DiGiorgi M, Rosen DJ, Choi JJ, et al. Re-emergence of diabetes after gastric bypass in patients with mid- to long-term follow-up
Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) improves or resolves shortly after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Few data are available on T2DM recurrence or the effect of weight regain on T2DM status. A review of 42 RYGB patients with T2DM and >or=3 years of follow-up and laboratory data was performed. Postoperative weight loss and T2DM status was assessed. Recurrence or worsening was defined as hemoglobin A1c >6.0% and fasting glucose >124 mg/dL and/or medication required after remission or improvement. Patients whose T2DM recurred or worsened were compared with those whose did not, and patients whose T2DM improved were compared with those whose T2DM resolved. T2DM had either resolved or improved in all patients (64% and 36%, respectively); 24% (10) recurred or worsened. The patients with recurrence or worsening had had a lower preoperative body mass index than those without recurrence or worsening (47.9 versus 52.9 kg/m2; P = .05), regained a greater percentage of their lost weight (37.7% versus 15.4%; P = .002), had a greater weight loss failure rate (63% versus 14%; P = .03), and had greater postoperative glucose levels (138 versus 102 mg/dL; P = .0002). Patients who required insulin or oral medication before RYGB were more likely to experience improvement rather than resolution (92% versus 8%, P <or=.0001; and 85% versus 15%; P = .0006, respectively). Our results have shown that beyond 3 years after RYGB, the incidence of T2DM recurrence or worsening in patients with initial resolution or improvement was significant. In our patients, a greater likelihood of recurrence or worsening of T2DM was associated with a lower preoperative body mass index. Before widespread acceptance of bariatric surgery as a definitive treatment for those with T2DM can be achieved, additional study of this recurrence phenomenon is indicated.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Despite evidence of successful weight loss for bariatric surgery patients, some patients experience considerable weight regain over the long term. Given the strong association between post-surgery health behaviors and outcomes, aftercare intervention to address key behaviors appears to be a reasonable relapse-prevention strategy. As the burden of obesity rates increases in healthcare centers, an internet-based program appears to be a reasonable strategy for supporting bariatric surgery patients in the long term. The primary purpose of the current project is to develop and test the efficacy and perceived utility of APOLO-Bari. Methods/design: This study is a randomized control trial, which will be conducted in two hospital centers in the North of Portugal; it includes a control group receiving treatment as usual and an intervention group receiving the APOLO-Bari program for one year in addition to treatment as usual. A total of 180 male and female participants who underwent bariatric surgery (gastric sleeve or gastric bypass surgery) for 12 to 20 months will be recruited. Both groups will complete a similar set of questionnaires at baseline, every 4 months until the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Assessment includes anthropometric variables and psychological self-report measures. The primary outcome measure will be weight regain measured at the end of treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. The secondary aims are to test the cost-effectiveness of the intervention and to investigate psychological predictors and trajectories of weight regain. APOLO-Bari was developed to address the weight regain problem in the bariatric population by offering additional guidance to bariatric patients during the postoperative period. The program includes: (a) a psychoeducational cognitive-behavioral-based self-help manual, (b) a weekly feedback messaging system that sends a feedback statement related to information reported by the participant, and (c) interactive chat sessions scheduled with a trained psychologist in the field. Discussion: APOLO-Bari may play an important role in broadening therapeutic reach to bariatric patients who would not otherwise have continuous support, with important implications for public health treatment. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN37668662 .0Comments 0Citations
- "Recent studies report that excessive weight regain (i.e., more than 25 % of the weight lost after surgery) is experienced by approximately 37 % of patients . Weight regain appears to be a particular concern between 12 and 24 months after surgery [1, 4] because this subgroup of patients presenting weight recidivism may find that the initial improvement of obesity-related comorbidities is mitigated [2, 5]. Although weight regain could result from physiological or anatomical factors, it is highly likely to result from the postoperative reemergence of maladaptive eating and lifestyle behaviors . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric operation; however, the mechanism underlying the profound weight-independent effects on glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Large animal models of naturally occurring insulin resistance (IR), which have been lacking, would provide opportunities to elucidate such mechanisms. Ossabaw miniature swine naturally exhibit many features that may be useful in evaluating the anti diabetic effects of bariatric surgery. Methods: Glucose homeostasis was studied in 53 Ossabaw swine. Thirty-two received an obesogenic diet and were randomized to RYGB, gastrojejunostomy (GJ), gastrojejunostomy with duodenal exclusion (GJD), or Sham operations. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and standardized meal tolerance tests were performed prior to, 1, 2, and 8 weeks after surgery and at a single time-point for regular diet control pigs. Results: High-calorie-fed Ossabaws weighed more and had greater IR than regular diet controls, though only 70% developed IR. All operations caused weight-loss-independent improvement in IR, though only in pigs with high baseline IR. Only RYGB induced weight loss and decreased IR in the majority of pigs, as well as increasing AUCinsulin/AUCglucose. Conclusions: Similar to humans, Ossabaw swine exhibit both obesity-dependent and obesity-independent IR. RYGB promoted weight loss, IR improvement, and increased AUCinsulin/AUCglucose, compared to the smaller changes following GJ and GJD, suggesting a combination of upper and lower gut mechanisms in improving glucose homeostasis.0Comments 3Citations
- "This potentially reflects a “floor effect” of trying to improve HOMA-IR that is already low for that group. Alternatively, this finding could mirror data in some human studies suggesting that diabetes worsens in certain low-BMI or less-diabetic patients after bariatric surgery , although the true etiology is unclear and requires further study. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives We sought to determine: (1) if early weight regain between 1 and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with worsened hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and (2) if preoperative levels of ghrelin and leptin are associated with early weight regain after RYGB.Methods Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity and ghrelin and leptin plasma levels were assessed longitudinally in 45 subjects before RYGB and at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. Weight regain was defined as ≥5% increase in body weight between 1 and 2 years after RYGB.ResultsWeight regain occurred in 33% of subjects, with an average increase in body weight of 10 ± 5% (8.5 ± 3.3 kg). Weight regain was not associated with worsening of peripheral or hepatic insulin sensitivity. Subjects with weight regain after RYGB had higher preoperative and postoperative levels of ghrelin compared to those who maintained or lost weight during this time. Conversely, the trajectories of leptin levels corresponded with the trajectories of fat mass in both groups.Conclusions Early weight regain after RYGB is not associated with a reversal of improvements in insulin sensitivity. Higher preoperative ghrelin levels might identify patients that are more susceptible to weight regain after RYGB.0Comments 3Citations
- "Arterburn and colleagues, in a recent retrospective cohort study of nearly 4500 RYGB cases, reported that one-third of patients experienced relapse of type 2 diabetes within five years of initial remission (31). Only a limited number of studies have examined the effect of RYGB weight recidivism on the durability of type 2 diabetes remission, and found that weight regain was a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes recurrence (32, 33, 34, 35). The mean follow-up time for these studies ranged from 3-8.8 years. "