Improvement of Cardiac Function by a Cardiac Myosin Activator in Conscious Dogs With Systolic Heart Failure
CV Dynamics, Inc, North Brunswick, NJ, USA. Circulation Heart Failure
(Impact Factor: 5.89).
05/2010; 3(4):522-7. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.109.930321
Therapy for chronic systolic heart failure (sHF) has improved over the past 2 decades, but the armamentarium of drugs is limited and consequently sHF remains a leading cause of death and disability. In this investigation, we examined the effects of a novel cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil (formerly CK-1827452) in 2 different models of heart failure.
Two different models of sHF were used: (1) pacing-induced sHF after myocardial infarction (MI-sHF) and (2) pacing-induced sHF after 1 year of chronic pressure overload left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH-sHF). Omecamtiv mecarbil increased systolic function in sHF dogs, chronically instrumented to measure LV pressure, wall thickness, and cardiac output. Omecamtiv mecarbil, infused for 24 hours, induced a sustained increase without desensitization (P<0.05) in wall thickening (25+/-6.2%), stroke volume (44+/-6.5%) and cardiac output (22+/-2.8%), and decreased heart rate (15+/-3.0%). The major differences between the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on cardiac function and the effect induced by a catecholamine, for example, dobutamine, is that omecamtiv mecarbil did not increase LV dP/dt but rather increased LV systolic ejection time by 26+/-2.9% in sHF. Another key difference is that myocardial O(2) consumption (MVO(2)), which increases with catecholamines, was not significantly affected by omecamtiv mecarbil.
These results demonstrate that chronic infusion of the cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, improves LV function in sHF without the limitations of progressive desensitization and increased MVO(2.) This unique profile may provide a new therapeutic approach for patients with sHF.
Available from: Maria Razumova
- "Unfortunately , they are not completely specific to cTnC and can have offtarget effects on other EF-hand calcium binding proteins and other proteins involved in excitation–contraction coupling  . One pharmacological treatment currently under development is omecamtiv mecarbil, which is a small molecule capable of directly activating myosin and thus modulating cardiac contractility  . This treatment does not manipulate intracellular Ca 2+ in order to increase contractility; instead, it interacts with myosin and enhances the transition to the strongly actin-bound state. "
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ABSTRACT: Many current pharmaceutical therapies for systolic heart failure target intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) metabolism, or cardiac troponin C (cTnC) on thin filaments, and can have significant side-effects, including arrhythmias or adverse effects on diastolic function. In this study, we tested the feasibility of directly increasing the Ca(2+) binding properties of cTnC to enhance contraction independent of [Ca(2+)]i in intact cardiomyocytes from healthy and myocardial infarcted (MI) hearts. Specifically, cardiac thin filament activation was enhanced through adenovirus-mediated over-expression of a cardiac troponin C (cTnC) variant designed to have increased Ca(2+) binding affinity conferred by single amino acid substitution (L48Q). In skinned cardiac trabeculae and myofibrils we and others have shown that substitution of L48Q cTnC for native cTnC increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the maximal rate of force development. Here we introduced L48Q cTnC into myofilaments of intact cardiomyocytes via adeno-viral transduction to deliver cDNA for the mutant or wild type (WT) cTnC protein. Using video-microscopy to monitor cell contraction, relaxation, and intracellular Ca(2+) transients (Fura-2), we report that incorporation of L48Q cTnC significantly increased contractility of cardiomyocytes from healthy and MI hearts without adversely affecting Ca(2+) transient properties or relaxation. The improvements in contractility from L48Q cTnC expression are likely the result of enhanced contractile efficiency, as intracellular Ca(2+) transient amplitudes were not affected. Expression and incorporation of L48Q cTnC into myofilaments was confirmed by Western blot analysis of myofibrils from transduced cardiomyocytes, which indicated replacement of 18±2% of native cTnC with L48Q cTnC. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of directly targeting cardiac thin filament proteins to enhance cardiomyocyte contractility that is impaired following MI.
Available from: Shi J Liu
- "The degree of increased stroke volume induced by omecamtive mecarbil is greater than that of decreased heart rate, thereby resulting in a small increase in cardiac output. Although treatment for 24 h with omecamtive mecarbil did not alter the coronary blood flow (Shen et al., 2010), one noticeable concern for the increased systolic ejection time induced by omecamtive mecarbil was to induce coronary hypoperfusion with shortened ventricular filling time during diastole. Thus, during long-term treatments, omecamtive mecarbil could potentially induce further myocardial ischemia/damage. "
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ABSTRACT: Heart disease that ultimately leads to heart failure (HF) has been the number one cause of death in the United States as well as in many other countries for over a century. Inotropic therapy utilizing cardiotonics to increase cardiac contractility remains a significant component of the management of HF. However, adverse effects of currently available cardiotonics have been compromising their therapeutic value and often lead to further myocardial dysfunction. Thus, discovery of safe cardiotonics remains a main challenge to improvement of inotropic therapy for HF. This review briefly summarized cellular mechanisms underlying the inotropic action of currently available cardiotonics, newly-developed carditonics and the bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA), a tropical tree used in ayurvedic medicine. The potential of TA bark as a new cardiotonic in inotropic treatment for HF was also discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between Na+, major cation concentrations and salt tolerance under long-term saline conditions of Medicago arborea and Medicago citrina was studied. Plants were grown in solution culture in 1, 50, 100, or 200 mmol/L NaCl for 30 days in a climate-controlled greenhouse. Stem and petiole growth was the most affected by salt in both species. Leaf growth was inhibited in M. arborea, with increased salt, while only the 200 mmol/L NaCl-treated M. citrina plants were significantly affected. Both species had the highest Na+ concentrations in the shoots, however, the allocation pattern was different; M. arborea showed the highest concentrations in the leaf blades, whereas M. citrina distributed the salt into the petioles. K+/Na+ ratio decreased with salt in both species; however, leaf K+ use efficiency (g leaf DW mg-1 leaf K+) was higher in M. citrina. The difference in Na+ allocation and cation concentrations found in these medic species and their importance is discussed in relation to their response to NaCl salinity.
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