Article

Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: Levels in breast milk and commercial baby food

Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
Environment international (Impact Factor: 5.56). 08/2010; 36(6):584-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible risk associated to PFCs contamination during early stages of life.

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    • "c o m / l o c a t e / y t a a p middle ear infections (Dewailly et al., 2000). Furthermore babies are exposed to POPs through breast feeding (Llorca et al., 2010;Waliszewski et al., 2009). This implies that they are exposed before birth and during the early sensitive developmental stages of their lives to POPs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2 h and 48 h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC + Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br + Cl, PFC + Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment.
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    • "As a consequence of their use for more than 60 years, residues of PFAS are widely spread in the environment [2] [3]. Some of these compounds can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain [4] [5] [6], and have been detected in humans [7] [8]. The ubiquitous presence of these PFAS in the general population , their long half-lives, and increasing evidence of potential adverse health effects, is of concern. "
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    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Chromatography A
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    • "The unique properties such as resistance to hydrolysis, photolysis, bio-degradation and thermal stability, in combination with widespread application of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), made them global pollutants in abiotic and biotic matrices including food stuffs (Picó et al., 2011), human blood (Kannan et al., 2004; Harada et al., 2010), breast milk (Llorca et al., 2010), wildlife such as fish, birds and marine mammals (Giesy and Kannan, 2001), sediment (Nakata et al., 2006), water (Yamashita et al., 2005) and atmosphere (Li et al., 2011). The worldwide distribution of PFASs was reported in urban and remote areas including Science of the Total Environment xxx (2014) xxx–xxx deep oceanic water of up to 5000 m (Yamashita et al., 2005) and in polar bears from the Arctic Ocean (Giesy and Kannan, 2001). "
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Science of The Total Environment
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