Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: Levels in breast milk and commercial baby food
Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.Environment international (Impact Factor: 5.56). 08/2010; 36(6):584-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.016
In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible risk associated to PFCs contamination during early stages of life.
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- "c o m / l o c a t e / y t a a p middle ear infections (Dewailly et al., 2000). Furthermore babies are exposed to POPs through breast feeding (Llorca et al., 2010;Waliszewski et al., 2009). This implies that they are exposed before birth and during the early sensitive developmental stages of their lives to POPs. "
ABSTRACT: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2 h and 48 h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC + Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br + Cl, PFC + Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment.
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- "As a consequence of their use for more than 60 years, residues of PFAS are widely spread in the environment  . Some of these compounds can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain   , and have been detected in humans  . The ubiquitous presence of these PFAS in the general population , their long half-lives, and increasing evidence of potential adverse health effects, is of concern. "
ABSTRACT: Ionization and in source-fragmentation behavior of four fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) (4:2 FTOH, 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH) and four N-alkyl fluorooctane sulfonamides/-ethanols (N-MeFOSA, N-EtFOSA, N-MeFOSE and N-EtFOSE) by APCI has been studied and compared with the traditionally used EI and CI. Protonated molecule was the base peak of the APCI spectrum in all cases giving the possibility of selecting it as a precursor ion for MS/MS experiments. Following, CID fragmentation showed common product ions for all FOSAs/FOSEs (C4F7 and C3F5). Nevertheless, the different functionality gave characteristic pattern fragmentations. For instance, FTOHs mainly loss H2O+HF, FOSAs showed the losses of SO2 and HF while FOSEs showed the losses of H2O and SO2. Linearity, repeatability and LODs have been studied obtaining instrumental LODs between 1 and 5fg. Finally, application to river water and influent and effluent waste water samples has been carried out in order to investigate the improvements in detection capabilities of this new source in comparison with the traditionally used EI/CI sources. Matrix effects in APCI have been evaluated in terms of signal enhancement/suppression when comparing standards in solvent and matrix. No matrix effects were observed and concentrations found in samples were in the range of 1-100pgL(-1) far below the LODs achieved with methods previously reported. Unknown related perfluoroalkyl substances, as methyl-sulfone and methyl-sulfoxide analogues for FTOHs, were also discovered and tentatively identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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- "The unique properties such as resistance to hydrolysis, photolysis, bio-degradation and thermal stability, in combination with widespread application of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), made them global pollutants in abiotic and biotic matrices including food stuffs (Picó et al., 2011), human blood (Kannan et al., 2004; Harada et al., 2010), breast milk (Llorca et al., 2010), wildlife such as fish, birds and marine mammals (Giesy and Kannan, 2001), sediment (Nakata et al., 2006), water (Yamashita et al., 2005) and atmosphere (Li et al., 2011). The worldwide distribution of PFASs was reported in urban and remote areas including Science of the Total Environment xxx (2014) xxx–xxx deep oceanic water of up to 5000 m (Yamashita et al., 2005) and in polar bears from the Arctic Ocean (Giesy and Kannan, 2001). "
ABSTRACT: Water, sediment, plankton, and blood and liver tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri) were collected from six major rivers and lakes in South Korea (including Namhan River, Bukhan River, Nakdong River, Nam River, Yeongsan River and Sangsa Lake) and analyzed for perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was consistently detected at the greatest concentrations in all media surveyed with the maximum concentration in water of 15ngL(-1) and in biota of 234ngmL(-1) (fish blood). A general ascending order of PFAS concentration of water<sediment<plankton<crucian carp tissues<mandarin fish tissues was found. Except for the Nakdong River and Yeongsan River, the sum PFAS concentrations in water samples were below 10ngL(-1). The PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in water did not exceed levels for acute and/or chronic effects in aquatic organisms. High concentrations of long chain perfluorocarboxylates (LCPFCAs) were found in sediment samples. PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) accounted for 94-99% of the total PFASs concentration in fish tissues. The mean ratios of PFAS concentration between fish blood and fish liver were above 2 suggesting higher levels in blood than in liver. Significant positive correlations (r>0.80, p<0.001) were observed between PFOS concentration in blood and liver tissues of both crucian carp and mandarin fish. This result suggests that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS in fish. Overall, the rank order of mean bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of PFOS in biota was; phytoplankton (196L/kg)<zooplankton (3233L/kg)<crucian carp liver (4567L/kg)<crucian carp blood (11,167L/kg)<mandarin liver (24,718L/kg)<mandarin blood (73,612L/kg).
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