ArticleLiterature Review

Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in Foods: A Comprehensive Review on Consumption, Functionality, Safety, and Regulatory Matters

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Abstract

Caffeine ranks as one of the top most commonly consumed dietary ingredients throughout the world. It is naturally found in coffee beans, cacao beans, kola nuts, guarana berries, and tea leaves including yerba mate. The total daily intake, as well as the major source of caffeine varies globally; however, coffee and tea are the 2 most prominent sources. Soft drinks are also a common source of caffeine as well as energy drinks, a category of functional beverages. Moderate caffeine consumption is considered safe and its use as a food ingredient has been approved, within certain limits, by numerous regulatory agencies around the world. Performance benefits attributed to caffeine include physical endurance, reduction of fatigue, and enhancing mental alertness and concentration. Caffeine has also been recently linked to weight loss and consequent reduction of the overall risks for developing the metabolic syndrome. However, the caloric contribution of caffeine-sweetened beverages needs to be considered in the overall energy balance. Despite all these benefits the potential negative effects of excessive caffeine intake should also be considered, particularly in children and pregnant women.

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... Second, one might consider the dose administered in our study (150 mg 3 times daily) to be rather high. Earlier studies reported an average caffeine intake per capita varying from 16 to 400 mg/day per capita worldwide (71,73). However, this number can be underestimated in regular consumers by taking the non-consumers to average (73). ...
... Earlier studies reported an average caffeine intake per capita varying from 16 to 400 mg/day per capita worldwide (71,73). However, this number can be underestimated in regular consumers by taking the non-consumers to average (73). Furthermore, while consumption of coffee and tea were the primary target of many large-scale country-wise surveys, some other caffeinated products are often missing, such as cola, chocolate, and energy drinks, which could also lead to an underestimation. ...
... Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis among 80% of the worldwide population (73). It is of importance to beware that daily consumption, even merely in the daytime, can accumulate exposure to the psychostimulant and prevents the body from full recovery. ...
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Caffeine elicits widespread effects in the central nervous system and is the most frequently consumed psychostimulant worldwide. First evidence indicates that, during daily intake, the elimination of caffeine may slow down, and the primary metabolite, paraxanthine, may accumulate. The neural impact of such adaptions is virtually unexplored. In this report, we leveraged the data of a laboratory study with N = 20 participants and three within-subject conditions: caffeine (150 mg caffeine × 3/day × 10 days), placebo (150 mg mannitol × 3/day × 10 days), and acute caffeine deprivation (caffeine × 9 days, afterward placebo × 1 day). On day 10, we determined the course of salivary caffeine and paraxanthine using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We assessed gray matter (GM) intensity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acute caffeine deprivation as compared to changes in the caffeine condition from our previous report. The results indicated that levels of paraxanthine and caffeine remained high and were carried overnight during daily intake, and that the levels of paraxanthine remained elevated after 24 h of caffeine deprivation compared to placebo. After 36 h of caffeine deprivation, the previously reported caffeine-induced GM reduction was partially mitigated, while CBF was elevated compared to placebo. Our findings unveil that conventional daily caffeine intake does not provide sufficient time to clear up psychoactive compounds and restore cerebral responses, even after 36 h of abstinence. They also suggest investigating the consequences of a paraxanthine accumulation during daily caffeine intake.
... Various types of caffeinated beverages are available worldwide, including coffee, black tea, green tea, hot chocolate drinks, energy drinks, and caffeinated soft beverages. Coffee and tea are the most popular frequently consumed caffeinated drinks (Frary et al. 2005;Heckman et al. 2010;Oba et al. 2010). The most distinguished features of caffeinated beverages are their pleasant aromas and psychostimulant properties (Ferré 2016). ...
... Caffeine is a natural chemical constituent present in coffee beans (Coffea Arabica and Coffea robusta), cacao beans (Theobroma cacao), guarana berries (Paullinia cupana), tea leaves (Camellia sinensis), and kola nuts (Cola acuminate). Caffeine is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and metabolized in the liver to form its derivative metabolites, such as 3,7-dimethylxanthine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, and 1,3-dimethylxanthine (Gan et al. 2018;Heckman et al. 2010). Further demethylation is continued to form paraxanthine, theobromine, and theophylline (Fig. 2). ...
... Further demethylation is continued to form paraxanthine, theobromine, and theophylline (Fig. 2). Then these metabolites undergo demethylation and oxidation in the liver (Heckman et al. 2010;Vieira et al. 2020). Certainly, the major source of caffeine in human beverages comes from coffee, and the highest content of caffeine was found in espresso coffee (Fig. 3). ...
Chapter
Caffeinated beverages are any drink containing caffeine, and the most popular caffeinated beverages worldwide are coffee and tea. Caffeinated beverages have gained their popularity and attractiveness due to their pleasant aromas and psychostimulant impacts, which are mostly attributed to the presence of caffeine. Both beneficial and deleterious impacts of caffeine and its association with developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been observed. This dual nature of caffeine has been intensively investigated in several prospective cohort and clinical studies. On the other hand, caffeinated beverage constituents other than caffeine have been shown to be the main contributors to increased insulin sensitivity, lowered plasma glucose concentration, and a reduced risk of devel- oping T2DM. These include phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acids and trigonelline. However, other natural and/or artificial additives, such as sucrose, fructose, and cream (saturated and trans fats), can play significant role in reducing insulin sensitivity and affecting glucose metabolism. This chapter discusses the beneficial and detrimental effects of caffeinated beverages on human health, particularly in the risk of developing T2DM.
... Caffeine is one of the most consumed pharmacologically active substances in the world [1], although it has no nutritional value and is not required for any basic biological function. The large-scale use of caffeine is influenced by several socio-cultural factors [1,2], and due to its wide presence in a variety of foods, drinks, and dietary supplements, the prevalence of daily caffeine consumption can reach up to 80% of the world's population [2,3]. Caffeine consumption in the sports context has also been highly prevalent, particularly after removing this substance from the list of banned substances from the World Anti-Doping Agency [4]. ...
... Caffeine is one of the most consumed pharmacologically active substances in the world [1], although it has no nutritional value and is not required for any basic biological function. The large-scale use of caffeine is influenced by several socio-cultural factors [1,2], and due to its wide presence in a variety of foods, drinks, and dietary supplements, the prevalence of daily caffeine consumption can reach up to 80% of the world's population [2,3]. Caffeine consumption in the sports context has also been highly prevalent, particularly after removing this substance from the list of banned substances from the World Anti-Doping Agency [4]. ...
... Whereas the protocols with high caffeine doses were conducted always in the morning. As previously reported [2], the time of the day employed for caffeine ingestion could affect the incidence of insomnia, especially when caffeine or caffeine-containing products are administered in the afternoon or evening [10,66]. Hence, future investigations with high doses of caffeine should be carried out in the afternoon to clearly understand if there is a dose-response effect of caffeine on insomnia. ...
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Purpose The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence on the prevalence and magnitude of side effects associated with caffeine supplementation in athletes. Methods Systematic searches through the PubMed, VHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Peer-reviewed articles written in English that reported the prevalence/percentage or magnitude/effect size of side effects after caffeine supplementation in athletes in a sports context were included. Studies were grouped by the dose of caffeine administered as follows: low = ≤ 3.0 mg/kg; moderate = from 3.1 to 6.0 mg/kg; high = ≥ 6.1 mg/kg. The magnitude of the side effects was calculated with effect sizes. Results The search retrieved 25 studies that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria with a pooled sample of 421 participants. The supplementation with caffeine produced a higher prevalence or magnitude of all side effects under investigation when compared to placebo/control situations. The prevalence (magnitude) was between 6 and 34% (ES between 0.13 and 1.11) for low doses of caffeine, between 0 and 34% (ES between −0.13 and 1.20) for moderate doses of caffeine, and between 8 and 83% (ES between 0.04 and 1.52) with high doses of caffeine. The presence of tachycardia/heart palpitations and the negative effects on sleep onset had the highest prevalence and magnitude, in athletes using supplementation with caffeine. Conclusion In summary, caffeine supplementation in the doses habitually used to enhance physical performance produces several side effects, both after exercise and at least 24 h after the ingestion. However, the prevalence and magnitude of side effects with high doses of caffeine were habitually higher than with low doses of caffeine. From a practical perspective, using ~3.0 mg/kg of caffeine may be the dose of choice to obtain the ergogenic benefits of caffeine with the lowest prevalence and magnitude of side effects.
... Sixty-four percent of adults in America drink coffee daily, and the average coffee intake is 3.1 cups/day [1]. Traditionally, people were recommended to avoid or reduce coffee, especially those with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), because it increases blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides [2]. More recent studies have reported that coffee improves insulin sensitivity, reduces chronic inflammation and liver enzymes, and may be inversely associated with all-cause and some of the cause-specific mortality rates [3][4][5]. ...
... Caffeine decreases the risk of depression [30] and has protective effects against some types of cancer [21]. Caffeine helps reduce symptoms of Parkinson's disease; it also helps with weight control, which will reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome [2]. Although regular caffeine intake increases BP, when ingested through coffee, the pressure effect is small [31]. ...
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Citation: Feng, J.; Wang, J.; Jose, M.; Seo, Y.; Feng, L.; Ge, S. Association between Caffeine Intake and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: An Abstract: Sixty-four percent of adults in America drink coffee daily, and caffeine is the main reason people tend to drink coffee habitually. Few studies have examined the association between caffeine and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the association between caffeine and all-cause and cause-specific mortality using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014 database. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine 23,878 individuals 20 years and older. Daily caffeine intake was measured once at baseline. A total of 2206 deaths occurred, including 394 cardiovascular (CVD) deaths and 525 cancer deaths. Compared to those with a caffeine intake of <100 mg/day, the hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality were significantly lower in the participants with a caffeine intake of 100-200 mg/day (HR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.88), and those with a caffeine intake of >200 mg/day (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.88) after adjusting for potential confounders. The HRs for all-cause mortality were significantly lower in the participants with a caffeine intake of 100-200 mg/day (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), and those with a caffeine intake of >200 mg/day (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.60-0.78). Subgroup analyses showed that caffeine may have different effects on all-cause mortality among different age and body mass index (BMI) groups. In conclusion, higher caffeine intake was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality.
... Caffeine is a natural plant alkaloid found in more than 60 plant species and many beverage and food products, over the counter dietary supplements, and medications [3]. Caffeine is the common name for the chemical 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, which is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized by the liver [3,4]. ...
... Caffeine is a natural plant alkaloid found in more than 60 plant species and many beverage and food products, over the counter dietary supplements, and medications [3]. Caffeine is the common name for the chemical 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, which is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized by the liver [3,4]. Caffeine is generally considered a safe compound because it has a high threshold of toxicity and is a gastric irritant with emetic properties [5]. ...
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Background: This study investigated the clinical and pathological manifestations of kola nut on puppies. Kola nut which contains caffeine is used in some regions in Nigeria particularly the south-south to poison stray dogs. Keywords: Kola Nut; Dogs; Caffeine; Clinical Signs; Gross Lesions; Biochemical and Histopathology Materials and Methods: Aqueous extracts of Kola nut nitida was administered to dogs in order to investigate the possible effects on some organs of the dogs. Four dogs were used in the treatment group whereby two doses of the extract (400 mg/Kg and 800 mg/Kg) were daily administered orally to the test animals for a period of 2 weeks. Results: A dose related response was observed. Clinical signs observed include: excitement, polyuria, shivering, dull appearance, rough hair coat, emaciation/ body weight lost, drowsiness, tetanic convulsion, bloody diarrhea, aggressiveness, irritating mood, de�creased pulse rate, decreased body temperature, decreased respiratory rate, sunken eye ball and mucoid diarrhea. Severity of gross lesions in the liver, kidney, Brain, lymph nodes and small Intestine of animals in the infected groups. The laboratory result showed that kola nut extract can be toxic to dogs following the laboratory results gotten from this study as haematology result showed that there is a difference in Red Blood cells, white blood cell, Monocyte, Pack cell volume, Neutrophils, Lymphocyte and Hemoglobin which shows hypochromic condition, while the histopathological lesions shows neuronal necrosis and pyknosis in the brain, gastric erosion with hemorrhage in intestine, necrosis of the renal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, necrotic myocyte in the heart, thickening of the alveolar septa in the lungs and in the liver necrosis of the hepatocytes. Some of the biochemical parameters showed great statis�tical significance: AST, Urea, Total protein and Creatinine are high compared with the control group. These signify kidney and liver damage. Conclusion: Despite the reported potentially beneficial effects of kola nut, its use as a medicinal plant should be with great caution because of the clinico-pathological manifestations seen in this study
... Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed food ingredients in the world. Every day, millions of people around the world use it in drinks and other foods that contain caffeine, including coffee, tea and chocolate (4). Caffeine in its pure state is in the form of a white powder. ...
... In the second experiment, a significant increase (p <0.05) was found in the FSH concentration of animals during the three-week period, and it did not show a significant difference in the six-week period, as shown in the table (4). This is in agreement with a study (9), in which an increase in the level of FSH was observed in mature male rabbits after exposure to Caffeine for four weeks. ...
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This study was conducted to find out the effect of different doses of Lipo-6-black fat burner and Caffeine on the physiology of parts of the reproductive system of white male rats. The experiment included administering the Lipo-6-black fat burner to male white rats orally at concentrations (16.82, 8.41 and 4.20). Mg / kg)for 3-6 weeks , and also giving Caffeine orally, which is considered one of the main components of the fat burner at concentrations (11.42, 5.71, and 2.85 mg / kg) for a period of 3-6 weeks for each concentration. The study recorded the presence of weight changes of testis in addition to physiological changes, as it included the results of the first experiment were a decrease in in the weights of the testis and the levels of hormones (Testosterone, LH, FSH) at the middle and end of the experiment. As for the results of the second experiment, , changes in the weight of the testis , and an increase in the hormone levels themselves were observed at The middle of the experiment, while at the end of the experiment, no effect on hormones was shown.
... Caff eine is a stimulant and in large quantities it can cause palpitations (strong throbbing) of the heart, as well as nervousness, irritability and insomnia [14]. Heckman et al [15] point out that caff eine intake can be harmful in pregnancy (it can increase the risk of fetal damage and decrease fertility). In addition, it can lead to liver and kidney problems [2]. ...
... In addition, it can lead to liver and kidney problems [2]. However, there are confl icting opinions as to whether caff eine increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as the risk of diabetes type 2 [15]. On the other hand, it has been proven that caff eine increases resting energy consumption (by promoting fat lipolysis), increases endurance and improves performance, increases "mental energy" and directly supports the central nervous system [16], increases cognitive brain functioning [17], delays fatigue [18], increases energy effi ciency, and reduces the level of eff ort during training [19]. ...
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In recent years, studies have often been devoted to the frequent on frequency , motives and consequences of consuming energy drinks by the student population at universities. These studies have been common in many countries. The aim of this study was to identify the patterns of energy drink consumption among college students of the Serbian University of Belgrade and to understand the attitudes, motives and consequences of consuming these beverages. The result of this study indicates that energy drink consumption is a common practice among Serbian university students (72.0% use energy drinks and 1.1% consume them regularly). Out of the total number of surveyed students 12.9% consumed energy drinks with alcohol. The most frequent negative effects in students who had used energy drinks were: weight gain (24.2%), headaches (2.6%), thirst (18.9%) and hunger (11.6%). Many of the students surveyed (62.0%) cited that their main motive for using energy drinks was improving their academic capabilities, commonly used as a way to study longer and improve mental focus. But, 10.5% of the surveyed students felt the effect of increased concentration after using energy drinks. This indicated the students' confusion and disagreement between their motives for using energy drinks and the effects achieved. A large number of surveyed students (85.3%) did not check the composition of energy drinks before consumption. The results show that students need education in this regard. This research is part of a study called "Attitudes and Behavior of Students in relation to Food and Nutrition" and is a form of preventive action to combat the widespread use of energy drinks in the student population.
... Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed mood and behavior altering drugs [1]. The stimulatory effects of caffeine together with its widespread presence in foods such as coffee, tea, and chocolate are important reasons to explain the high prevalence (around 80%) of caffeine consumption around the world [1]. ...
... Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed mood and behavior altering drugs [1]. The stimulatory effects of caffeine together with its widespread presence in foods such as coffee, tea, and chocolate are important reasons to explain the high prevalence (around 80%) of caffeine consumption around the world [1]. Regarding caffeine sources, in most European countries, except for the United Kingdom and Ireland, coffee has been commonly found to be the major source for adults [2]. ...
Article
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Due to its stimulatory effects, caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed mood and behavior altering drugs. University students report using caffeine-containing products to enhance mood and performance or for a desire of alertness. The current study investigated caffeine consumption in university undergraduate students, and associations with smoking status, alcohol and cannabis consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and sleep quality. Motivations for caffeine intake were also ascertained. A total of 886 undergraduates aged 18–25 years from the University of the Balearic Islands participated in a cross-sectional survey. Caffeine was consumed by 91.1% of participants. Caffeine consumers were more likely to be female, smokers, and alcohol and cannabis consumers. Coffee was found to be the main source of caffeine intake in both men and women (48.9% of total caffeine intake). Higher percentages of women consumed coffee (56.4 vs. 42.1%, p = 0.01) and tea (40.3 vs. 19.8%, p < 0.001), whereas a higher percentage of men consumed energy drinks (18.0 vs. 7.4%, p < 0.001). Main motivations for caffeine intake were those related to cognitive enhancement. Caffeine intake was associated with poorer subjective sleep quality (p < 0.001). In conclusion, undergraduate students that were female and smokers reported higher caffeine intakes. Coffee was found as the main caffeine contributor, with higher contributions of tea in women and energy drinks in men. Universities should consider the implementation of health campaigns and educational programs to educate students of the risks of high caffeine consumption together with associated behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and poor sleep quality to physical health and academic performance.
... Energy drinks (ED) that contain higher amount of caffeine become popular during the second half of the 20 th century leading to marked growth in the caffeinated soft drink market [1]. The popularity of energy drinks especially among young people and adolescents can be explained in part due to the assuming effect of ED on enhancing mental concentration and reducing the fatigue. ...
... It is consumed most frequently in beverages such as coffee (71%), soft drinks (16%), and tea (12%). The central stimulant effect of caffeine on central nervous system is basically related to three mechanisms: antagonism of adenosine receptors, inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity, and intracellular calcium mobilization [1]. ...
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Background and Objectives: Recently consumption of energy drinks has become popular among young people especially athletes and students. In this study we investigate the consumption frequency and pattern among secondary school students. Methods: 480 secondary school students were participated in this study. Data was gathered using a self-response questionnaire that mainly focused on the patterns of consumption and knowledge of the students about energy drinks effects among consumers. Results: Out of 480 students, 165 (34.38%) of the participants were consumers, while 315 (65.63%) were none consumers. The result showed that the majority of the consumers (65.63%) have adequate knowledge about physical and mental effects of energy drinks. However, 63.54%of them do not know the ingredients of the energy drinks. Conclusion: About one third of the participants were energy drinks consumers, most of them were not a regular consumer. Our study shows a good knowledge about energy drinks physical and mental effects among participants.
... Known risks include computer use, systemic medications, and contact lens wear. 1 Our group recently found alcohol intake to be tied to more dry eye symptoms in women 12 ; however, the role of other dietary factors is still largely unknown. Caffeine (1,3,7trimethylxanthine) is the most commonly ingested bioactive substance, 13 but its role in DED development remains unclear, with inconclusive results in epidemiological [14][15][16] and clinical studies. [17][18][19] Determining caffeine's relationship with DED could provide guidance to patients and clinicians. ...
Article
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the association between caffeine intake and dry eye disease (DED) in the large, population-based LifeLines cohort in the Netherlands. Methods: DED was cross-sectionally assessed in 85,302 participants (59% female participants) using the Women's Health Study dry eye questionnaire. Dietary caffeine was calculated from the intake of coffee, tea, cola, and energy drinks. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between DED and caffeine, correcting for demographic variables, smoking status, alcohol intake, and 48 comorbidities of DED. Results: The mean (SD; range) age of participants was 50.7 years (12.4; 18-96), and 50,339 (59%) were female. The mean (SD) caffeine intake was 285 (182) mg/d. After correcting for demographics, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol intake, higher caffeine intake was associated with a decreased risk of Women's Health Study-defined DED [odds ratio (OR) 0.971 per 100 mg/d, 95% CI, 0.956-0.986, P < 0.0005]. When additionally adjusting for medical comorbidities, no significant effect was observed (OR 0.985, 95% CI, 0.969-1.001, P = 0.06). Caffeine's effect on DED was similar in male and female participants and independent of sleep quality and stress at work. Decaffeinated coffee intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of DED, when adjusted for caffeinated coffee, demographics, alcohol intake, smoking status, and comorbidities (OR 1.046 per cup/d, 95% CI, 1.010-1.084, P = 0.01). None of the beverages were significantly associated with the risk of DED, when correcting for intake of the other caffeinated beverages, demographics, smoking status, alcohol intake, and all comorbidities. Conclusions: Dietary caffeine intake does not seem to be a risk factor for DED in the general population.
... The amount of ca eine in 16-oz energy drinks can range from 154 to 280mg (the equivalent of 2-3 cups of ca einated co ee), while some energy drinks contain 500mg or more in a single can. 7 The only recommendation in the US for limitations of ca eine consumption comes from the American Dietetic Association, which recommends that women of reproductive age and children should not exceed 300mg of ca eine per day (2-3 cups of co ee). ...
Article
Objective: We sought to determine the frequency, reasons for, and factors associated with energy drink consumption in adolescents with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Design: Anonymous surveys were completed by 115 adolescents and their parents prior to appointments at two separate outpatient clinics (pediatric and psychiatric) over a three-month period. Trained staff provided surveys to be completed by adolescents and their parents on a voluntary basis, and all data was self-reported. Care was given to ensure adolescents and their parents completed surveys independently from each other. Results: A total of 114 adolescent surveys and 100 parent surveys were included in analysis. There was a statistically significant association between parent and adolescent consumption of energy drinks. The mean number of energy drinks consumed in the past month was lower among adolescents than among parents. The most common reason among all respondents for energy drink consumption was to promote wakefulness. Conclusion: This survey found that adolescents with parents who consumed energy drinks were more likely to drink energy drinks themselves. Trends indicate that consumption of energy drinks is increasing in the adolescent population, with potential for serious adverse events resulting from high caffeine content, warranting the need for public health awareness.
... Subjects currently suffering from a specific disease were also excluded (Choi et al., 2016). Participants were asked to fast for 2 h before the experiment to eliminate the potential effects of naturally occurring caffeine in various foods that could stimulate the brain (Heckman et al., 2010). Before the experiment, participants received an explanation of the details of the study, after which they provided their informed consent, and their demographic information was collected through a questionnaire. ...
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This study was conducted to determine the physiological and psychological benefits of integrating software coding and horticultural activity. Participants included 30 adults in their 20s. The subjects randomly engaged in activities—namely, connecting Arduino components, coding, planting, and a combined coding and horticultural activities. During the activity, two subjective evaluations were conducted at the end of each activity, and participants’ brain waves were measured. The spectral edge frequency 50% of alpha spectrum band (ASEF50) and ratio of sensorimotor rhythm from mid beta to theta (RSMT) were activated in the prefrontal lobe as participants performed combined coding and horticultural activities. When performing these combined activities, relative beta (RB) increased, and relative theta (RT) decreased in the prefrontal lobe. In addition, ASEF50, relative low beta (RLB), and relative mid beta (RMB) were activated during plant-based activities (planting and a combined coding and horticultural activities). The subjective evaluations revealed that the plant-based activities had a positive effect on participants’ emotions. This study shows that activities combining coding and horticulture had a positive impact on physiological relaxation and increased concentration in adults compared with other activities and was also linked with positive subjectively reported emotions.
... Caffeine (CAF) is a well-established ergogenic supplement, common among athletes in many sport disciplines, and among the majority of general population [1,2]. CAF ingestion in numerous forms [2,3] has been shown to have an impact on exercise performance and to be beneficial in various modes of exercise, such as maximal strength, endurance and power output [4 ,5]. ...
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Introduction. The main goal of this study was to examine the effect of acute intake of 3 mg/kg/body mass (b.m.) of caffeine (CAF) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in recreationally trained women habituated to CAF. Material and Methods. 17 healthy recreationally trained women habitually using CAF participated in the study. The experiment followed randomized, cross-over, double-blind design under three different conditions: control test (CONT) or consumed placebo (PLAC) or consumed 3 mg/kg/b.m. of CAF (CAF-3). Each participant performed 2 sets of 2 CMJ. The following variables were recorded: concentric peak velocity (PV), peak power (PP) and jump height (JH). Results. The two-way repeated measure ANOVA (substance × set) revealed no statistically significant interaction and main effects for all measured variables between conditions. In comparison to the CONT and PLAC, the intake of CAF-3 was not effective at increasing PV (p = 0.533), JH (p = 0.417) and PP (p = 0.871) during 2 sets of the CMJ. Conclusions. This study suggests that 3 mg/kg/b.m. of CAF did not improve CMJ height in recreationally trained women habituated to CAF. Furthermore, the level of athletic performance might be considered a factor in regard to CAF ergogenicity.
... Caffeine is a stimulant drug readily available in the United States and present in coffee, black and green tea, some sodas, and energy drinks [1]. Consumption of caffeine is high among American adolescents, with 75% reporting consuming a caffeinated beverage on a typical day [2,3]. ...
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Caffeine consumption has been linked to poor sleep health in adolescents, but it is unknown whether poor sleep predicts caffeine consumption, and/or whether caffeine consumption predicts poor sleep, particularly when sleep is measured objectively. Data were collected from a micro-longitudinal sub-study of the age 15 wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 589). Adolescents wore an actigraphy device and completed daily surveys for ~1 week. Daily surveys assessed subjective sleep quality and caffeinated beverage consumption (0 = no caffeine, 1 = any caffeine). Separate mixed models assessed whether actigraphy-measured sleep duration, timing, maintenance efficiency, and subjective quality predicted next-day caffeinated beverage consumption within and between adolescents. Variability (standard deviation) of sleep duration and timing, sleep regularity index, and social jetlag were tested as additional between-person predictors. Lagged models tested whether daily caffeinated beverage consumption predicted sleep that night (n = 458). Adolescents with more variable sleep duration and midpoint had higher average odds of consuming caffeinated beverages compared to others. After adolescents consumed ≥1 caffeinated beverage, they had later sleep onset that night and wake time the next morning than usual versus when they did not consume caffeine. Curbing caffeinated beverage consumption may aid in the maintenance of regular sleep schedules and advance sleep timing in adolescents.
... Caffeine. Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is one of the most important alkaloid compounds in coffee beans [19]. Caffeine compounds contribute to the bitter taste of the coffee formula. ...
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Pedada seed is one of potential anti-oxidant resources of coastal plants which is under-utilized. In this current study, pedada seed was formulated in to Robusta coffee to develop a novel coffee mix. The purpose of this study was to obtain the most ideal formula of pedada-Robusta coffee mix based on sensory evaluation using Just about Right (JAR) analysis of French-press brewed coffee mix. The best coffee mix formula was obtained for the mix of 1:1 proportion between pedada seed and Robusta coffee. There were 18 out of 19 sensory attributes of the best formula that sensorially accepted by the consumer respondents. Those included vegetative aroma, brown sugar aroma, musty aroma, sweet aroma, nutty aroma, cocoa aroma, citrus-fruit aroma, sweet taste, sour taste, body-mouth-feel, mouth-feel strength, nutty flavour, burnt flavour, chemical flavour, citrus-fruit flavour, beany flavour, roasted flavour and sweet flavour. The best pedada-coffee mix was also characterized as having mean particle size of 421.5±19.1 μm, total phenolic content of 21.55±0.21 mg GAE/g, antioxidant activity of 48.60±0.94%, caffeine content of 278.50 ± 4.95 mg/kg, total dissolved solids of 0.4±0.066% and colour with a value of L=17.0±0.0; a=18.6±0.9 and b=23.6±0.9.
... The selected individuals were requested to provide a consent form before volunteering for the study. The participants were asked to fast for 2 h before the experiment because caffeine or any other kind of oral stimulants can affect brain activity [33]. Once they came to an experimental garden at Konkuk University, they were also asked to complete a demographic questionnaire including age, gender, and body composition. ...
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Since indoor, sedentary lifestyles became prevalent in society, humans have lost a sustainable connection to nature. An intervention utilizing outdoor horticultural activities could address such a challenge, but their beneficial effects on the brain and emotions have not been characterized in a quantitative approach. We aimed to investigate brain activity and emotional changes in adults in their 20s during horticultural activity to confirm feasibility of horticultural activity to improve cognitive and emotional states. Sixty university students participated in 11 outdoor horticultural activities at 2-min intervals. We measured brain waves of participants’ prefrontal cortex using a wireless electroencephalography device while performing horticultural activities. Between activities, we evaluated emotional states of participants using questionnaires. Results showed that each horticultural activity showed promotion of brain activity and emotional changes at varying degrees. The participants during physically intensive horticultural activities—digging, raking, and pruning—showed the highest attention level. For emotional states, the participants showed the highest fatigue, tension, and vigor during digging and raking. Plant-based activities—harvesting and transplanting plants—made participants feel natural and relaxed the most. Therefore, this pilot study confirmed the possibility of horticultural activity as a short-term physical intervention to improve attention levels and emotional stability in adults.
... Many other caffeine-containing beverages and products exist, including tea, chocolate [60], cocoa, cola nuts [51,61], mate, guarana [19,31,42,62], medications, dietary supplements, and soft drinks [53]. ...
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The prevalence of ED consumption has increased over the past 10–15 years. Studies describing the effects of caffeine and caffeinated beverages show confusing results, so it seems important to regularly summarize the available facts, and in more detail. By a thorough analysis of more than 156 scientific papers, the authors describe the molecular background of absorption, as well as the positive and negative effects of different dosages of caffeine, just like its effects in physical activity and performance. ED and EDwA consumption is a regular habit of not only adults, but nowadays even of children and adolescents. There are no safe dosages described of caffeine or ED consumption for children. There are no positive short- or long-term effects of these compounds/products concerning developing brain functions, psycho-motor functions, or social development. Instead, there are many unpleasant side effects, and symptoms of regular or higher-dose ED consumption, especially at younger ages. This mini review describes many details of these unpleasant side effects, their severity, and motivations for consuming these compounds/products. In a quantitative research in Hungary (10–26 years, mean age: 15.6 ± 3.8 y, 1459 subjects, randomly chosen population), a survey based on a questionnaire asking people about their ED consumption habits was conducted. According to the data, 81.8% of the participants consumed EDs at least once, and 63.3% tried several products of the kind. A positive correlation was found between age and consumption (p < 0.001). The results show that a high proportion of this group often consumed EDwA, in many cases leading to harmful side-effects of caffeine overdose. In a sample of Hungarian high school and college students (17–26 years), ED consumption matched the international data, and only 19.7% of respondents did not use EDs at all (had never tasted an ED in their life).
... Adolescents are vulnerable to HCB abuse, as HCBs are readily accessible, relatively inexpensive, and have a sweet flavor that is more appealing to younger consumers than coffee [1,8]. Adolescents who consume HCBs may be at higher risk of caffeine intoxication than adults [9]. ...
Article
Objectives: The purposes of this study were to (1) examine the multi-year prevalence of highly caffeinated beverage (HCB) consumption, (2) identify sex differences in the prevalence, and (3) investigate relationships between HCB consumption and behavioral characteristics in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods: Data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014-2017) were analyzed. Results: HCB consumption was higher in 2017 than 2014 (23.9% vs. 12.0%), and higher among boys than girls (17.2% vs. 13.1%). HCB drinkers were more likely to (1) be boys, (2) be overweight or obese, (3) use alcohol and tobacco, (4) consume soda at least once per week, (5) consume sweetened beverages at least once per week, (6) have seriously considered suicide during the past 12 months, and (7) have attempted suicide during the past 12 months (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion: Effective programs to curb HCB consumption among Korean adolescents need to be established.
... Caffeine is a widely consumed food constituent, and as a result the health effects associated with caffeine have long been of interest. Scienti c and historical evidence shows that among the healthy adult population, moderate caffeine consumption (e.g., < 400 mg/day) is not associated with adverse health effects (34). However, it is possible that caffeine and its biologically active metabolites may have nonreadily apparent and insidious effects on biochemical processes, such as those involved in production and transportation of testosterone. ...
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Background Investigations into the link between caffeine consumption and testosterone levels in men have recently gained more attention, although studies are limited and the results are inconclusive. Methods Using data from a cross-sectional study of 372 adult men in the 2013-2014 NHANES survey cycle, we set out to characterize the association between serum testosterone levels, caffeine, and 14 caffeine metabolites. Results Multivariable, weighted linear regression revealed a significant inverse association between caffeine and testosterone. Multivariable linear regression revealed significant, inverse associations between 6 xanthine metabolic products of caffeine and testosterone. Inverse associations were observed between 5-methyluric acid products and testosterone, as well as between 5-acetlyamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil and testosterone. A significant, positive association was observed for 7-methyl xanthine, 3,7-dimethyluric acid, and 7-methyluric acid. Logistic regression models to characterize the association between 2 biologically active metabolites of caffeine (theobromine and theophylline) and odds of low testosterone (<300 ng/dL) were non-significant. Conclusions These findings suggest a potential role for caffeine’s contribution to low testosterone and biochemical androgen deficiency. Future studies are warranted to corroborate these findings, determine dose-response effects of caffeine on testosterone, and evaluate biological mechanisms underlying this association.
... Caffeine is being consumed by more than 80% of the World and up to 89% of the United States population (Heckman, et al., 2010, El Gohar et al., 2013, Verster and Koenig, 2018. Whilst, millions of humans enjoy drinking coffee every day (Santo and Lima 2009), it has severe effects on some animals, including insects and spiders (Araque et al., 2007 andFoelix 2010). ...
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Caffeine is considered the most widely consumed pharmacologically active drug. It is probably found in popular beverages (coffee, tea, soft drinks), as well as cocoa or chocolates-based goods. However, it has received a lot of attention there is still much to be learned with respect to its toxicology in animals. Terrestrial isopods are considered one of the most investigated invertebrate groups in soil ecotoxicology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of coffee on feeding parameters and the growth of terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis. Feeding parameters and growth efficiency were calculated and compared among treated isopod groups. The results revealed decreasing in food parameters such as consumption ratio, assimilation ratio, and egestion ratio in P. laevis treated with different concentrations of coffee. Also, decreasing growth efficiency for this isopod was noticed after exposure to different concentrations of coffee. These results indicate that high levels of caffeine may have toxic effects on P. laevis after a long period of exposure. Further research about the toxic effect of caffeine on isopods is needed.
... Caffeine is one of the most commonly consumed ingredients throughout the world and is naturally found in coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans, kola nuts, and guarana berries [38]. People of often consume caffeinated beverages and/or foods to help them wake up in the morning, delay fatigue during the day, and/or provide cognitive-or physiologicalrelated performance benefits [39][40][41]. ...
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This study examined the effects of acute paraxanthine (PXN) ingestion on markers of cognition, executive function, and psychomotor vigilance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 13 healthy male and female participants were randomly assigned to consume a placebo (PLA) or 200 mg of PXN (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P.). Participants completed stimulant sensitivity and side effect questionnaires and then performed the Berg Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (BCST), the Go/No-Go test (GNG), the Sternberg task test (STT), and the psychomotor vigilance task test (PVTT). Participants then ingested one capsule of PLA or PXN treatment. Participants completed side effect and cognitive function tests after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after ingestion of the supplement. After 7 days, participants repeated the experiment while consuming the alternative treatment. Data were analyzed by general linear model (GLM) univariate analyses with repeated measures using body mass as a covariate, and by assessing mean and percent changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) expressed as means (LL, UL). PXN decreased BCST errors (PXN −4.7 [−0.2, −9.20], p = 0.04; PXN −17.5% [−36.1, 1.0], p = 0.06) and perseverative errors (PXN −2.2 [−4.2, −0.2], p = 0.03; PXN −32.8% [−64.4, 1.2], p = 0.04) at hour 6. GNG analysis revealed some evidence that PXN ingestion better maintained mean accuracy over time and Condition R Round 2 response time (e.g., PXN −25.1 [−52.2, 1.9] ms, p = 0.07 faster than PLA at 1 h), suggesting better sustained attention. PXN ingestion improved STT two-letter length absent and present reaction times over time as well as improving six-letter length absent reaction time after 2 h (PXN −86.5 ms [−165, −7.2], p = 0.03; PXN −9.0% [−18.1, 0.2], p = 0.05), suggesting that PXN enhanced the ability to store and retrieve random information of increasing complexity from short-term memory. A moderate treatment x time effect size (ηp2 = 0.08) was observed in PVTT, where PXN sustained vigilance during Trial 2 after 2 h (PXN 840 ms [103, 1576], p = 0.03) and 4 h (PXN 1466 ms [579, 2353], p = 0.002) compared to PL. As testing progressed, the response time improved during the 20 trials and over the course of the 6 h experiment in the PXN treatment, whereas it significantly increased in the PL group. The results suggest that acute PXN ingestion (200 mg) may affect some measures of short-term memory, reasoning, and response time to cognitive challenges and help sustain attention.
... In addition, it was based on those who are not currently suffering from a specific disease [24]. Participants were asked to fast for 2 h before the experiment in order to eliminate the potential effects of caffeine that naturally occurs in various foods, which may stimulate the brain [33]. Before the experiment, participants received an explanation of the details of the study, after which they provided their informed consent, and their demographic information was collected through a questionnaire. ...
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This study was designed to assess the physiological and psychological benefits of visually looking at foliage plants in adults. This study involved 30 adults in their 20s (11 males, 19 females), and using a crossover design, participants looked at four different types of visual stimuli, namely, real plants, artificial plants, a photograph of plants, and no plants for 5 min. Brain waves were measured while viewing each type of plant, and a subjective evaluation of emotions was performed after each visual stimulus. Semantic differential methods (SDM) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used for the subjective evaluation. During the real plant visual stimulation, relative theta (RT) power spectrum was increased in the bilateral occipital lobes, while relative high beta (RHB) power spectrum was reduced in the left occipital lobe, indicating a reduction in stress, anxiety, and tension. The subjective survey results revealed that when looking at real plants, the participants exhibited significantly higher “comfort,” “natural,” and “relaxed” scores as well as an increase in positive mood conditions. In conclusion, among the four types of plants, visual stimulation with real plants induces physiological relaxation in adults and has a positive psychological effect.
... Its main source is coffee, however, it may also be present in other plants such as tea leaves, guarana berries, and cacao beans. It is worth pointing out that caffeine may also be found in energy drinks, soft drinks, gums, and medications [1,2]. Chawla et al. [3] stated that average caffeine consumption from all sources reaches 76 mg/person/day; in the United States and Canada, it is approximately 210-238 mg/person/day and exceeds 400 mg/person/day in Sweden and Finland. ...
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Nowadays, caffeine is one of the most commonly consumed substances, which presents in many plants and products. It has both positive and negative effects on the human body, and its activity concerns a variety of systems including the central nervous system, immune system, digestive system, respiratory system, urinary tract, etc. These effects are dependent on quantity, the type of product in which caffeine is contained, and also on the individual differences among people (sex, age, diet etc.). The main aim of this review was to collect, present, and analyze the available information including the latest discoveries on the impact of caffeine on human health and the functioning of human body systems, taking into account the role of caffeine in individual disease entities. We present both the positive and negative sides of caffeine consumption and the healing properties of this purine alkaloid in diseases such as asthma, Parkinson’s disease, and others, not forgetting about the negative effects of excess caffeine (e.g., in people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly). In summary, we can conclude, however, that caffeine has a multi-directional influence on various organs of the human body, and because of its anti-oxidative properties, it was, and still is, an interesting topic for research studies including those aimed at developing new therapeutic strategies.
... Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant, which is naturally found in coffee, cocoa beans, and tea (Heckman et al., 2010). It is a unique compound that can be dissolved in water and nonpolar organic solvents, and distributed rapidly and efficiently throughout the whole body (including the brain) (Kolahdouzan & Hamadeh, 2017). ...
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Purpose: To clarify the effects of habitual tea consumption on postoperative delirium (POD) in elderly patients undergoing total hip/knee arthroplasty. Patients and methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out at Qingdao Municipal Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University between June 2020 and June 2021. A total of 332 patients aged 65-85 years undergoing total hip/knee arthroplasty under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia were enrolled from the Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorder and Biomarker Lifestyle (PNDABLE) study in the final analysis, consisting of 168 patients with habitual tea consumption and 164 patients with infrequent tea consumption. The primary endpoint was the effects of habitual tea consumption on POD and the incidence of POD, which was assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) twice daily during the first 7 postoperative days, and POD severity was measured by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS). The secondary endpoints were the concentrations of caffeine and tea polyphenols in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: POD occurred in 61 of 332 patients (18.37%), among whom 19 had habitual tea consumption (5.72%) and 42 had infrequent tea consumption (12.65%). Habitual tea consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.370, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.205-0.670, P = .001) was significantly associated with POD in the logistic analysis, and then after adjusting for age and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status (OR = 0.353, 95% CI: 0.190-0.655, P = .001). Furthermore, caffeine in T0 plasma (OR = 0.834, 95% CI: 0.752-0.924, P = .001), T1 plasma (OR = 0.818, 95% CI: 0.738-0.908, P < .001), and CSF (OR = 0.899, 95% CI: 0.820-0.984, P = .022) and tea polyphenols in T0 plasma (OR = 0.541, 95% CI: 0.416-0.704, P < .001), T1 plasma (OR = 0.477, 95% CI: 0.359-0.633, P < .001), and CSF (OR = 0.526, 95% CI: 0.397-0.696, P < .001) were associated with POD after adjusting for age and ASA physical status. Conclusion: Habitual tea consumption may be associated with a lower incidence of POD in elderly patients.
... Paraxanthine is a metabolite of caffeine, a stimulant which is present in coffee, tea, and soft drinks (Heckman et al., 2010). Paraxanthine has been used as a biomarker to assess the consumption of caffeine by WBE (Senta et al., 2015). ...
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Metformin is the most widely used drug to treat type 2 diabetes. Monitoring spatial patterns of metformin use could provide new insights into treatment of type 2 diabetes and the distribution among populations. This study applied a wastewater-based epidemiological (WBE) approach to estimate metformin use in different populations across Australia and compared these estimates with traditional approaches of surveys and prescription data. Twenty-four-hour influent samples were collected from 75 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Australia in 2016 and analysed for metformin. Metformin was detected in all samples ranging in concentration from 8.2 to 191 µg/L (median 58 µg/L). Concentrations were converted to population-weighted average consumption at the national level, resulting in an average consumption of 28.6 grams/day/1000 people across Australia, which was within 7% of estimates from national prescription statistics. In addition, results for five out of seven states had an estimated prevalence of type 2 diabetes within 20% compared to the traditional epidemiology surveys. Spatial patterns were also observed between urban and rural settings, with higher consumption rates of metformin found in Major Cities (22.5 ±10.9 g/d/1000 people) and Inner Regional cities (25.4±13.4 g/d/1000 people) than in Outer Regional (17.0±8.1 g/d/1000 people) and Remote areas (15.1±7.4 g/d/1000 people). Consumption estimates were also correlated against socioeconomic factors of the specific catchment areas. Greater metformin use was correlated with populations of lower education and income levels, while positive correlations were found between metformin consumption and consumption of allopurinol, caffeine and venlafaxine. Our study provides more evidence on the distribution of metformin use across Australia, which can be used to develop public health strategies to reduce the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in specific regions.
... 1,16 It is found in common beverages such as coffee, tea, and soft drinks, as well as in products containing cocoa or chocolate, and in a variety of medications and dietary supplements. 17,18 Due to the high consumption of caffeinated foods, beverages, and medicines worldwide, caffeine is also considered to be the most representative pharmaceutically active pollutant with regard to its abundance in the environment. 19 Based on the data reviewed, it is concluded that in the healthy adult population, daily caffeine intake at a dose exceeding 400 mg is associated with adverse effects such as general toxicity, cardiovascular effects, effects on bone status and calcium balance, changes in adult behavior, increased cancer incidence and effects on male fertility. ...
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In the present study, an electrochemical-impedimetric biosensor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an effective biorecognition element was designed to detect caffeine. The presented biosensor consists of a previously developed stainless steel electrochemical cell constructed as a three-electrode system in the RCW side-by-side configuration. The electrochemical stability of the sensing electrode was evaluated by measuring the open circuit potential (OCP), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to determine the impedimetric response of the biosensor with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells attached to the working electrode (WE) in the absence (0.9% NaCl) and presence (10 mg/mL in 0.9% NaCl) of caffeine. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) was determined. In this way, a new approach in biosensor development has been established, which involves assembling a low-cost and disposable electrochemical system to detect alkaloids such as caffeine. The developed biosensor represents a good candidate for detecting caffeine in beverages, foods, and drugs with the merits of time-saving, robustness, low cost, and low detection limit.
... It is reported that coffee and tea are the most widely consumed beverages worldwide after water, and also regarded as the principal source of caffeine (7). Traditionally, people have been advised to reduce their coffee, tea and caffeine intake because it may increase some indicators which were harmful to physical health, such as blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglycerides (8). However, several studies have found that chronic coffee consumption, tea consumption and caffeine intake could reduce the risk of CVD death through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, lower blood sugar and fat functions (9)(10)(11), but these studies excluded the patients with CVD in their population selection. ...
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Aim The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between coffee, tea, caffeine consumption and risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) death in CVD population. Methods This cohort study included 626 CVD participants aged ≥18 years old who derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) database 2003–2006. The end time of follow-up was 2015, and with a median follow-up time of 113.5 (63, 133) months. CVD death was defined as a death caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), coronary heart disease (CHD), angina pectoris, heart attack or stroke. Cox model and competitive-risk model were used to explore the relationship of coffee, tea, caffeine, decaffeinated coffee/tea on the risk of the all-cause death and CVD death for CVD population, respectively. Additionally, we explored the effect of urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites on all-cause death. Results All patients were divided into survival group ( n = 304), non-CVD death group ( n = 223), and CVD death group ( n = 99). The incidence of all-cause death and CVD death was ~51.44 and 15.81% in the study. After adjusting age, body mass index (BMI), cancer, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), energy, the history of CVD medications, carbohydrate and family income to poverty ratio (PIR), the results suggested coffee, caffeine, iced tea and hot tea consumption (≥4 cups per day) were associated with an increased risk of the all-cause death in CVD patients; while hot tea (1–3 cups per day), decaffeinated coffee/iced tea/hot tea could reduce the risk of the all-cause death. Likewise, coffee, caffeine, iced tea (≥4 cups per day), hot tea, decaffeinated iced tea/ hot tea (Always) could enhance the risk of the CVD death in CVD population. We also found that 1-methylxanthine showed a significant positive association on the risk of all-cause death in CVD population. Conclusion Our study indicated that higher consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine could increase the risk of all-cause and CVD death for CVD patients.
... Synthetic routes are available [2] to produce the industrial quantities needed for the global demand that caffeine of natural origins cannot satisfy. The scientific literature covering all aspects of caffeine is vast [3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
Article
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High level DLPNO–CCSD(T) electronic structure calculations with extended basis sets over B3LYP–D3 optimized geometries indicate that the three methyl groups in caffeine overcome steric hindrance to adopt uncommon conformations, each one placing a C–H bond on the same plane of the aromatic system, leading to the C–H bonds eclipsing one carbonyl group, one heavily delocalized C–N bond constituent of the fused double ring aromatic system, and one C–H bond from the imidazole ring. Deletion of indiscriminate and selective non-Lewis orbitals unequivocally show that hyperconjugation in the form of a bidirectional –CH3 ⇆ aromatic system charge transfer is responsible for these puzzling conformations. The structural preferences in caffeine are exclusively determined by orbital interactions, ruling out electrostatics, induction, bond critical points, and density redistribution because the steric effect, the allylic effect, the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM), and the non-covalent interactions (NCI), all predict wrong energetic orderings. Tiny rotational barriers, not exceeding 1.3 kcal/mol suggest that at room conditions, each methyl group either acts as a free rotor or adopts fluxional behavior, thus preventing accurate determination of their conformations. In this context, our results supersede current experimental ambiguity in the assignation of methyl conformation in caffeine and, more generally, in methylated xanthines and their derivatives.
... For adults, the main sources of caffeine were coffee and tea, followed by carbonated soft drinks, while for children, the main sources of caffeine were carbonated soft drinks and tea, followed by coffee (Verster and Koenig 2018). Furthermore, more and more caffeine-containing products sprung up as dietary supplements and medications (Andrews et al. 2007;Heckman, Weil, and Gonzalez de Mejia 2010). For example, caffeine was added to some analgesic formulations for enhancing the analgesic effect (Derry, Derry, and Moore 2012); caffeine was added to some nutritional supplements that might accelerate the decomposition of fat, inhibit lipid accumulation, and achieve better fat-burning results (Jeukendrup and Randell 2011). ...
Article
Dietary intake of caffeine has significantly increased in recent years, and beneficial and harmful effects of caffeine have been extensively studied. This paper reviews antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of caffeine as well as its protective effects on cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancers, and neurodegenerative and liver diseases. In addition, we summarize the side effects of long-term or excessive caffeine consumption on sleep, migraine, intraocular pressure, pregnant women, children, and adolescents. The health benefits of caffeine depend on the amount of caffeine intake and the physical condition of consumers. Moderate intake of caffeine helps to prevent and modulate several diseases. However, the long-term or over-consumption of caffeine can lead to addiction, insomnia, migraine, and other side effects. In addition, children, adolescents, pregnant women, and people who are sensitive to caffeine should be recommended to restrict/reduce their intake to avoid potential adverse effects.
... According to the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) dataset, nearly nine-tenth U.S. adults consume caffeine, and an average caffeine intake of the 90th percentile is ~440 mg/day among all adults (4). Moderate caffeine consumption (considered as less than 400 mg / day) has been shown to have no adverse health effects in the adult population (5). CYP1A2 (represents 15% of cytochrome P450) accounts for more than 90% of caffeine metabolism. ...
Article
Background and aims: Caffeine is a worldwide popularly consumed constituent in foods that can exert physiological effects. However, previous researches about the relationship between caffeine intake and serum uric acid (SUA) were limited and controversial. Therefore, we sought to investigate that relationship in U.S. adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the total sample of 7888 selected participants (3838 males and 4050 females) were identified from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2015-2018. All subjects were tested for serum uric acid levels (μmmol/L), and their daily caffeine intakes (mg/d) were obtained by an average of two 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between two variables in total subjects and subgroup analyses. Generalized additive models with smooth curve fittings were also performed. Results: Multivariate regression analyses showed caffeine intake was negatively correlated with SUA after adjustment of other confounders. The subgroup analyses stratified by gender showed the negative correlation of caffeine intake with SUA was statistically significant in males but not in females. Furthermore, we observed a nonlinear inverse association of caffeine intake with SUA (P nonlinear <0.001) in the generalized additive model, followed by an inverted U-shaped curve (inflection point: 60.5mg/d) for all participants. This inverted U-shaped relationship between them could also be found in both genders, individuals aged below 60 years old, overweight (BMI of 25 to 30), and Non-Hispanic White individuals. Conclusions: This study indicated that caffeine intake exhibited an inverse correlation with SUA, especially in males. In addition, this inverse relationship was nonlinear, which followed an inverted U-shaped curve.
... Caffeine ( Figure 3) is naturally found in over 60 different plants as well as various beverages and food items, including tea, chocolate, cocoa beans, kola nuts and guarana berries. 124 Caffeine was found potentially effective in the treatment of many cancers, such as colon, bladder and pancreatic cancers. [125][126][127][128] It is easily available as an over-the-counter drug for pain relief and also possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. ...
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Background: Cancer is the world's second leading cause of death, but a significant advancement in cancer treatment has been achieved within the last few decades. However, major adverse effects and drug resistance associated with standard chemotherapy have led towards targeted treatment options. Objectives: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, regeneration, and tissue homeostasis. The prime objective of this review is to decipher the role of TGF-β in oncogenesis and to evaluate the potential of various natural and synthetic agents to target this dysregulated pathway to confer cancer preventive and anticancer therapeutic effects. Methods: Various authentic and scholarly databases were explored to search and obtain primary literature for this study. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) criteria was followed for the review. Results: Here we provide a comprehensive and critical review of recent advances on our understanding of the effect of various bioactive natural molecules on the TGF-β signaling pathway to evaluate their full potential for cancer prevention and therapy. Conclusion: Based on emerging evidence as presented in this work, TGF-β-targeting bioactive compounds from natural sources can serve as potential therapeutic agents for prevention and treatment of various human malignancies.
... TP is similar to CF in terms of structure and pharmacological effects and it is one of the primary metabolites produced by metabolization of CF in the liver (Heckman et al. 2010). Same as CF, it can be found in natural sources such as cocoa beans and tea (Barnes 2013). ...
Article
A rapid and simple ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction procedure with chloroform-decanoic acid (87:13 w/w) as the extractant mixture has been improved for the simultaneous preconcentration of caffeine and theophylline before their determination using high-performance liquid chromatography. The use of ultrasonic radiation and surfactant can enhance the dispersion of extraction solvent into an aqueous phase and simplify the emulsification process. The proposed method is an environmentally friendly pretreatment method because of its low solvent consumption. Various parameters influencing the efficiency of the method including pH, buffer, extraction solvent, extraction time, and interfering ions were studied. The linear calibration curves were obtained in the ranges of 0.5–150 and 2–150 ng mL−1 with limits of detection of 0.22 and 0.15 ng mL−1 for caffeine and theophylline, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully utilized for the determination of caffeine and theophylline in cocoa powder and human plasma samples. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the proposed method is potentially applicable as an efficient method for preconcentration and determination of caffeine and theophylline in real samples such as food and biological media.
... In addition, up to 400 mg of caffeine per day for adults and children, and 200 mg per day for pregnant and lactating women is considered safe (Gaspar and Ramos, 2016;Kumar et al., 2018). However, using more than safe doses may cause an increase in headache, anxiety, hypertension and cardiovascular disease risks (Chen et al., 2019;Gaspar and Ramos, 2016;Heckman et al., 2010). ...
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Background: Caffeine in the safe dose range has been associated with a reduction in the risk of chronic diseases. There is evidence that caffeine intake has both protective and negative effects on cardiovascular diseases. Aim: This study aimed to investigate caffeine intake in cardiovascular patients. Methods: The study sample was selected from individuals who applied to the Cardiology policlinic of Tekirdağ Namık Kemal University Hospital. A questionnaire was applied using face-to-face interview method to determine their demographic information, nutritional status and anthropometric measurements. Moreover, the nutritional status of the participants was determined by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and the type of cardiovascular disease was determined by a physician. The blood parameters of the sample for the last three months were questioned. The sample has been ninety people of whom fifty cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were diagnosed and forty were non-diagnosed (ND). Results: The mean age of individuals (n = 90) was 43.2 ± 14.4. The BMI and waist circumference of the CVDs group were statistically significantly higher than the ND group (p < 0.001). While the total caffeine consumption of the ND group was 209.34 ± 143.85 mg/day, consumption of the CVDs group was 209.99 ± 196.76 mg/day. LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol did not show statistically significant difference between the two groups. However, HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in the ND group (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Present results show that daily caffeine consumption may partially affect blood parameters associated with cardiovascular diseases, especially in the presence of coronary artery disease.
... 2 Caffeine is one of the central nervous system stimulants preferred by children and adults today. 3,4 It is naturally or additively found in foods and beverages. Multiple potential health adverse effects have been commonly observed in adolescents and adults who relish caffeinated drinks at the expense of their health. ...
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Introduction: To assess the correlation between caffeine consumption and its effect on the academic performance of medical students of Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital for about three months from 10 th June 2019 to 15 th August 2019. Second-year medical students actively took part in it. We used convenient sampling; a total of 101 students eagerly participated in it. We used a detailed self-administered questionnaire in which simplified questions with four to five options were given. Participants marked their responses to the provided options. A correlation was noticed between their Locomotive System and Gastrointestinal System modular exam scores with the questionnaire response. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 23. Results: Out of 101 participants, 51.5% were males, and 48.5% were females. About 77.2% of participants were consuming caffeine in any form, while 22.8% never consumed caffeine. Those who consumed moderate (200-400 mg) caffeine in any way performed better in the Locomotive System Module with a mean score of 71.88%. Simultaneously, those who consumed a lot more than 400 mg of caffeine scored better in the Gastrointestinal Tract Module with a mean score of 76.50%. Conclusion: By conducting this study, we identified that caffeine consumption is surprisingly high in medical students. The correlation between caffeine consumption and its effect on medical students' performance is not significant.
Article
Background Current evidence on tea consumption and hypertension is inconclusive, and prospective studies among habitual tea drinkers remain limited. Objective We investigated the associations of habitual tea consumption with hypertension risk and longitudinal blood pressure changes in 2 large cohorts. Methods This study included participants aged 40–75 y from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n = 31,351) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (n = 28,342), without hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Information on tea consumption was assessed during in-person interviews at enrollment and follow-up visits. Incident hypertension was identified by self-reported diagnosis, medication use, or blood pressure measurements. Results Current tea drinkers had a 7% higher risk than the non–current tea drinker group [HRs (95% CIs): women, 1.07 (1.01, 1.14); men, 1.07 (1.02, 1.12)]. The amount of tea drinking showed significant dose–response associations with hypertension: compared with the non-current group, HRs (95% CIs) for women and men were 1.01 (0.90, 1.14) and 1.02 (0.96, 1.08) for low (women/men: <100/200 g/mo), 1.07 (1.01, 1.15) and 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for medium (women/men: 100–250/200–250 g/mo), and 1.18 (1.01, 1.39) and 1.10 (1.03, 1.17) for the high-amount group (women/men: >250 g/mo). Among participants without hypertension, compared with non–current tea drinkers, least-squares means of 3-y changes in blood pressure were 0.3–0.4 mm Hg higher for women and men as current drinkers and 0.7–0.9 mm Hg higher for men in the high-consumption group. Compared with those who never drank tea, women who drank tea consistently had 0.5 (0.2, 0.7) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP), whereas men had 0.5 (0.04, 0.9) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and 0.3 (0.04, 0.6) mm Hg higher DBP, respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that habitual tea drinking is associated with a slightly higher risk of hypertension and a minor increase in blood pressure among middle-aged and older Chinese adults, which warrants confirmation by long-term intervention studies.
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Background The gut microbiome has become a hot topic in recent years with increasing reports on the positive role of a well-balanced gut microbiota composition for one's health and well-being. A number of dietary factors can modulate gut composition, although few publications have focused on common daily beverages impact on the gut microbiome. Coffee is a worldwide beverage consumed mostly as black coffee that is originally derived from green coffee beans post roasting. To enhance the taste and aroma, green coffee is typically roasted and to further affect its chemical composition and rationalize for the different health outcomes. Roasted seeds contain a high caffeine levels versus phenolic acids i.e., chlorogenic acid enrichment in green coffee suggestive that they interact differently with gut microbiota and to affect its metabolism. Scope and approach The present review provides a mechanistic insight on the effects of black and green coffee chemicals on the gut microbiome. We present herein the first comprehensive review of how coffee natural bioactive such as caffeine and chlorogenic acid and its process derived chemicals i.e., melanoidins can specifically influence gut homeostasis, and likewise via gut microbiota-mediated coffee chemicals metabolism. Key findings and conclusions The role of gut microbiota in affecting coffee chemicals and the potential of mining metagenomics data to uncover gut microbiome community and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) profile associated with coffee consumption are presented for the first time. Moreover, our metagenomics analysis in silico showed a decrease in abundance in either Desulfofarcimen or Mycoplasma genera, confirmed the basic coffee-gut microbial enzymes repertoire found in the literature and highlights for the first time the coffee CAZyme biomarkers encoded by the human gut microbiome.
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The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Caffeine Use Disorder Questionnaire (CUDQ) in an adult population. In this instrument validation study, a total of 310 individuals (253 female, 57 males), with a mean age of 25.96 ± 6.29 years were included. The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts, comprising the sociodemographic characteristics, CUDQ, caffeine withdrawal symptoms, and caffeine consumption. For the evaluation of the data, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), descriptive statistics, and the t test were used. In the reliability analysis, the Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for CUDQ. The CMIN/df was 0.54, and the model generally fits well to the structure (RMSEA = 0.08, CFI = 1, NFI = 1, GFI = 0.99, AGFI = 0.99, TLI = 1, NNFI = 1, RFI = 0.98). The findings suggested that the CUDQ has validity of structure, internal consistency, and construct validity for assessing Caffeine Use Disorder the tendency in the Turkish adult population. Graphical abstract
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Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels remain a challenge worldwide. While some in vitro studies show a caffeine-induced decrease in vitamin D receptor expression, there is a paucity of research to define the extent of caffeine intake on 25(OH)D levels. Therefore, we aimed to associate dietary caffeine intake with 25(OH)D deficiency through a recognized dataset. Using data collected from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 25(OH)D levels and dietary caffeine intake were extracted from 13134 individuals (30–47 years, interquartile range). We used one-way ANOVA and chi-square tests for quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and performed multivariate logistic regression for four models to assess the odds ratio (OR) of 25(OH)D deficiency (<20 ng/ml or <50 nmol/L) based on quartiles of dietary caffeine intake. Both crude and multivariable models detected higher OR for 25(OH)D deficiency according to the highest intakes of caffeine (15.8±9.5, 51.9±11.9, and 177±156 mg/d) when compared to the reference category (2.19±1.04 mg/d), in which the OR in the highest category of caffeine intake was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.37) and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.16 to 1.78) for the crude model and the most complete multivariable analysis (adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, occupation, energy intake, protein intake, and fat intake), respectively. In conclusion, higher dietary intakes of caffeine were associated with 25(OH)D deficiency in a representative sample of the American population, but further investigation is warranted to determine causation.
Chapter
Over the past few decades, meat products have been associated with some negative health impacts. It is well known that consumer habits have been changing and they are looking for healthier and more nutritive foods. In this perspective, reformulation of meat products is needed, by adding bioactive ingredients or through elimination/reduction of harmful ingredients. The use of seeds and their byproducts is an important alternative for the valorization of agrifood wastes and to add value to compounds that may have no commercial interest. The interest in using them in meat products has been growing in respect to making them healthier. In addition, it is a remarkable opportunity for meat industries as innovative and sustainable companies. Bioactive compounds extracted from seeds and their byproducts have been used in meat products due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and to extend product shelf-life. The incorporation of seed byproducts such as flour and/or oils also has been studied, aiming to improve the fiber content, as fat replacers, and to change the fatty acid profile. Therefore this chapter aims to analyze recent studies into the use of seeds and byproducts in meat product reformulation, focusing on their impacts on the nutritional, sensory, microbiological, and technological properties.
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Energy drinks represent a multibillionaire industry that has been growing continuously worldwide. These drinks are especially consumed by young people, athletes, and military personnel due to their claimed “boost” effects. However, there have been concerns about their consumption since incompatibilities regarding the accuracy of the declared caffeine content of these drinks have been reported. Therefore, in this study we have developed a fast and simple method to quantify caffeine in energy drinks. Sample preparation consisted of a dilute‐and‐shoot process, and analyses were performed by gas‐chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detector (GC‐NPD). The method was applied to quantify caffeine in 37 energy drinks marketed in Brazil. Compared to the labeled caffeine content, 84% of the tested drinks presented caffeine levels in accordance with the specifications. The determined caffeine concentrations ranged from 10 to 67 mg/100 mL, with an average value of 31 mg/100 mL. According to the recommended serving size, no drinks exceeded the safe caffeine daily intake for the general population (400 mg). These findings are more favorable than the results of similar studies. Nevertheless, to avoid caffeine intoxication, energy drink consumers should be aware of three aspects. First, they need to avoid consuming multiple serving doses in short periods of time. Additionally, some energy drinks are labeled as “nutritional supplements”, so they may present much more caffeine than similar products commonly regulated as beverages. Finally, despite the growing interest in energy drinks, their consumption by children and early adolescents is being discouraged by the health authorities.
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A variety of adverse environmental factors during pregnancy cause maternal chronic stress. Caffeine is a common stressor, and its consumption during pregnancy is widespread. Our previous study showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) increased maternal blood glucocorticoid levels and caused abnormal development of offspring. However, the placental mechanism for fetal development inhibition caused by PCE-induced high maternal glucocorticoid has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of PCE-induced high maternal glucocorticoid level on placental and fetal development by regulating placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) expression and its underlying mechanism. First, human placenta and umbilical cord blood samples were collected from women without prenatal use of synthetic glucocorticoids. We found that placental 11β-HSD2 expression was significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood cortisol level and birth weight in male newborns but not in females. Furthermore, we established a rat model of high maternal glucocorticoids induced by PCE (caffeine, 60 mg/kg·d, ig), and found that the expression of 11β-HSD2 in male PCE placenta was decreased and negatively correlated with the maternal/fetal/placental corticosterone levels. Meanwhile, we found abnormal placental structure and nutrient transporter expression. In vitro, BeWo cells were used and confirm that 11β-HSD2 mediated inhibition of placental nutrient transporter expression induced by high levels of glucocorticoid. Finally, combined with the animal and cell experiments, we further confirmed that high maternal glucocorticoid could activate the GR-C/EBPα-Egr1 signaling pathway, leading to decreased expression of 11β-HSD2 in males. However, there was no significant inhibition of placental 11β-HSD2 expression, placental and fetal development in females. In summary, we confirmed that high maternal glucocorticoids could regulate placental 11β-HSD2 expression in a sex-specific manner, leading to differences in placental and fetal development. This study provides the theoretical and experimental basis for analyzing the inhibition of fetoplacental development and its sex difference caused by maternal stress.
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Background Caffeine intake has been inconsistently associated with the risk of ovarian cancer in previous studies. The measure of caffeine in these studies has not always distinguished between caffeinated and decaffeinated sources, and the time for which intake was assessed was often for late adulthood and thus may have excluded the etiologic window. We investigated lifetime caffeine intake from caffeinated coffee, black tea, green tea and cola sodas in relation to ovarian cancer risk. Methods Among 497 cases and 904 controls in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada, lifetime intake of caffeinated coffee, black tea, green tea and cola sodas was assessed and used to calculate lifetime total intake of caffeine. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between caffeine intake and ovarian cancer risk overall, as well as by menopausal status. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the associations for invasive and borderline ovarian cancers separately. Results Almost all participants (98.4% of cases and 97.5% of controls) had consumed caffeine in their lifetime. The mean (standard deviation) daily consumption of caffeine over the lifetime was of 117 (89) mg/day among cases and 120 (118) mg/day among controls. The OR (95% CI) of ovarian cancer for the highest versus lowest quartile of lifetime caffeine intake was 1.17 (0.83–1.64). According to menopausal status, the OR (95% CI) was 1.56 (0.85–2.86) for premenopausal women and 0.94 (0.66–1.34) for postmenopausal women, comparing the highest to lowest tertiles of intake. Associations for invasive and borderline ovarian cancers separately were similar to that observed for ovarian cancer overall. Conclusion Lifetime caffeine intake was not strongly associated with ovarian cancer risk. A difference in relationship by menopausal status is possible.
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La administración crónica de cafeína evita la alteración de la glucosa postprandial en ratas. El aumento en el consumo de la cafeína alrededor del mundo no es discutible, es así como su investigación se ha vuelto extensa en sus diferentes campos. Objetivo. Analizar los efectos de la administración crónica de cafeína en ratas alimentadas con dieta de cafetería, a través de evaluar índices de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Materiales y métodos. La dieta de cafetería es un modelo dietético equivalente a las características de la dieta occidental típica que origina síndrome metabólico en humanos. En esta investigación se realizó la administración crónica vía intraperitoneal de cafeína por ocho semanas a ratas adultas macho Wistar alimentadas con dieta de cafetería. Dada la poca evidencia acerca de los efectos biológicos y comportamentales de la administración crónica de dicha sustancia frente a un modelo de dieta de cafetería se evaluaron parámetros de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Resultados. La dieta de cafetería ocasionó anomalías asociadas al síndrome metabólico; no obstante, la administración de cafeína en las ratas alimentadas con esa dieta resultó ser un factor protector en la glucosa postprandial, más no en la alteración de la tolerancia a la glucosa o perfil lipídico. Conclusiones. La cafeína permitió proteger los niveles de glucosa postprandial al término del experimento y un descenso en el peso corporal y consumo de alimento solo en la primera semana. Sin embargo, no se observaron mejoras significativas en el perfil de lípidos, adiposidad, tolerancia a la glucosa y glucosa plasmática.
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Caffeine (CAF), a neuroactive compound, has been found in surface waters at concentrations ranging from few nanograms up to micrograms and may induce adverse effects in aquatic vertebrates. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of CAF in affecting fish early-life stages in a wide concentration range, including occurring levels in surface waters. Specimens of zebrafish in early-life stages were exposed to CAF for 168 h and survival, developmental alterations, locomotor activity and acetylcholinesterase activity were evaluated. CAF induced mortality in embryos unable to hatch or in larvae after hatching (LC50 - 168 h = 283.2 mg/L). Tail deformities were observed in organisms exposed to concentrations ≥ 40 mg/L, while edemas were found at concentrations of 100 mg/L. CAF also decreased the total swimming time and distance moved of exposed organisms (LOEC = 0.0006 mg/L). Locomotor inhibition may be associated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibition observed at concentration ≥ 0.0088 mg/L. Therefore, the hazard of CAF for fish populations deserves further attention since unexpected effects on neuro-behavioral parameters occurs at concentrations often detected in natural aquatic ecosystems.
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In this study, the environmental concerns of current tea bags as well as in-cup decaffeination are addressed with the synthesis of efficient and biodegradable bi-layered, alginate-chitosan hydrogel tea bag (D-HTB). A simple, environmentally friendly synthesis method was employed to prepare the novel hydrogel tea bag. D-HTB was prepared by tea encapsulation in an alginate matrix, and activated carbon was decorated in another chitosan layer for decaffeination using a facile directional freezing and crosslinking technique. The microstructural and thermal properties of the prepared tea bags were studied using a digital microscope (DM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Directional ice freezing created lamellar increasing the surface area, which resulted in excellent tea release efficiency and decaffeination. The release kinetic profile was investigated, and the data fit well to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model indicating Fickian diffusion-controlled tea release. The as-prepared D-HTB shows a maximum release efficiency of 92.5% polyphenols and decaffeination of ~40% compared to that of the commercial tea bag. Thus, D-HTB has an excellent potential of being an environmentally-safe and in-cup decaffeination alternative to the current tea bags.
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The solubility of caffeine in aqueous binary mixtures was measured in five aprotic proton acceptor solvents (APAS) including dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, 1,4-dioxane, acetonitrile, and acetone. The whole range of concentrations was studied in four temperatures between 25 °C and 40 °C. All systems exhibit a strong cosolvency effect resulting in non-monotonous solubility trends with changes of the mixture composition and showing the highest solubility at unimolar proportions of organic solvent and water. The observed solubility trends were interpreted based on the values of caffeine affinities toward homo- and hetero-molecular pairs formation, determined on an advanced quantum chemistry level including electron correlation and correction for vibrational zero-point energy. It was found that caffeine can act as a donor in pairs formation with all considered aprotic solvents using the hydrogen atom attached to the carbon in the imidazole ring. The computed values of Gibbs free energies of intermolecular pairs formation were further utilized for exploring the possibility of using them as potential solubility prognostics. A semi-quantitative relationship (R2 = 0.78) between caffeine affinities and the measured solubility values was found, which was used for screening for new greener solvents. Based on the values of the environmental index (EI), four morpholine analogs were considered and corresponding caffeine affinities were computed. It was found that the same solute–solvent structural motif stabilizes hetero-molecular pairs suggesting their potential applicability as greener replacers of traditional aprotic proton acceptor solvents. This hypothesis was confirmed by additional caffeine solubility measurements in 4-formylmorpholine. This solvent happened to be even more efficient compared to DMSO and the obtained solubility profile follows the cosolvency pattern observed for other aprotic proton acceptor solvents.
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Handball performance is a team-sport characterized by high intensity efforts interspersed with recovery periods. Due to high demands of handball performance, the use of ergogenic aids is a common strategy of handball players with the aim of enhancing handball performance, to allow more effective training, and to increase the rate of recovery. Although the use of ergogenic aids is generalized in the whole spectrum of competitive handball (e.g., from recreational to professional players), only a few ergogenic aids have been investigated to test their effectiveness to increase handball performance. In addition, no previous study has summarized the scientific literature on this topic to determine the ergogenic aids with good level of evidence regarding their effectiveness to increase handball physical performance. Thus, the aim of this narrative review was to describe the prevalence in the use of ergogenic aids in handball players and to analyse this information to identify which of these substances may increase physical performance in an intermittent sport such as competitive handball
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Background and purpose: "Food addiction" is the subject of intense public and research interest. However, this nosology based on neurobehavioral similarities among obese individuals and patients with eating disorders and drug addiction remains controversial. We thus sought to determine which aspects of disordered eating are causally linked to preclinical models of drug addiction. We hypothesized that extensive drug histories, known to cause addiction-like brain changes and drug motivation in rats, would also cause addiction-like food motivation. Experimental approach: Rats underwent extensive cocaine, alcohol, caffeine or obesogenic diet histories, and were subsequently tested for punishment-resistant food self-administration or "compulsive appetite", as a measure of addiction-like food motivation. Key results: Extensive cocaine and alcohol (but not caffeine) histories caused compulsive appetite that persisted long after the last drug exposure. Extensive obesogenic diet histories also caused compulsive appetite, although neither cocaine nor alcohol histories caused excess calorie intake and bodyweight during abstinence. Hence, compulsive appetite and obesity appear to be dissociable, with the former sharing common mechanisms with preclinical drug addiction models. Conclusion and implications: Compulsive appetite, as seen in subsets of obese individuals and patients with binge-eating disorder and bulimia nervosa (eating disorders that do not necessarily result in obesity), appears to epitomize "food addiction". Because different drug and obesogenic diet histories caused compulsive appetite, overlapping dysregulations in the reward circuits, which control drug and food motivation independently of energy homeostasis, may offer common therapeutic targets for treating addictive behaviors across drug addiction, eating disorders and obesity.
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Purpose of review This review summarizes and highlights recent advances in current knowledge of the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. Potential mechanisms and genetic modifiers of this relationship are also discussed. Recent findings Studies examining the association between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease have been inconclusive. Coffee is a complex mixture of compounds that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the cholesterol-raising effect of diterpenes present in boiled coffee, which may contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease associated with unfiltered coffee consumption. A recent study examining the relationship between coffee and risk of myocardial infarction incorporated a genetic polymorphism associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease. Several studies have reported a protective effect of moderate coffee consumption, which suggests that coffee contains other compounds that may be beneficial. Summary Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in coffee.
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We are pleased that our article ( [1][1] ) has stimulated Butte and Ellis ( [2][2] ) to ask the question, “How much change in energy balance would be required to prevent weight gain in children?” The primary point of our article was that we need to set more realistic and specific goals for
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Several studies report a substantial rise in plasma catecholamines after caffeine. Epinephrine infusion induces a pressor response after nonselective -blockade. We studied the hemodynamic and humoral effects of drinking coffee after placebo and after both nonselective (propranolol) and 1-selective (metoprolol) blockade in 12 normotensive subjects. After placebo, coffee induced a rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a fall in heart rate, whereas forearm blood flow did not change. Plasma catecholamines, especially epinephrine (+150%), rose and plasma renin activity, fell after drinking coffee. The effects of coffee on blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and all humoral parameters were not altered by pretreatment with propranolol or metoprolol. The fall in heart rate after coffee, however, seemed to be greater during propranolol. We conclude that the rise in plasma epinephrine after coffee was too small to reveal differences in reaction in propranolol- and metoprolol-pretreated subjects.
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Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and various cancers. This paper briefly reviews the evidence for a relation between coffee consumption and these conditions, with particular attention to methodological issues. Several early studies suggested that coffee consumption could result in a marked increase in risk of coronary heart disease and several types of cancer. However, more recent prospective cohort studies that are less prone to selection and information bias have not confirmed these findings. High consumption of unfiltered types of coffee, such as French press and boiled coffee, has been shown to increase low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. In addition, limiting caffeinated coffee intake during pregnancy seems a prudent choice. However, evidence has been accumulating that frequent consumption of coffee may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and liver cancer. Further experimental studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and possibly identify the components in coffee that are responsible for these putative effects. In sum, the currently available evidence on coffee and risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer is largely reassuring, and suggests that, for the general population, addressing other health-related behaviors has priority for the prevention of chronic diseases.
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The association between coffee intake and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial [1, 2]. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic CYP1A2 enzyme. An A to C substitution at position 734 (CYP1A2*1F) in the CYP1A2 gene decreases enzyme inducibility as measured by plasma or urinary [caffeine]/[caffeine metabolite] ratio after a dose of caffeine, resulting in impaired caffeine metabolism [3]. Individuals who are homozygous for the CYP1A2*1A allele (A/A) are “rapid” caffeine metabolizers whereas carriers of the variant CYP1A2*1F are “slow” caffeine metabolizers. The objective of this study was to determine whether CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between coffee consumption and risk of MI. Cases (n = 2,014) with a first acute non-fatal MI and population-based controls (n = 2,014) were genotyped by RFLP-PCR. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess coffee intake. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. For carriers of the slow *1F allele, the ORs (95% CI) for risk of MI associated with consuming <1, 1, 2–3 and 4 or more cups/day were 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (0.69–1.44), 1.36 (1.01–1.83), and 1.64 (1.14–2.34), respectively. Corresponding ORs (95% CI) for individuals with the rapid *1A/*1A genotype were 1.00, 0.75 (0.51–1.12), 0.78 (0.56–1.09), and 0.99 (0.66–1.48) (P = 0.04 for gene-diet interaction). It has previously been suggested that coffee may be associated with an increased risk of MI only among younger individuals. Thus, we examined the effects of coffee among subjects below the age of 50 years. For carriers of the *1F allele the ORs (95% CI) of MI associated with consuming <1, 1, 2–3, or ≥4 cups/day of coffee were 1.00, 2.12 (0.86–5.24), 2.43 (1.22–4.82), and 4.07 (1.89–8.74), respectively (Fig. 1). Corresponding ORs (95% CI) for those with the *1A/*1A genotype were 1.00, 0.39 (0.15–0.97), 0.35 (0.17–0.76), and 0.81 (0.32–2.05) (P < 0.001 for gene-coffee interaction). The protective effects observed among rapid metabolizers suggest that the efficient elimination of caffeine might have unmasked the protective effects of other chemicals in coffee. Compounds in coffee such as caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid have antioxidant properties that might protect against heart disease [4]. In summary, intake of coffee was associated with an increased risk of MI only among those with impaired caffeine metabolism, suggesting that caffeine plays a major role in this association.
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Single-dose oral administration of 100 mg caffeine increased the resting metabolic rate of both lean and postobese human volunteers by 3-4% (p less than 0.02) over 150 min and improved the defective diet-induced thermogenesis observed in the postobese subjects. Measurements of energy expenditure (EE) in a room respirometer indicate that repeated caffeine administration (100 mg) at 2-h intervals over a 12-h day period increased the EE of both subject groups by 8-11% (p less than 0.01) during that period but had no influence on the subsequent 12-h night EE. The net effect was a significant increase (p less than 0.02) in daily EE of 150 kcal in the lean volunteers and 79 kcal in the postobese subjects. Caffeine at commonly consumed doses can have a significant influence on energy balance and may promote thermogenesis in the treatment of obesity.
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Caffeine (TMX) disposition was studied in mean after 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg in water, as mocha coffee (1.54 mg/kg) and as a soft drink (0.22 mg/kg). TMX and its metabolites were analyzed in plasma and urine by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The design permitted confirmation of most of the partial results in various experimental settings and contributed new data on the metabolic disposition of TMX, with specific reference to main dimethylxanthine metabolite found in plasma, paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine). Different analysis methods were compared for the calculated parameters (absorption and elimination rate constants and renal clearance)to assess the consistency of results. The kinetics of TMX and of its dimethylated metabolites in plasma were described with a model that used an analogdigital hybrid computing system. In addition to providing a comprehensive profile of TMS disposition in the healthy adult, the results indicate tha TMX exhibits dose-independent kinetics at the levels at which man normally takes TMX.
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The magnitude of coffee-induced thermogenesis and the influence of coffee ingestion on substrate oxidation were investigated in 10 lean and 10 obese women, over two 24-h periods in a respiratory chamber. On one occasion the subjects consumed caffeinated coffee and on the other occasion, decaffeinated coffee. The magnitude of thermogenesis was smaller in obese (4.9 +/- 2.0%) than in lean subjects (7.6 +/- 1.3%). The thermogeneic response to caffeine was prolonged during the night in lean women only. The coffee-induced stimulation of energy expenditure was mediated by a concomitant increase in lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. During the next day, in postabsorptive basal conditions, the thermogenic effect of coffee had vanished, but a significant increase in lipid oxidation was observed in both groups. The magnitude of this effect was, however, blunted in obese women (lipid oxidation increased by 29 and 10% in lean and obese women, respectively). Caffeine increased urinary epinephrine excretion. Whereas urinary caffeine excretion was similar in both groups, obese women excreted more theobromine, theophylline, and paraxanthine than lean women. Despite the high levels of urinary methylxanthine excretion, thermogenesis and lipid oxidation were less stimulated in obese than in lean subjects.
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The association between coffee drinking and risk of coronary heart disease remains controversial despite many epidemiological studies. A meta-analysis was carried out on these studies to resolve some of the uncertainties. Particular attention was paid to details of study design. Eight case-control studies and 15 cohort studies were analysed. Weighted, fixed effects linear regression of log relative risks (or odds ratios) was used to pool the study results. The pooling procedures were performed separately by study design, sex, coronary heart disease end points, smoking habit, and period of study. The pooled case-control odds ratio (for the effect of drinking five cups of coffee/day v none) was 1.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.50 to 1.78). The pooled cohort study relative risk (five cups/day v none) was 1.05 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.12). The discrepancy between the pooled case-control and cohort study results could not be attributed to differences in the end points chosen, period of study, or to confounding by smoking status or sex. The cohort study data suggest very little excess risk of coronary heart disease among habitual coffee drinkers. The case-control data do not rule out an increased risk of heart disease among a subgroup of people who acutely increase their coffee intake. Further epidemiological studies are needed to assess the risk of drinking boiled or decaffeinated coffee.
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Twelve healthy volunteers received oral placebo, 250 mg of caffeine, and 500 mg of caffeine in a randomized, double-blind, single-dose crossover study. Caffeine kinetics were nonlinear, with clearance significantly reduced and elimination half-life prolonged at the 500-mg compared to the 250-mg dose. The lower dose of caffeine produced more favorable subjective effects than the higher dose (elation, peacefulness, pleasantness), whereas unpleasant effects (tension, nervousness, anxiety, excitement, irritability, nausea, palpitations, restlessness) following the 500-mg dose exceeded those of the 250-mg dose. The lower dose of caffeine enhanced performance on the digit symbol substitution test and a tapping speed test compared to placebo; high-dose caffeine produced less performance enhancement than the lower dose. The plasma concentration versus response relationship revealed concentration-dependent increases in anxiety and improvements in cognitive and motor performance at low to intermediate concentrations. Both caffeine doses reduced electroencephalographic amplitude over the 4 Hz to 30 Hz spectrum, as well as in the alpha (8-11 Hz) and beta (12-30 Hz) ranges; however, effects were not dose-dependent. While favorable subjective and performance-enhancing stimulant effects occur at low to intermediate caffeine doses, the unfavorable subjective and somatic effects, as well as performance disruption, from high doses of caffeine may intrinsically limit the doses of caffeine used in the general population.
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We compared the acute effects of caffeine on arterial blood pressure (BP) in 5 hypertension risk groups composed of a total of 182 men. We identified 73 men with optimal BP, 28 with normal BP, 36 with high-normal BP, and 27 with stage 1 hypertension on the basis of resting BP; in addition, we included 18 men with diagnosed hypertension from a hypertension clinic. During caffeine testing, BP was measured after 20 minutes of rest and again at 45 to 60 minutes after the oral administration of caffeine (3.3 mg/kg or a fixed dose of 250 mg for an average dose of 260 mg). Caffeine raised both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively; P<0.0001 for both) in all groups. However, an ANCOVA revealed that the strongest response to caffeine was observed among diagnosed men, followed by the stage 1 and high-normal groups and then by the normal and optimal groups (SBP F(4),(175)=5.06, P<0.0001; DBP F(4,175)=3.02, P<0.02). Indeed, diagnosed hypertensive men had a pre-to-postdrug change in BP that was >1.5 times greater than the optimal group. The potential clinical relevance of caffeine-induced BP changes is seen in the BPs that reached the hypertensive range (SBP >/=140 mm Hg or DBP >/=90 mm Hg) after caffeine. During the predrug baseline, 78% of diagnosed hypertensive men and 4% of stage 1 men were hypertensive, whereas no others were hypertensive. After caffeine ingestion, 19% of the high-normal, 15% of the stage 1, and 89% of the diagnosed hypertensive groups fell into the hypertensive range. All subjects from the optimal and normal groups remained normotensive. We conclude that hypertension risk status should take priority in future research regarding pressor effects of dietary intake of caffeine.
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of maternal caffeine intake with fetal growth restriction. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal observational study. SETTING: Two large UK hospital maternity units. PARTICIPANTS: 2635 low risk pregnant women recruited between 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. Investigations Quantification of total caffeine intake from 4 weeks before conception and throughout pregnancy was undertaken with a validated caffeine assessment tool. Caffeine half life (proxy for clearance) was determined by measuring caffeine in saliva after a caffeine challenge. Smoking and alcohol were assessed by self reported status and by measuring salivary cotinine concentrations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fetal growth restriction, as defined by customised birth weight centile, adjusted for alcohol intake and salivary cotinine concentrations. RESULTS: Caffeine consumption throughout pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction (odds ratios 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.6) for 100-199 mg/day, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for 200-299 mg/day, and 1.4 (1.0 to 2.0) for >300 mg/day compared with <100 mg/day; test for trend P<0.001). Mean caffeine consumption decreased in the first trimester and increased in the third. The association between caffeine and fetal growth restriction was stronger in women with a faster compared to a slower caffeine clearance (test for interaction, P=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction and this association continued throughout pregnancy. Sensible advice would be to reduce caffeine intake before conception and throughout pregnancy.
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This Report has a number of inter-related general purposes. One is to explore the extent to which food , nutrition , physical activity , and body composition modify the risk of cancer , and to specify which factors are most important. To the extent that environmental factors such as ...
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Background Whether the increase in blood pressure with coffee drinking seen in clinical trials persists over time and translates into an increased incidence of hypertension is not known.Methods We assessed coffee intake in a cohort of 1017 white male former medical students (mean age, 26 years) in graduating classes from 1948 to 1964 up to 11 times over a median follow-up of 33 years. Blood pressure and incidence of hypertension were determined annually by self-report, demonstrated to be accurate in this cohort.Results Consumption of 1 cup of coffee a day raised systolic blood pressure by 0.19 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.35) and diastolic pressure by 0.27 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.39) after adjustment for parental incidence of hypertension and time-dependent body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity in analyses using generalized estimating equations. Compared with nondrinkers at baseline, coffee drinkers had a greater incidence of hypertension during follow-up (18.8% vs 28.3%; P = .03). Relative risk (95% confidence interval) of hypertension associated with drinking 5 or more cups a day was 1.35 (0.87-2.08) for baseline intake and 1.60 (1.06-2.40) for intake over follow-up. After adjustment for the variables listed above, however, these associations were not statistically significant.Conclusion Over many years of follow-up, coffee drinking is associated with small increases in blood pressure, but appears to play a small role in the development of hypertension.
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Background-Some studies have suggested that tea consumption may be associated with lower mortality among individuals with cardiovascular disease, but the effects of tea consumption on mortality after acute myocardial infarction are unknown. Methods and Results-As part of the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study, we performed a prospective cohort study of 1900 patients hospitalized with a confirmed acute myocardial infarction between 1989 and 1994, with a median follow-up of 3.8 years. Trained interviewers assessed self-reported usual weekly caffeinated tea consumption during the year before infarction with a standardized questionnaire. We compared long-term mortality according to tea consumption using Cox proportional hazards regression. Of the 1900 patients, 10 19 consumed no tea (nondrinkers), 615 consumed < 14 cups per week (moderate tea drinkers), and 266 consumed 14 or more cups per week (heavy tea drinkers). Compared with nondrinkers, age- and sex-adjusted mortality was lower among moderate tea drinkers (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% Cl, 0.53 to 0.89) and heavy tea drinkers (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% Cl, 0.42 to 0.86). Additional adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics did not appreciably alter this association (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% Cl, 0.55 to 0.94 for moderate tea drinkers; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95%, Cl, 0.37 to 0.84 for heavy tea drinkers). The association of tea and mortality was similar for total and cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions-Self-reported tea consumption in the year before acute myocardial infarction is associated with lower mortality after infarction.
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Results of case-control studies and of a prospective investigation in men suggest that consumption of coffee could protect against the risk of Parkinson's disease, but the active constituent is not clear. To address the hypothesis that caffeine is protective against Parkinson's disease, we examined the relationship of coffee and caffeine consumption to the risk of this disease among participants in 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). The study population comprised 47,351 men and 88,565 women who were free of Parkinson's disease, stroke, or cancer at baseline. A comprehensive life style and dietary questionnaire was completed by the participants at baseline and updated every 2–4 years. During the follow-up (10 years in men, 16 years in women), we documented a total of 288 incident cases of Parkinson's disease. Among men, after adjustment for age and smoking, the relative risk of Parkinson's disease was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23–0.78; p for trend < 0.001) for men in the top one-fifth of caffeine intake compared to those in the bottom one-fifth. An inverse association was also observed with consumption of coffee (p for trend = 0.004), caffeine from noncoffee sources (p for trend < 0.001), and tea (p for trend = 0.02) but not decaffeinated coffee. Among women, the relationship between caffeine or coffee intake and risk of Parkinson's disease was U-shaped, with the lowest risk observed at moderate intakes (1–3 cups of coffee/day, or the third quintile of caffeine consumption). These results support a possible protective effect of moderate doses of caffeine on risk of Parkinson's disease.
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Stimulant drinks belong to a class of food, known as functional foods and at present there is no legislation relating specifically to the consumption or labelling of stimulant drinks in Ireland or the UK. Following the death of a young male student in Ireland in November 1999, much controversy has surrounded stimulant drinks, prompting concern among the public about the safety of these drinks. At the request of the Minister of State at the Department of Health, safefood, the Food Safety Promotion Board, established a Stimulant Drinks Committee to commission independent scientific research into the health effects of stimulant drinks. This committee published a report in March 2002.Stimulant drinks often contain ingredients such as caffeine, gaurana, taurine and glucuronolactone. Caffeine is a pharmacologically active substance and despite extensive research, its effects and health consequences are the subject of ongoing debate. Guarana has similar stimulatory effects to caffeine. Little is known about the health effects of taurine and glucuronolactone, other than levels in stimulant drinks are several times higher than that of the rest of the diet. The report from the Stimulant Drinks Committee recommends that stimulant drinks should be labelled with an indication that they are unsuitable for children (< 16 years), pregnant women and individuals sensitive to caffeine. Consumers should also be advised that caution be exercised in the consumption of stimulant drinks with alcohol or in association with sport and the products should carry a clear statement on the label to this effect.
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Beneficial effects for mood and cognitive performance are believed to influence food and drink choice. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate a sensitive methodology for providing objective evidence of such effects. A mildly fatiguing repetitive task formed the context for assessing the potential restorative effects of caffeine-containing ‘energy’ drinks. The methodology used was designed to account for a range of theorised variations in the data, many of which are often overlooked in current research. Significant effects of the energy drinks on task performance and self-rated mood were found. These effects can be summarised with the terms ‘alerting’, ‘revitalising’, ‘awakening’ and providing mental energy, and appear to be mainly caffeine related.
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The objective of this study was to develop a population model of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of caffeine after orogastric or intravenous administration to extremely premature neonates with apnea of prematurity who were to undergo extubation from ventilation. Infants of gestational age <30 weeks were randomly allocated to receive maintenance caffeine citrate dosing of either 5 or 20 mg/kg/d. Four blood samples were drawn at prerandomized times from each infant during caffeine treatment. Serum caffeine was assayed by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique. Concentration data (431 samples, median: 4 per subject) were obtained from 110 (52 male) infants of mean birth weight of 1009 g, current mean weight (WT) of 992 g, mean gestational age of 27.6 weeks, and mean postnatal age (PNA) of 12 days. Of 1022 doses given, 145 were orogastric, permitting estimation of absolute bioavailability. A 1-compartment model with first-order absorption was fitted to the data in NONMEM. Patient characteristics were screened (P < 0.01) in nested models for pharmacokinetic influence. Model stability was assessed by nonparametric bootstrapping. Clearance (CL) increased nonlinearly with increasing PNA, whereas volume of distribution (Vd) increased linearly with WT, according to the following allometric models: CL (L/h) = 0.167 (WT/70)0.75 (PNA/12)0.358; Vd (L) = 58.7 (WT/70)0.75. The mean elimination half-life was 101. Interindividual variability (IIV) of CL and Vd was 18.8 % and 22.3 %, respectively. Interoccasion variability (IOV) of CL and Vd was 35.1% and 11.1%, respectively. This study established that the elimination of caffeine was severely depressed in extremely premature infants but increased nonlinearly after birth up to age 6 weeks. Caffeine was completely absorbed, which has favorable implications for switching between intravenous and orogastric routes. The interoccasion variability about CL was twice the interindividual variability, which, among other factors, indicates that routine serum concentration monitoring of caffeine in these patients is not warranted., (C) 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Article
Objective: To examine the association of maternal caffeine intake with fetal growth restriction. Design Prospective longitudinal observational study. Setting: Two large UK hospital maternity units. Participants: 2635 low risk pregnant women recruited between 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. Investigations: Quantification of total caffeine intake from 4 weeks before conception and throughout pregnancy was undertaken with a validated caffeine assessment tool. Caffeine half life (proxy for clearance) was determined by measuring caffeine in saliva after a caffeine challenge. Smoking and alcohol were assessed by self reported status and by measuring salivary cotinine concentrations. Main outcome measures: Fetal growth restriction, as defined by customised birth weight centile, adjusted for alcohol intake and salivary cotinine concentrations. Results: Caffeine consumption throughout pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction (odds ratios 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.6) for 100-199 mg/day, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for 200-299 mg/day, and 1.4 (1.0 to 2.0) for >300 mg/day compared with <100 mg/day; test for trend P<0.001). Mean caffeine consumption decreased in the first trimester and increased in the third. The association between caffeine and fetal growth restriction was stronger in women with a faster compared to a slower caffeine clearance (test for interaction, P=0.06). Conclusions: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction and this association continued throughout pregnancy. Sensible advice would be to reduce caffeine intake before conception and throughout pregnancy.
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