Lifetime Trajectory of Physical Activity According to Energy Expenditure and Joint Force

University of British Columbia, Arthritis Research Centre of Canada, Vancouver, Canada.
Arthritis care & research 10/2010; 62(10):1452-9. DOI: 10.1002/acr.20243
Source: PubMed


To develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a method for estimating lifetime hip and knee cumulative joint force using survey data on physical activity, and to construct and describe lifetime trajectories of energy expenditure and hip and knee joint force.
Exposure data on lifetime physical activity, including type (occupational, household, and recreation) and dose (frequency, intensity, and duration), were collected from a Canada-wide population study of adults ages ≥45 years. Subjects were ranked in 2 ways: in terms of physical activity-related energy expenditure and in terms of a cumulative peak force index (CPFI) for the hip and knee, which is a measure of lifetime exposure and is a time/joint force product involving years of force and subject bodyweight. A relative joint loading index was calculated as the ratio of joint force (CPFI score) to energy expenditure.
A total of 4,269 subjects completed the baseline measurements. Lifetime energy expenditure and hip and knee CPFI scores were higher for occupational and household activity than sport. The mean lifetime energy expenditure from total physical activity in the study sample was 119.1 metabolic equivalent-hours/week. Women had slightly higher total lifetime energy expenditure and CPFI scores than men. The relative joint loading index was highest for male household and sport activity and lowest for female occupational activity.
Lifetime cumulative hip/knee joint force trajectories were successfully constructed from survey data and followed expected trends. Comparing energy expenditure with joint force revealed variation by age, sex, and activity type, indicating these measures may help distinguish the numerous benefits of physical activity from possible risks.

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Available from: Gavin Steininger, Dec 16, 2015
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    • "The prevalence of knee OA and covariates for the study sample were calculated. CPFI values for each activity were summed for sport, occupation, and household domains for each 5-year period of a person's lifetime to factor in changes in bodyweight over time, and these domain values were then summed to give a total CPFI value [5]. For the total force (CPFI) variable, subjects were categorized into quintiles of exposure for the overall distribution, prior to stratification by gender. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To investigate the association of cumulative lifetime knee joint force on the risk of self-reported medically-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Exposure data on lifetime physical activity type (occupational, household, sport/recreation) and dose (frequency, intensity, duration) were collected from 4,269 Canadian men and women as part of the Physical Activity and Joint Heath cohort study. Subjects were ranked in terms of the "cumulative peak force index", a measure of lifetime mechanical knee force. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to obtain adjusted effects for mean lifetime knee force on the risk of knee OA. Results. High levels of total lifetime, occupational and household-related force were associated with an increased in risk of OA, with odds ratio's ranging from approximately 1.3 to 2. Joint injury, high BMI and older age were related to risk of knee OA, consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. A newly developed measure of lifetime mechanical knee force from physical activity was employed to estimate the risk of self-reported, medically-diagnosed knee OA. While there are limitations, this paper suggests that high levels of total lifetime force (all domains combined), and occupational force in men and household force in women were risk factors for knee OA.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · International Journal of Rheumatology
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    • "Associations with 95% confidence intervals excluding the null effect are shown in bold. of 4269 men and women, where estimates of PA were divided into three main domains (work, sports, household), with strong sex and age trends present in all domains [25] "
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    ABSTRACT: Physical activity (PA) is an important modifiable risk factor for both bone mineral density (BMD) and body mass index (BMI). However, BMI is itself strongly predictive of BMD. Our aim was to determine the association between PA and BMD, with consideration of BMI as a potential mediating factor. The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) is a population-based prospective cohort study of Canadian women and men. PA was determined from interviewer-administered questionnaires at baseline and Year 5 and summarized as daily energy expenditure in total metabolic equivalents of the task multiplied by minutes/day (MET*m/d). Height, weight, and total hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured at baseline and Year 5. General linear models assessed relationships between PA and BMD, both cross-sectionally (baseline PA with baseline BMD) and longitudinally (average PA and change in PA with change in BMD). BMI was considered as a mediating factor. Potential confounders included age, center, education, caffeine intake, alcohol exposure, smoking history, history of weight-cycling, age at menarche, past use of oral contraceptives, history of >3 months missed menstruation, menopausal status, and antiresorptive use, as relevant. The study included 2855 men and 6442 women. PA was inversely associated with BMI at baseline, and an increase in PA between baseline and Year 5 was associated with a decrease in BMI, with 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.60) kg/m(2) loss per 1000 MET*m/d increase (in men) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.57) kg/m(2) loss per 1000 MET*m/d increase (in women). BMI was strongly associated with BMD, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. However, increased PA was associated with a small increase in total hip BMD, 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000-0.008) g/cm(2) per 1000 MET*m/d (in men) and 0.003 (95% CI: 0.000-0.007) g/cm(2) per 1000 MET*m/d (in women). Average PA was associated with an increase in lumbar spine BMD in women, but not in men; it was not associated with change in total hip BMD in either sex. Increased PA is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase PA would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Bone

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