Prevention of Drowning

PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 05/2010; 126(1):e253-62. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-1265
Source: PubMed


Drowning is a leading cause of injury-related death in children. In 2006, approximately 1100 US children younger than 20 years died from drowning. A number of strategies are available to prevent these tragedies. As educators and advocates, pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of drowning.

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    • "Cases of nonfatal drowning, wherein the victim successfully receives cardiopulmonary resuscitation, are also most common in children less than four years old (Borse et al., 2008;Kriel et al., 1994). For every pediatric drowning death, at least two survivors are hospitalized from a drowning incident (Weiss, 2010). In these patients, nonfatal drowning damages many organs, but the most devastating disability results from brain injury (Ibsen and Koch, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Drowning is a leading cause of neurological morbidity and mortality in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI) can result from nonfatal drowning and typically entails substantial neurological impairment. The neuropathology of drowning-induced pediatric ABI is not well established. Specifically, quantitative characterization of the spatial extent and tissue distribution of anoxic damage in pediatric nonfatal drowning has not previously been reported but could clarify the underlying pathophysiological processes and inform clinical management. To this end, we used voxel-based morphometric (VBM) analyses to quantify the extent and spatial distribution of consistent, between-subject alterations in grey and white matter volume. Whole-brain, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in 11 children with chronic ABI and 11 age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls (4–12 years). Group-wise VBM analyses demonstrated predominantly central subcortical pathology in the ABI group in both grey matter (bilateral basal ganglia nuclei) and white matter (bilateral external and posterior internal capsules) (P < 0.001); minimal damage was found outside of these deep subcortical regions. These highly spatially convergent grey and white matter findings reflect the vascular distribution of perforating lenticulostriate arteries, an end-arterial watershed zone, and suggest that vascular distribution may be a more important determinant of tissue loss than oxygen metabolic rate in pediatric ABI. Further, these results inform future directions for diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Clinical neuroimaging
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Drowning is associated with a high mortality and morbidity and a common cause of death. In-water resuscitation (IWR) in the case of drowning accidents has been recommended by certain resuscitation guidelines in the last several years. IWR has been discussed controversially in the past, especially with regard to the delay of chest compressions, effectiveness of ventilation, and hazard to the rescuer. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of IWR. Methods. In this crossover manikin study, 21 lifeguards and 21 laypersons performed two rescue procedures in an indoor swimming pool over a 50-meter distance: In random order, one rescue procedure was performed with in-water ventilation and one without. Tidal and minute volumes were recorded using a modified Laerdal Resusci Anne (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway) and total rescue duration, submersions, water aspiration by the victim, and physical effort were assessed. Results. IWR resulted in significant increases in rescue duration (lifeguards: 106 vs. 82 seconds; laypersons: 133 vs. 106 seconds) and submersions (lifeguards: 3 vs. 1; laypersons: 5 vs. 0). Furthermore, water aspiration (lifeguards: 112 vs. 29 mL; laypersons: 160 vs. 56 mL) and physical effort (lifeguards: visual analog scale [VAS] score 7 vs. 5; laypersons: VAS score 8 vs. 6) increased significantly when IWR was performed. Lifeguards achieved significantly better ventilation characteristics and performed both rescue procedures faster and with lower side effects. IWR performed by laypersons was insufficient with regard to both tidal and minute volumes. Conclusions. In-water resuscitation is associated with a delay of the rescue procedure and a relevant aspiration of water by the victim. IWR appears to be possible when performed over a short distance by well-trained professionals. The training of lifeguards must place particular emphasis on a reduction of submersions and aspiration when IWR is performed. IWR by laypersons is exhausting, time-consuming, and inefficient and should probably not be recommended. Key words: drowning; near-drowning; hypoxia; ventilation, artificial; respiration, artificial; resuscitation, in-water.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Prehospital Emergency Care
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    ABSTRACT: Recent mortality data indicate that approximately half a million people drown each year worldwide, with more than 97% of such deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to examine verbal autopsy data on the circumstances of childhood drowning in Matlab, Bangladesh. The study analysed 10 years (1996-2005) of data which reported 489 deaths in children under 5 years and recorded preimmersion, immersion and postimmersion events. The data summarised household characteristics, age, gender and time of drowning event. The study also examined traditional rescue methods performed on children who were removed from the water OR found drowning. Of 489 deaths, 57% were aged 1-2 years and had a drowning mortality rate of 521 per 100 000 children. Most drowning events occurred during the morning (68%), in ponds (69%), and while the mother was busy doing household chores (70%). Traditional rescue methods were attempted in 55% of children and the most frequently reported measure was to spin the child over head (35%). Only 3% of families tried to perform resuscitation. Verbal autopsy data for Matlab is a useful resource for childhood injury research in a low-income country. The study is one of the first to publish data on traditional rescue practices performed on drowning children in rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that interventions should be designed using locally identified risk factors to reduce childhood drowning incidents. Community-based resuscitation techniques and emergency medical systems are needed to improve postimmersion recovery of the child.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
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