Comparison of Frequency of Inducible Myocardial Ischemia in Patients Presenting to Emergency Department With Typical Versus Atypical or Nonanginal Chest Pain
Department of Emergency Medicine and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.The American journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 06/2010; 105(11):1561-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.01.014
The present study was designed to assess the value of the presenting symptom of "typical" anginal pain, "atypical/nonanginal" pain, or the lack of chest pain in predicting the presence of inducible myocardial ischemia using cardiac stress testing in emergency department patients being evaluated for possible acute coronary syndrome. We performed a retrospective observational study of adult patients who were evaluated for acute coronary syndrome in an emergency department chest pain unit. The presenting symptoms were obtained from a structured questionnaire administered before stress testing. Patient chest pain was categorized according to the presence of substernal chest pain or discomfort that was provoked by exertion or emotional stress and was relieved by rest and/or nitroglycerin. Chest pain was classified as "typical" angina if all 3 descriptors were present and "atypical" or "nonanginal" if <3 descriptors were present. All patients underwent serial biomarker and cardiac stress testing before discharge. A total of 2,525 patients met the eligibility criteria. Inducible ischemia on stress testing was found in 33 (14%, 95% confidence interval 10% to 19%) of the 231 patients who had typical anginal pain, 238 (11%, 95% confidence interval 10% to 13%) of the 2,140 patients presenting with atypical/nonanginal chest pain, and 25 (16%, 95% confidence interval 11% to 22%) of the 153 patients who had no complaint of chest pain on presentation. Compared to patients with atypical or no chest pain, patients with typical chest pain were not significantly more likely to have inducible ischemia on stress testing (likelihood ratio +1.25, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.78). In conclusion, in our study, the patients who presented with "typical" angina were no more likely to have inducible myocardial ischemia on stress testing than patients with other presenting symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the accuracy of using nitroglycerine as a 'test of treatment' in the diagnosis of cardiac chest pain we undertook a systematic review of studies of diagnostic accuracy. Databases searched included PubMed, Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, Science Citation Index, EMBASE and manual searching of bibliographies of known primary and review articles. Studies were included if sublingual nitroglycerine was the index test, its effect on the patient's pain score was recorded and the reference test was performed on at least 80% of patients. The data from the five papers were used to form 2×2 contingency tables. Five eligible studies were found, all in the acute setting (although one paper collected its data in the follow-up setting, all patients had acute presentations). The sensitivity ranged from 35% to 92% and the specificity from 12% to 63%. However, in all but one paper the Youden indices were close to zero suggesting that the response to nitroglycerine is not useful as a diagnostic test. The combined sensitivity was 0.52 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.56) and combined specificity was 0.49 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.52). The diagnostic OR from the combined studies was 1.2 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.5), which is not significantly different from 1. In the acute setting, nitroglycerine is not a reliable test of treatment for use in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, further studies are needed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of nitroglycerine for recurrent exertional chest pain.
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ABSTRACT: Coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) is a viable alternative to functional imaging in the assessment of patients presenting with acute chest pain (ACP) to the emergency department (ED). The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee was formed to develop recommendations for acquiring, interpreting, and reporting of cardiovascular CT to ensure adequate, safe, and efficient use of this modality. Because of the increasing extension of coronary CTA testing for the evaluation of ACP patients, the Committee has been charged with the development of the present document to assist physicians and technologists. These recommendations were produced as an educational tool for practitioners to improve the diagnostic care of patients presenting with acute chest pain to the ED, in the interest of developing systematic standards of practice for coronary CTA based on the best available data or broad expert consensus. Due to the highly variable nature of medical care, and individual and unique patient presentations and circumstances, approaches to patient selection, preparation, protocol selection, interpretation or reporting that differs from these guidelines may represent an appropriate variation based on a legitimate assessment of an individual patient’s needs. The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee makes every effort to avoid any actual or potential conflicts of interest that might arise as a result of an outside relationship or a personal interest of a member of the Guidelines Committee or its Writing Groups. Specifically, all members of the Guidelines Committee and of both Writing Committees are asked to provide disclosure statements of all such relationships that might be perceived as real or potential conflicts of interest relevant to the document topic. The relationships with industry information for Writing Group and Committee members are available in the Acknowledgments section of this document. These are reviewed by the Guidelines Committee and will be updated as changes occur.
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ABSTRACT: Background Air pollution can be a contributing cause to the development and exacerbation of coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is little knowledge about the acute effects of air pollution on different clinical subtypes of CHD. Methods We conducted a time-series study to investigate the association of air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) on emergency department (ED) visits due to five different subtypes of CHD in Shanghai, China, from 2010 to 2012. We applied an over-dispersed Poisson generalized addictive model to analyze the associations after controlling for the seasonality, day of the week, and weather conditions. Results We identified a total of 47 523 ED visits for CHD. A 10-µg/m3 increase in the present-day concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 was associated with respective increases of 1.10% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33%–1.87%), 0.90% (95% CI −0.14%–1.93%), and 1.44% (95% CI 0.63%–2.26%) for total ED visits for CHD. These associations varied greatly by clinical type, with strong effects on sudden cardiac death, moderate effects on acute myocardial infarction and angina, weak effects on ischemic cardiomyopathy, and no effect on occult CHD. The associations were stronger among people aged 65 years or more than in younger individuals and in the cool season versus the warm one. Conclusions Outdoor air pollution may have different effects of air pollution on 5 subtypes of CHD. Our results might be useful for the primary prevention of various subtypes of CHD exacerbated by air pollution.
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