Article

Tai chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med 10:23

Division of Rheumatology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.02). 05/2010; 10(1):23. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-23
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations.
Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed.
Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09), anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03), and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80), and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69) in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health.
Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions.

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    • "en el físic, perquè s'ha demostrat que les seves diverses modalitats (p. ex. contra resistència, aeròbic), permeten percebre beneficis en variables afectives com la imatge corporal (IC) i la satisfacció corporal (SC) (Campbell & Hausenblas, 2009; Ekeland, Heian, & Hagen, 2005; Fox, 2000; Hausenblas & Fallon, 2006; Kawano, 1997; Reel et. al., 2007; Wang et. al., 2010). La IC es refereix a la representació interna de l'aparença externa pròpia i es presenta com un constructe multidimensional que inclou components afectius, cognitius , conductuals i perceptius (Altabe & Thompson, 1996; Raich, 2004; J. K. Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). Els elements més avaluats de la IC es troben en"

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    • "It is a consensus that a single bout of exercise improves affect (Anderson & Brice, 2011; Dasilva et al., 2011; Szabo, 2003a), which is a mental state that reflects how an activity or a particular situation impacts the person (Duncan & Barrett, 2007). The benefits of a single workout on affect were previously observed in different exercises, including: dance aerobics (Rokka et al., 2010), Nordic walking (Stark et al., 2011), running (Hoffman & Hoffman, 2008; Szabo, 2003a), shadowboxing (Li & Yin, 2008), swimming (Valentine & Evans, 2001), taekwondo (Toskovic, 2001), tai chi (Wang et al, 2010), walking (Dasilva et al., 2011), and yoga (Streeter et al., 2010). Spinning, also referred to as exercise biking or indoor cycling, is ranked among top ten most popular sports among women (Sport England, 2012). "
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    • "Otro estudio (Szabo & Abraham, 2012) con corredores recreativos, vinculaban los efectos positivos sobre el BPS a un efecto placebo derivado de la intención de mejora del acondicionamiento físico y/o las perspectivas de rendimiento, independientemente de la modalidad desarrollada. En este sentido, diferentes estudios muestran que aparte de la AF practicada, contribuye de forma notable en la mejora del BPS y/o emocional (Janisse, Nedd, Escamilla, & Nies, 2004; Zanuso, Sieverdes, Smith, Carraro, & Bergamin, 2012; Wang et al., 2010), sin que la duración ni intensidad sean factores que medien (Szabo, 2013). Por otro lado, aunque el factor contextual pueda influir (Martens, Gutscher, & Bauer, 2011; Shin et al., 2013), la imposibilidad de modificar el lugar de práctica , hace pensar que son las diferencias individuales las que parecen mediar directamente en cuanto a los efectos del ejercicio físico sobre el BPS en última instancia (Reed & Ones, 2006). "
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