the determination of p-phenylene diamine derivatives in urinary samples collected from women after hair dyeing with commercial formulations. During an on-line flash hydrolysis of the urine, a number of metabolites of p-phenylene diamine were hydrolyzed to free p-phenylene diamine, which was then determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The excretion of metabolites of p-phenylene diamine could be followed during 24 or 48 hours after the dye had been applied. Most of the p-phenylene diamine cleaved by the flash hydrolysis procedure was, in fact, involved in the N,N'-diacetyl combination. The dose excretion for p-phenylene diamine as measured by this method was comparable to that found by other authors who made use of radioactively labelled material. The present analytical method can be used to evaluate procedures intended to decrease the percutaneous absorption of p-phenylene diamine. Thus, a five- to ten-fold decrease in its penetration was observed by protecting the scalp with clay before applying the dyeing composition.
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Recent progress in biomonitoring allows measurement of internal exposure of individuals ranging from occupational and life style exposures to environmental levels. Ten specific hemoglobin adducts generated by polycyclic and monocyclic nitro-arenes were measured in coke oven workers and residents living on ground contaminated with explosive wastes, respectively. Consistently, adducts were found in most 'exposed' as well as control individuals, interindividual variation being great. Adduct levels in the majority of exposed individuals were within the range of reference values (95 percentile). Although hemoglobin adduct levels do not directly reflect genotoxic potential and potency of the parent compounds, they correlate with the biologically active dose. On the basis of such target doses, the contribution of specific exposures relative to 'background' and to related chemicals can be assessed. The impact of 'relative risk' on risk perception and risk management is to provide a rationale for the application of the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable).
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Hair dye ingredients frequently produce positive results in short-term in vitro genotoxicity tests, although results from in vivo assays are typically negative, especially for ingredients in use today. The use of hair dyes is quite widespread resulting in the exposure both for persons working in hairdressing salons and for individuals who have their hair dyed. This provides the opportunity to add to the data from standard in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests by investigating whether or not genotoxic responses are detected in such exposed individuals. A number of biomonitoring studies of humans exposed to hair dyes have been conducted using either cytogenetic alterations or DNA damage as measures of genotoxicity, or urine mutagenicity as a measure of exposure to genotoxic compounds. In this paper, each study is critically reviewed and interpreted. Overall, there is no consistent evidence of genotoxicity in humans exposed to hair dyes occupationally or through individual use.
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Most data on carcinogenic risk in the rubber industry are based on data from Western countries. This study assessed cancer risks in a retrospective cohort in a Polish tire manufacturing plant, relying on quantified exposure to inhalable aerosols and aromatic amines instead of job titles or external comparisons. Cumulative exposure for all exposures was assigned to cohort members based on estimates from a company-specific JEM. Cancer risks associated with cumulative exposure adjusted for co-exposures, gender and year of birth were calculated. Exposure levels were higher for women than for men. Aromatic amine exposure was significantly associated with increased urinary bladder cancer risk (RR=7.32-8.27), depending on exposure level, and prostate cancer at low levels only (RR=5.86). In women, increased risks were found for all cancers (RR=2.50) and of the digestive organs and peritoneum (RR=4.54) at low level only, while an exposure-response association with breast cancer risk was found. Inhalable aerosol exposure was associated with cancers of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in a dose-dependent manner, while dose-dependent reduced risks were found for respiratory cancers (most notably the larynx) and cancer of the colon. Increased risks for specific cancer sites in this rubber plant were similar to Western Europe and the US. However, several cancer risks were gender-specific which could relate to higher exposure levels in women or to differences in exposures to chemicals not assessed in this study.