Article

Trace determination of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and grape samples by capillary zone electrophoresis using large volume sample stacking

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva, s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.44). 05/2010; 397(6):2593-601. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-010-3812-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A sensitive and reliable method using capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-diode array detection has been developed and validated for trace determination of residues of sulfonylurea herbicides in environmental water samples and grapes from different origins. The analytes included are triasulfuron, rimsulfuron, flazasulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, and chlorsulfuron. Optimum separation has been achieved on a 48.5-cm x 50-microm (effective length 40 cm) bubble cell capillary using 90 mM ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.8, by applying a voltage of 20 kV at 25 degrees C and using p-aminobenzoic acid as the internal standard. In order to increase sensitivity, large volume sample stacking with polarity switching has been applied as on-line preconcentration methodology. For water samples, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure based on the use of Oasis HLB cartridges was applied for off-line preconcentration and cleanup. For grape samples, the SPE procedure was achieved with C(18) sorbent, after extraction of the compounds with MeOH:H(2)O (1:1) by sonication. The limits of detection for the studied compounds were between 0.04 and 0.12 microg/L for water samples and 0.97 and 8.30 microg/kg in the case of grape samples, lower in all cases than the maximum residue limits permitted by the EU for this kind of food. The developed methodology has demonstrated its suitability for the monitoring of these residues in environmental water and grape samples with high sensitivity, precision, and satisfactory recoveries.

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    • "However, filling of the capillaries with a stationary phase created capillary electrochromatography (CEC) that combines the principles of electrophoretic and chromatographic separation, and has been employed in the determination of PUHs in vegetables and processed vegetables as it is effective for the analysis of complex food matrices[132]. Although UV is the most common detection technique, various techniques such as DAD[129,133,134], enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)[135,136], MS[137], and MS/MS[138]have been exploited, thus broadening the applicability of CE in the analysis of herbicides in food. "
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    ABSTRACT: The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommends that a pesticide may be defined as “a substance intended to kill pests: in common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological, or plant pests” [1]. Pesticides are grouped according to their target organism; for example, rodenticides control rodents, insecticides control insects, fungicides control the growth of fungi, and herbicides control weeds. However, as shown in Figure 10.1, herbicides are extensively used and constituted 40% and about 50% of the total pesticides consumed globally and in the United States in 2007, respectively. Among the 250,000 plant species in the world, only 0.1% is wearisome enough to be termed weeds [2]. Weeds are a major economic problem in crop production because they cause yield loss, reduction in crop quality, show allelopathy, and act as a host of pests and diseases [2–4].
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    • "Several analytical methods have been reported for trace level determination of SUHs in various matrices (Berrada et al. 2003), including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Degelmann et al. 2004), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with various detectors, such as diode array detector (DAD) (Zhou et al. 2006; Niu et al. 2009; Gallitzendörfer et al. 2011; Tsochatzis et al. 2012), mass spectrometry (MS) (Rodríguez and Orescan 1998; Ayano et al. 2004; Ouyang et al. 2009), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) (Baker et al. 2005; Fang et al. 2010; Yan et al. 2011; Kang et al. 2011; Fenoll et al. 2012), capillary highperformance liquid chromatography (capillary HPLC) with DAD (Bouri et al. 2012; Lerma-García et al. 2013; Gure et al. 2013), micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) with DAD (Dinelli et al. 1995; Penmetsa et al. 1997), and capillary electrophoresis with DAD (Berger and Wolfe 1996; Hickes and Watrous 1999; Chen et al. 2000; Quesada-Molina et al. 2010). On the other hand, due to their occurrence levels and complexity of the food matrices, determination of SUH residues requires sample preparation before their final determinations . "
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