Attempt to treat congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation

Department of Surgery, Clinical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
Cytotherapy (Impact Factor: 3.29). 09/2010; 12(5):593-604. DOI: 10.3109/14653249.2010.487898
Source: PubMed


Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) caused by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a refractory disease occurring in childhood. We present two cases that had failed all earlier treatment attempts and, as a last treatment attempt, the patients were chosen to receive mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation prior to amputation.
The MSC from bone marrow (BM) were harvested from the iliac crest and cultured in osteoinductive medium for 3 weeks. The cultured MSC were injected in solution into BM canals of the tibia and around the resection line or bone defect in a 3-dimensional collagen sponge scaffold. After the MSC transplantation, the patients were monitored during a 10-month follow-up period. In both cases, bone formation at the pseudarthrosis site was observed and two of three treated bone defects healed. For clinical reasons not related to cell transplantation, such as new infection and pseudarthrosis and severe shortening of the leg, both extremities were finally amputated and bone samples were analyzed to evaluate MSC therapy effect and safety.
MSC transplantation normalized bone remodeling, promoted bone resorption and improved the overall structure of bone. The number of osteoclasts in the cortical bone was 2-fold higher compared with the monitored situation before MSC transfer. In addition, the mineral content of the bone improved after transplantation. We could see no sign of aberrant bone formation or malignant transformation.
Our data suggest that MSC transplantation is a possibility for treatment of CPT caused by NF1 in less severe cases without adjunct defects.

30 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1), affecting 1: 3000 people, is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system, and most pediatricians will care for a patient with this condition. It is imperative that careful attention be paid to screening for scoliosis and tibial dysplasia. Prompt referral to an orthopaedist at the time of diagnosis, as well as neurologist, ophthalmologist, and dermatologist, will provide a global spectrum of care for the individual. Patient care between surgical procedures will be inevitable, with 70% of patients with NF-1 undergoing hospitalization or surgery. This review provides a description of diagnosis, presurgical evaluation, and advances in understanding tibial dysplasia, scoliosis and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. New pharmaceutical treatments such as lovastatin have improved bone healing in vivo and induced apoptosis in vitro. Multiple pharmaceuticals have shown neurofibroma arrest in vitro and are in phase II clinical trials. As animal models improve and clinical trials proceed, there is momentum toward eliminating the musculoskeletal morbidity associated with NF-1.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Current opinion in pediatrics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is a rare orthopedic disease presenting spontaneous fractures that do not heal. The treatment of CPT is characterized by repeated surgical procedures that often fail, with the inevitable outcome of severe disability and amputation. We tested the hypothesis that CPT may benefit from regenerative strategies based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a source of growth factors. The aim of the study was to verify whether laboratory testing to assess the osteogenic properties of MSC and the osteo-inductive activity of PRF correlated with the clinical outcome. Ten patients affected by refractory CPT were treated by using MSC derived from the iliac crest (IC-MSC), PRF and lyophilized bone. In six patients, CPT was associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1). Biochemical, functional and molecular assays were performed to assess the intrinsic osteogenic potential of IC-MSC (cells cultured with fetal calf serum) and the osteo-inductive properties of PRF (cells cultured with autologous serum). Bone consolidation was obtained in three patients who had CPT and NF1. In these patients, the IC-MSC exposed to autologous serum were able to form mineral nodules in vitro, while the mineralizing ability was totally abrogated in patients with a poor clinical outcome. Cell therapy may be a useful tool for the treatment of refractory CPT because it increases the opportunity to achieve effective bone tissue regeneration. Our data suggest that the presence of pro-osteogenic growth factors is an essential requirement for bone healing.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Cytotherapy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been intensely studied for the purpose of developing solutions for clinical tissue engineering. Autologous MSCs can potentially be used to replace tissue defects, but the procedure also carries risks such as immunization and xenogeneic infection. Replacement of the commonly used fetal calf serum (FCS) with human platelet lysate and plasma (PLP) to support cell growth may reduce some of these risks. Altered media could, however, influence stem cell differentiation and we address this experimentally. Methods: We examined human MSC differentiation into the osteoblast lineage using in vitro two- and three-dimensional cultures with PLP or FCS as cell culture medium supplements. Differentiation was followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix formation and matrix calcium content were quantified. Results: Three-dimensional culture, where human MSCs were grown on collagen sponges, markedly stimulated osteoblast differentiation; a fourfold increase in calcium deposition could be observed in both PLP and FCS groups. PLP-grown cells showed robust osteogenic differentiation both in two- and three-dimensional MSC cultures. The calcium content of the matrix in the two-dimensional PLP group at day 14 was 2.2-fold higher in comparison to the FCS group (p < 0.0001), and at day 21 it was still 1.3-fold higher (p < 0.001), suggesting earlier calcium accumulation to the matrix in the PLP group. This was supported by stronger Alizarin Red staining in the PLP group at day 14. In two-dimesional PLP cultures, cellular proliferation appeared to decrease during later stages of differentiation, while in the FCS group the number of cells increased throughout the experiment. In three-dimensional experiments, the PLP and FCS groups behaved more congruently, except for the alkaline phosphatase activity and mRNA levels which were markedly increased by PLP. Conclusions: Human PLP was at least equal to FCS in supporting osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs in two- and three-dimensional conditions; however, proliferation was inferior. As PLP is free of animal components, and thus represents reduced risk for xenogeneic infection, its use for human MSC-induced bone repair in the clinic by the three-dimensional live implants presented here appears a promising therapy option.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Stem Cell Research & Therapy