Article

Large-scale networks in cognition: emerging methods and principles. Trends Cogn Sci

Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences (Impact Factor: 21.97). 06/2010; 14(6):277-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.04.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

An understanding of how the human brain produces cognition ultimately depends on knowledge of large-scale brain organization. Although it has long been assumed that cognitive functions are attributable to the isolated operations of single brain areas, we demonstrate that the weight of evidence has now shifted in support of the view that cognition results from the dynamic interactions of distributed brain areas operating in large-scale networks. We review current research on structural and functional brain organization, and argue that the emerging science of large-scale brain networks provides a coherent framework for understanding of cognition. Critically, this framework allows a principled exploration of how cognitive functions emerge from, and are constrained by, core structural and functional networks of the brain.

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    • "Other cortical regions that exhibited significant SST-induced changes in DA have previously been shown to activate during SST performance, including frontal (middle and superior frontal gyri), parietal (precuneus, paracentral lobule, postcentral gyrus supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus), temporal (fusiform gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), and cingulate cortex areas (Cai and Leung, 2009;Congdon et al., 2010;Courtney et al., 2013;Ghahremani et al., 2012;Kareken et al., 2013). The precuneus is one of the core regions of the " default mode network " (DMN;Bressler and Menon, 2010), which engages in the absence of a directed task and is believed to mediate " switching " cognitive processes on and off (Li et al., 2007;Zhang and Li, 2010). Dopaminergic transmission affects precuneus activity during cognitive task performance. "
    Dataset: syn21736

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    • "Although the activation of the dACC was not found to be involved in Bishop's study, the author suggests that the connection between the dACC and the dlPFC probability plays a role in triggering cognitive control of anxiety (Bishop, 2009). Taken together, the AI-dACC circuit is proposed to be strongly involved in dlPFC-related cognitive control triggered by salience evaluation (Mathews and MacLeod, 1994;Desimone and Duncan, 1995;Mathews and Mackintosh, 1998;Bressler and Menon, 2010), which may be impaired in individuals with anxiety. However, no study has examined the relationship between anxiety and the AI-dACC circuit. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Adolescence is a critical period for the vulnerability of anxiety. Imaging studies focusing on adolescents’ susceptibility to anxiety suggest that the different development trajectories between the limbic system and the executive control system may play important roles in this phenomenon. However, few studies have explored the brain basis of this susceptibility from the perspective of functional networks. The salience network(SN)consists of a series of key limbic and prefrontal regions that are engaged in the development of anxiety, such as the amygdala, anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Intra- and inter- network connections in this system play essential roles in bottom-up attention and top-down regulation of anxiety, nevertheless, little is known about whether the SN-centered connections are associated with trait anxiety (i.e., susceptibility to anxiety) in adolescents. Method: Here, we applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the relationship between intra- and inter- network functional connectivity (FC) of the SN and trait anxiety in adolescents using the amygdala, AI and dACC as the regions of interest (ROI). Results: We found that trait anxiety levels were inversely associated with both characteristic AI-dACC FC in the SN and distributed inter-network FC between the SN and multiple functional systems, which included the default mode network and the executive control network. Conclusions: Our results indicate that weaker intra- and inter- network FC of the SN was linked to higher trait anxiety among adolescents, and it may underlie altered salience processing and cognitive regulation.
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    • "Structural brain networks possess complex organizational features that are thought to underlie efficient neural communication. Connections impose strong constraints on functional interactions among brain areas (Bressler and Menon, 2010; Park and Friston, 2013; Wang et al., 2014). It is thus essential to understand the principles that underlie the organization of connections and give rise to the topological properties of the cortex. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anatomical connectivity imposes strong constraints on brain function, but there is no general agreement about principles that govern its organization. Based on extensive quantitative data we tested the power of three models to predict connections of the primate cerebral cortex: architectonic similarity (structural model), spatial proximity (distance model) and thickness similarity (thickness model). Architectonic similarity showed the strongest and most consistent influence on connection features. This parameter was strongly associated with the presence or absence of inter-areal connections and when integrated with spatial distance, the model allowed predicting the existence of projections with very high accuracy. Moreover, architectonic similarity was strongly related to the laminar pattern of projections origins, and the absolute number of cortical connections of an area. By contrast, cortical thickness similarity and distance were not systematically related to connection features. These findings suggest that cortical architecture provides a general organizing principle for connections in the primate brain.
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