Re-emergence of diabetes after gastric bypass in patients with mid- to long-term follow-up

ArticleinSurgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 6(3):249-53 · May 2010with31 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2009.09.019 · Source: PubMed
Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) improves or resolves shortly after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Few data are available on T2DM recurrence or the effect of weight regain on T2DM status. A review of 42 RYGB patients with T2DM and >or=3 years of follow-up and laboratory data was performed. Postoperative weight loss and T2DM status was assessed. Recurrence or worsening was defined as hemoglobin A1c >6.0% and fasting glucose >124 mg/dL and/or medication required after remission or improvement. Patients whose T2DM recurred or worsened were compared with those whose did not, and patients whose T2DM improved were compared with those whose T2DM resolved. T2DM had either resolved or improved in all patients (64% and 36%, respectively); 24% (10) recurred or worsened. The patients with recurrence or worsening had had a lower preoperative body mass index than those without recurrence or worsening (47.9 versus 52.9 kg/m2; P = .05), regained a greater percentage of their lost weight (37.7% versus 15.4%; P = .002), had a greater weight loss failure rate (63% versus 14%; P = .03), and had greater postoperative glucose levels (138 versus 102 mg/dL; P = .0002). Patients who required insulin or oral medication before RYGB were more likely to experience improvement rather than resolution (92% versus 8%, P <or=.0001; and 85% versus 15%; P = .0006, respectively). Our results have shown that beyond 3 years after RYGB, the incidence of T2DM recurrence or worsening in patients with initial resolution or improvement was significant. In our patients, a greater likelihood of recurrence or worsening of T2DM was associated with a lower preoperative body mass index. Before widespread acceptance of bariatric surgery as a definitive treatment for those with T2DM can be achieved, additional study of this recurrence phenomenon is indicated.
    • "Recent studies report that excessive weight regain (i.e., more than 25 % of the weight lost after surgery) is experienced by approximately 37 % of patients [3]. Weight regain appears to be a particular concern between 12 and 24 months after surgery [1, 4] because this subgroup of patients presenting weight recidivism may find that the initial improvement of obesity-related comorbidities is mitigated [2, 5]. Although weight regain could result from physiological or anatomical factors, it is highly likely to result from the postoperative reemergence of maladaptive eating and lifestyle behaviors [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Despite evidence of successful weight loss for bariatric surgery patients, some patients experience considerable weight regain over the long term. Given the strong association between post-surgery health behaviors and outcomes, aftercare intervention to address key behaviors appears to be a reasonable relapse-prevention strategy. As the burden of obesity rates increases in healthcare centers, an internet-based program appears to be a reasonable strategy for supporting bariatric surgery patients in the long term. The primary purpose of the current project is to develop and test the efficacy and perceived utility of APOLO-Bari. Methods/design: This study is a randomized control trial, which will be conducted in two hospital centers in the North of Portugal; it includes a control group receiving treatment as usual and an intervention group receiving the APOLO-Bari program for one year in addition to treatment as usual. A total of 180 male and female participants who underwent bariatric surgery (gastric sleeve or gastric bypass surgery) for 12 to 20 months will be recruited. Both groups will complete a similar set of questionnaires at baseline, every 4 months until the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Assessment includes anthropometric variables and psychological self-report measures. The primary outcome measure will be weight regain measured at the end of treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. The secondary aims are to test the cost-effectiveness of the intervention and to investigate psychological predictors and trajectories of weight regain. APOLO-Bari was developed to address the weight regain problem in the bariatric population by offering additional guidance to bariatric patients during the postoperative period. The program includes: (a) a psychoeducational cognitive-behavioral-based self-help manual, (b) a weekly feedback messaging system that sends a feedback statement related to information reported by the participant, and (c) interactive chat sessions scheduled with a trained psychologist in the field. Discussion: APOLO-Bari may play an important role in broadening therapeutic reach to bariatric patients who would not otherwise have continuous support, with important implications for public health treatment. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN37668662 .
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "This potentially reflects a “floor effect” of trying to improve HOMA-IR that is already low for that group. Alternatively, this finding could mirror data in some human studies suggesting that diabetes worsens in certain low-BMI or less-diabetic patients after bariatric surgery [41], although the true etiology is unclear and requires further study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric operation; however, the mechanism underlying the profound weight-independent effects on glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Large animal models of naturally occurring insulin resistance (IR), which have been lacking, would provide opportunities to elucidate such mechanisms. Ossabaw miniature swine naturally exhibit many features that may be useful in evaluating the anti diabetic effects of bariatric surgery. Methods: Glucose homeostasis was studied in 53 Ossabaw swine. Thirty-two received an obesogenic diet and were randomized to RYGB, gastrojejunostomy (GJ), gastrojejunostomy with duodenal exclusion (GJD), or Sham operations. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and standardized meal tolerance tests were performed prior to, 1, 2, and 8 weeks after surgery and at a single time-point for regular diet control pigs. Results: High-calorie-fed Ossabaws weighed more and had greater IR than regular diet controls, though only 70% developed IR. All operations caused weight-loss-independent improvement in IR, though only in pigs with high baseline IR. Only RYGB induced weight loss and decreased IR in the majority of pigs, as well as increasing AUCinsulin/AUCglucose. Conclusions: Similar to humans, Ossabaw swine exhibit both obesity-dependent and obesity-independent IR. RYGB promoted weight loss, IR improvement, and increased AUCinsulin/AUCglucose, compared to the smaller changes following GJ and GJD, suggesting a combination of upper and lower gut mechanisms in improving glucose homeostasis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
    • "The patients with recurrence or worsening had had a lower preoperative BMI than those without recurrence or worsening (p=.05), regained a greater percentage of their body lost weight (p =.002), had a greater body weight loss failure rate (p=.03), and had greater postoperative glucose levels (p=.0002). Patients who required insulin or oral medication before RYGB were more likely to experience improvement rather than resolution [93]. A retrospective study comparing the long-term effects of SG, RYGB and AGB on T2D, was performed with 60 morbidly obese T2D patients. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is emerging as a worldwide public health problem, and is mainly associated with an increased incidence of obesity. Bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment for severely obese patients. After bariatric surgery, T2D patients have shown a significant improvement in glycemic control, even before substantial weight loss and often discontinuation of medication for diabetes control. A central role for enteroendocrine cells from the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract has been speculated in this postoperative phenomenon. These cells produce and secrete polypeptides - gut hormones - that are associated with regulating energy intake and glucose homeostasis through modulation of peripheral target organs, including the endocrine pancreas. This article reviews and discusses the biological actions of the gut hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, incretins, enteroglucagon, and Peptide YY, all of which were recently identified as potential candidates for mediators of glycemic control after bariatric surgery. In conclusion, current data reinforce the hypothesis that T2D reversion after bariatric surgery may be related to glycemic homeostasis developed by the intestine.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
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